ECHO(1) BSD General Commands Manual ECHO(1)NAME
echo -- write arguments to the standard output
echo [-n] [string ...]
The echo utility writes any specified operands, separated by single blank (' ') characters and followed by a newline ('
') character, to the
The following option is available:
-n Do not print the trailing newline character.
The end-of-options marker -- is not recognized and written literally.
The newline may also be suppressed by appending 'c' to the end of the string, as is done by iBCS2 compatible systems. Note that the -n
option as well as the effect of 'c' are implementation-defined in IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 (``POSIX.1'') as amended by Cor. 1-2002. For porta-
bility, echo should only be used if the first argument does not start with a hyphen ('-') and does not contain any backslashes (''). If
this is not sufficient, printf(1) should be used.
Most shells provide a builtin echo command which tends to differ from this utility in the treatment of options and backslashes. Consult the
builtin(1) manual page.
The echo utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.
SEE ALSO builtin(1), csh(1), printf(1), sh(1)STANDARDS
The echo utility conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 (``POSIX.1'') as amended by Cor. 1-2002.
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ECHO(P) POSIX Programmer's Manual ECHO(P)
echo - write arguments to standard output
echo [string ...]
The echo utility writes its arguments to standard output, followed by a <newline>. If there are no arguments, only the <newline> is writ-
The echo utility shall not recognize the "--" argument in the manner specified by Guideline 10 of the Base Definitions volume of
IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 12.2, Utility Syntax Guidelines; "--" shall be recognized as a string operand.
Implementations shall not support any options.
The following operands shall be supported:
string A string to be written to standard output. If the first operand is -n, or if any of the operands contain a backslash ( '' ) charac-
ter, the results are implementation-defined.
On XSI-conformant systems, if the first operand is -n, it shall be treated as a string, not an option. The following character sequences
shall be recognized on XSI-conformant systems within any of the arguments:
Write an <alert>.
Write a <backspace>.
Suppress the <newline> that otherwise follows the final argument in the output. All characters following the 'c' in the arguments
shall be ignored.
Write a <form-feed>.
Write a <newline>.
Write a <carriage-return>.
Write a <tab>.
Write a <vertical-tab>.
Write a backslash character.
Write an 8-bit value that is the zero, one, two, or three-digit octal number num.
The following environment variables shall affect the execution of echo:
LANG Provide a default value for the internationalization variables that are unset or null. (See the Base Definitions volume of
IEEE Std 1003.1-2001, Section 8.2, Internationalization Variables for the precedence of internationalization variables used to
determine the values of locale categories.)
LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values of all the other internationalization variables.
Determine the locale for the interpretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed to
multi-byte characters in arguments).
Determine the locale that should be used to affect the format and contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error.
Determine the location of message catalogs for the processing of LC_MESSAGES .
The echo utility arguments shall be separated by single <space>s and a <newline> shall follow the last argument. Output transformations
shall occur based on the escape sequences in the input. See the OPERANDS section.
The standard error shall be used only for diagnostic messages.
The following exit values shall be returned:
0 Successful completion.
>0 An error occurred.
CONSEQUENCES OF ERRORS
The following sections are informative.
It is not possible to use echo portably across all POSIX systems unless both -n (as the first argument) and escape sequences are omitted.
The printf utility can be used portably to emulate any of the traditional behaviors of the echo utility as follows (assuming that IFS has
its standard value or is unset):
* The historic System V echo and the requirements on XSI implementations in this volume of IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 are equivalent to:
* The BSD echo is equivalent to:
if [ "X$1" = "X-n" ]
printf "%s" "$*"
New applications are encouraged to use printf instead of echo.
The echo utility has not been made obsolescent because of its extremely widespread use in historical applications. Conforming applications
that wish to do prompting without <newline>s or that could possibly be expecting to echo a -n, should use the printf utility derived from
the Ninth Edition system.
As specified, echo writes its arguments in the simplest of ways. The two different historical versions of echo vary in fatally incompati-
The BSD echo checks the first argument for the string -n which causes it to suppress the <newline> that would otherwise follow the final
argument in the output.
The System V echo does not support any options, but allows escape sequences within its operands, as described for XSI implementations in
the OPERANDS section.
The echo utility does not support Utility Syntax Guideline 10 because historical applications depend on echo to echo all of its arguments,
except for the -n option in the BSD version.
Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition, Standard for Information Technol-
ogy -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 6, Copyright (C) 2001-2003 by the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE
and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained
online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .
IEEE /The Open Group 2003 ECHO(P)