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shellexp(3) [debian man page]

SHELLEXP(3)						     Library Functions Manual						       SHELLEXP(3)

shellexp - match string against a cruft filter pattern SYNOPSIS
extern int shellexp(const char *string, const char *pattern); DESCRIPTION
The shellexp() function is similar to fnmatch(3), but works with cruft patterns instead of standard glob(7) patterns. The function returns a true value if string matches the cruft pattern pattern, and a false value (0) otherwise. Returns -1 in case of pattern syntax error. Cruft patterns are similar to glob(7) patterns, but are not fully compatible. The following special characters are supported: ? (a question mark) matches exacly one character of string other than a slash. * matches zero or more characters of string other than a slash. /** or /**/ matches zero or more path components in string. Please note that you can only use ** when directly following a slash, and further- more, only when either directly preceding a slash or at the very end of pattern. A ** followed by anything other than a slash makes pattern invalid. A ** following anything else than a slash reduces it to having the same effect as *. [character-class] Matches any character between the brackets exactly once. Named character classes are NOT supported. If the first character of the class is ! or ^, then the meaning is inverted (matches any character NOT listed between the brackets). If you want to specify a literal closing bracket in the class, then specify it as the first (or second, if you want to negate) character after the opening bracket. Also, simple ASCII-order ranges are supported using a dash character (see examples section). Any other character matches itself. EXAMPLES
/a/b*/*c matches /a/b/xyz.c, as well as /a/bcd/.c, but not /a/b/c/d.c. /a/**/*.c matches all of the following: /a/a.c, /a/b/a.c, /a/b/c/a.c and /a/b/c/d/a.c. /a/[0-9][^0-9]* matches /a/1abc, but not /a/12bc. BUGS
Uses constant-length 1000 byte buffers to hold filenames. Also uses recursive function calls, which are not very efficient. Does not vali- date the pattern before matching, so any pattern errors (unbalanced brackets or misplaced **) are only reported when and if the matching algorithm reaches them. SEE ALSO
fnmatch(3), glob(3), cruft(8) and dash-search(1). AUTHOR
This manual page was written by Marcin Owsiany <>, for the Debian GNU/Linux system (but may be used by others). October 17, 2007 SHELLEXP(3)

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FNMATCH(3)						     Linux Programmer's Manual							FNMATCH(3)

fnmatch - match filename or pathname SYNOPSIS
#include <fnmatch.h> int fnmatch(const char *pattern, const char *string, int flags); DESCRIPTION
The fnmatch() function checks whether the string argument matches the pattern argument, which is a shell wildcard pattern. The flags argument modifies the behavior; it is the bitwise OR of zero or more of the following flags: FNM_NOESCAPE If this flag is set, treat backslash as an ordinary character, instead of an escape character. FNM_PATHNAME If this flag is set, match a slash in string only with a slash in pattern and not by an asterisk (*) or a question mark (?) metacharacter, nor by a bracket expression ([]) containing a slash. FNM_PERIOD If this flag is set, a leading period in string has to be matched exactly by a period in pattern. A period is considered to be leading if it is the first character in string, or if both FNM_PATHNAME is set and the period immediately follows a slash. FNM_FILE_NAME This is a GNU synonym for FNM_PATHNAME. FNM_LEADING_DIR If this flag (a GNU extension) is set, the pattern is considered to be matched if it matches an initial segment of string which is followed by a slash. This flag is mainly for the internal use of glibc and is implemented only in certain cases. FNM_CASEFOLD If this flag (a GNU extension) is set, the pattern is matched case-insensitively. FNM_EXTMATCH If this flag (a GNU extension) is set, extended patterns are supported, as introduced by 'ksh' and now supported by other shells. The extended format is as follows, with pattern-list being a '|' separated list of patterns. '?(pattern-list)' The pattern matches if zero or one occurrences of any of the patterns in the pattern-list match the input string. '*(pattern-list)' The pattern matches if zero or more occurrences of any of the patterns in the pattern-list match the input string. '+(pattern-list)' The pattern matches if one or more occurrences of any of the patterns in the pattern-list match the input string. '@(pattern-list)' The pattern matches if exactly one occurrence of any of the patterns in the pattern-list match the input string. '!(pattern-list)' The pattern matches if the input string cannot be matched with any of the patterns in the pattern-list. RETURN VALUE
Zero if string matches pattern, FNM_NOMATCH if there is no match or another nonzero value if there is an error. ATTRIBUTES
For an explanation of the terms used in this section, see attributes(7). +----------+---------------+--------------------+ |Interface | Attribute | Value | +----------+---------------+--------------------+ |fnmatch() | Thread safety | MT-Safe env locale | +----------+---------------+--------------------+ CONFORMING TO
POSIX.1-2001, POSIX.1-2008, POSIX.2. The FNM_FILE_NAME, FNM_LEADING_DIR, and FNM_CASEFOLD flags are GNU extensions. SEE ALSO
sh(1), glob(3), scandir(3), wordexp(3), glob(7) COLOPHON
This page is part of release 4.15 of the Linux man-pages project. A description of the project, information about reporting bugs, and the latest version of this page, can be found at GNU
2015-12-28 FNMATCH(3)
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