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paste(1) [freebsd man page]

PASTE(1)						    BSD General Commands Manual 						  PASTE(1)

NAME
paste -- merge corresponding or subsequent lines of files SYNOPSIS
paste [-s] [-d list] file ... DESCRIPTION
The paste utility concatenates the corresponding lines of the given input files, replacing all but the last file's newline characters with a single tab character, and writes the resulting lines to standard output. If end-of-file is reached on an input file while other input files still contain data, the file is treated as if it were an endless source of empty lines. The options are as follows: -d list Use one or more of the provided characters to replace the newline characters instead of the default tab. The characters in list are used circularly, i.e., when list is exhausted the first character from list is reused. This continues until a line from the last input file (in default operation) or the last line in each file (using the -s option) is displayed, at which time paste begins selecting characters from the beginning of list again. The following special characters can also be used in list: newline character tab character \ backslash character Empty string (not a null character). Any other character preceded by a backslash is equivalent to the character itself. -s Concatenate all of the lines of each separate input file in command line order. The newline character of every line except the last line in each input file is replaced with the tab character, unless otherwise specified by the -d option. If '-' is specified for one or more of the input files, the standard input is used; standard input is read one line at a time, circularly, for each instance of '-'. EXIT STATUS
The paste utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs. EXAMPLES
List the files in the current directory in three columns: ls | paste - - - Combine pairs of lines from a file into single lines: paste -s -d ' ' myfile Number the lines in a file, similar to nl(1): sed = myfile | paste -s -d ' ' - - Create a colon-separated list of directories named bin, suitable for use in the PATH environment variable: find / -name bin -type d | paste -s -d : - SEE ALSO
cut(1), lam(1) STANDARDS
The paste utility is expected to be IEEE Std 1003.2 (``POSIX.2'') compatible. HISTORY
A paste command appeared in Version 32V AT&T UNIX. BSD
June 25, 2004 BSD

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paste(1)						      General Commands Manual							  paste(1)

NAME
paste - merge same lines of several files or subsequent lines of one file SYNOPSIS
file1 file2 ... list file1 file2 ... list] file1 file2 ... DESCRIPTION
In the first two forms, concatenates corresponding lines of the given input files file1, file2, etc. It treats each file as a column or columns in a table and pastes them together horizontally (parallel merging). In other words, it is the horizontal counterpart of cat(1) which concatenates vertically; i.e., one file after the other. In the option form above, replaces the function of an older command with the same name by combining subsequent lines of the input file (serial merging). In all cases, lines are glued together with the tab char- acter, or with characters from an optionally specified list. Output is to standard output, so can be used as the start of a pipe, or as a filter if is used instead of a file name. recognizes the following options and command-line arguments: Without this option, the new-line characters of all but the last file (or last line in case of the option) are replaced by a tab character. This option allows replac- ing the tab character by one or more alternate characters (see below). list One or more characters immediately following replace the default tab as the line concatenation character. The list is used circularly; i.e., when exhausted, it is reused. In parallel merging (that is, no option), the lines from the last file are always terminated with a new-line character, not from the list. The list can contain the special escape sequences: (new-line), (tab), (backslash), and (empty string, not a null character). Quoting may be necessary if charac- ters have special meaning to the shell. (For example, to get one backslash, use ). Merge subsequent lines rather than one from each input file. Use tab for concatenation, unless a list is specified with the option. Regardless of the list, the very last character of the file is forced to be a new-line. Can be used in place of any file name to read a line from the standard input (there is no prompting). EXTERNAL INFLUENCES
Environment Variables determines the locale for the interpretation of text as single- and/or multi-byte characters. determines the language in which messages are displayed. If or is not specified in the environment or is set to the empty string, the value of is used as a default for each unspecified or empty variable. If is not specified or is set to the empty string, a default of "C" (see lang(5)) is used instead of If any internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, behaves as if all internationalization variables are set to "C". See environ(5). International Code Set Support Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported. RETURN VALUE
These commands return the following values upon completion: Completed successfully. An error occurred. EXAMPLES
List directory in one column: List directory in four columns Combine pairs of lines into lines Notes works similarly, but creates extra blanks, tabs and new-lines for a nice page layout. DIAGNOSTICS
Except for the option, no more than - 3 input files can be specified (see limits(5)). AUTHOR
was developed by OSF and HP. SEE ALSO
cut(1), grep(1), pr(1). STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
paste(1)
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