RUBBER(1) General Commands Manual RUBBER(1)
rubber - a building system for LaTeX documents
rubber [options] sources ...
Rubber is a wrapper for LaTeX and companion programs. Its purpose is, given a LaTeX source to process, to compile it enough times to
resolve all references, possibly running satellite programs such as BibTeX, makeindex, Metapost, etc. to produce appropriate data files.
The command rubber builds the specified documents completely. The source files may be either LaTeX sources (in which case the suffix .tex
may be omitted) or documents in a format Rubber knows how to translate into LaTeX (this currently means CWEB or Literate Haskell docu-
ments). If one compilation fails, the whole process stops, including the compilation of the next documents on the command line, and rubber
returns a non-zero exit code.
The command rubber-pipe does the same for one document but it reads the LaTeX source from standard input and dumps the compiled document on
Some information cannot be extracted from the LaTeX sources. This is the case, for instance, with the search paths (which can be specified
in environment variables like TEXINPUTS), or the style to be used with Makeindex. To address this problem, one can add information for
Rubber in the comments of the LaTeX sources, see section DIRECTIVES.
The options are used either to choose the action to be performed or to configure the building process. They are mostly the same in rubber
and rubber-pipe. Options are parsed using GNU Getopt conventions.
Compress the final document (in bzip2 format). This is equivalent to saying -o bzip2 after all other options.
Use the experimental cache system. This uses a file named rubber.cache in the current directory to store the results of parsing and
dependency analysis, so that subsequent compilations are faster.
Remove all files produced by the compilation, instead of building the document. This option is present in rubber only. It applies
to the compilation as it would be done with the other options of the command line, i.e. saying "rubber --clean foo" will not delete
foo.ps, while saying "rubber --ps --clean foo" will.
-c, --command <command>
Execute the specified command (or directive) before parsing the input files. See section DIRECTIVES for details.
-e, --epilogue <command>
Execute the specified command (or directive) after parsing the input files. See section DIRECTIVES for details.
Force at least one compilation of the source. This may be useful, for instance, if some unusual dependency was modified (e.g. a
package in a system directory). This option is irrelevant in rubber-pipe.
Compress the final document (in gzip format). This is equivalent to saying -o gz after all other options.
Display the list of all available options and exit nicely.
Go to the directory of the source files before compiling, so that compilation results are in the same place as their sources.
Go to the specified directory before compiling, so that all files are produced there and not in the current directory.
Specify a job name different from the base file name. This changes the name of output files and only applies to the first target.
This option is used in rubber-pipe only. With this option, the temporary files will not be removed after compiling the document and
dumping the results on standard output. The temporary document is named rubtmpX.tex, where X is a number such that no file of that
name exists initially.
Specify that the final document should use landscape orientation. This is relevant only when using dvips or dvipdfm.
-n, --maxerr <num>
Set the maximum number of displayed errors. By default, up to 10 errors are reported, saying -n -1 displays all errors.
-m, --module <module>[:<args>]
Use the specified module in addition to the document's packages. Arguments can be passed to the package by adding them after a
colon, they correspond to the package options in LaTeX. The module is loaded before parsing the document's sources.
Compile the document partially, including only the specified sources. This works by inserting a call to includeonly on the command
line. The argument is a comma-separated list of file names.
-o, --post <module>[:<args>]
Use the specified module as a post-processor. This is similar to the -m options except that the module is loaded after parsing the
Produce PDF output. When this option comes after --ps (for instance in the form -pd) it is a synonym for -o ps2pdf, otherwise it
acts as -m pdftex, in order to use pdfLaTeX instead of LaTeX.
Process the DVI produced by the process through dvips(1) to produce a PostScript document. This option is a synonym for -o dvips,
it cannot come after --pdf.
Decrease the verbosity level. This is the reverse of -v.
-r, --read <file>
Read additional directives from the specified file (see also the directive "read").
Enable generation of source specials if the compiler supports it. This is equivalent to setting the variable src-specials to yes.
Display LaTeX's error messages in a compact form (one error per line).
-I, --texpath <directory>
Add the specified directory to TeX's search path.
Increase the verbosity level. Levels between 0 and 4 exist, the default level is 1 for rubber and 0 for rubber-pipe. Beware, say-
ing -vvv makes Rubber speak a lot.
Print the version number and exit nicely.
-W, --warn <type>
Report information of the given type if there was no error during compilation. The available types are: boxes (overfull and under-
full boxes), refs (undefined or multiply defined references), misc (other warnings) and all to report all warnings.
Rubber's action is influenced by modules. Modules take care of the particular features of packages and external programs.
For every package that a document uses, Rubber looks for a module of the same name to perform the tasks that this package my require apart
from the compilation by LaTeX. Modules can be added to the ones provided by default to include new features (this is the point of the mod-
ule system). The standard modules are the following:
beamer This module handles Beamer's extra files the same way as other tables of contents.
bibtex Takes care of processing the document's bibliography with BibTeX when needed. This module is automatically loaded if the document
contains the macro ibliography (see also in DIRECTIVES for options).
The combine package is used to gather several LaTeX documents into a single one, and this module handles the dependencies in this
epsfig This modules handles graphics inclusion for the documents that use the old style psfig macro. It is actually an interface for the
graphics module, see this one for details.
These modules identify the graphics included in the document and consider them as dependencies for compilation. They also use stan-
dard rules to build these files with external programs. See the info documentation for details.
Handle the extra files that this package produces in some cases.
index, makeidx, nomencl
Process the document's indexes and nomenclatures with makeindex(1) when needed (see section DIRECTIVES for options).
On cleaning, remove additional files that produced to make partial tables of contents.
Adds the files included with verbatiminput and similar macros to the list of dependencies.
Handles the extra bibliographies that this package creates, and removes the extra files on cleaning.
natbib May cause an extra compilation to solve references.
xr Add additional .aux files used for external references to the list of dependencies, so recompiling is automatic when referenced doc-
ument are changed.
The following modules are provided for using programs that generate a LaTeX source from a different file format:
cweb This module's purpose is to run cweave(1) if needed before the compiling process to produce the LaTeX source. This module is auto-
matically loaded if the file specified on the command line has .w as its suffix.
This module uses the lhs2TeX preprocessor to generate the LaTeX source from a Literate Haskell program. It is automatically trig-
gered if the input file's name ends with .lhs.
The following modules are provided to support different kinds of post-processings. Note that the order matters when using these modules:
if you want to use a processing chain like
foo.tex -> foo.dvi -> foo.ps -> foo.pdf -> foo.pdf.gz
you have to load the modules dvips, ps2pdf and gz in that order, for instance using the command line
rubber -p -o ps2pdf -z foo.tex
bzip2 Produce a version of the final file compressed with bzip2(1).
Runs dvipdfm(1) at the end of compilation to produce a PDF document.
dvips Runs dvips(1) at the end of compilation to produce a PostScript document. This module is also loaded by the command line option
expand Produce an expanded LaTeX source by replacing input macros by included files, bibliography macros by the bibliography produced by
bibtex(1), and local classes and packages by their source. If the main file is foo.tex then then expanded file will be named
foo-final.tex. See the info documentation for details.
gz Produce a version of the final file compressed with gzip(1).
ps2pdf Assuming that the compilation produces a PostScript document (for instance using module dvips), convert this document to PDF using
The following modules are used to change the LaTeX compiler:
aleph Use the Aleph compiler instead of TeX, i.e. compiles the document using lamed(1) instead of latex.
etex Instructs Rubber to use elatex(1) instead of latex.
omega Use the Omega compiler instead of TeX, i.e. compiles the document using lambda(1) instead of latex. If the module dvips is used
too, it will use odvips(1) to translate the DVI file. Note that this module is triggered automatically when the document uses the
pdftex Instructs Rubber to use pdflatex(1) instead of latex(1) to compile the document. By default, this produces a PDF file instead of a
DVI, but when loading the module with the option dvi (for instance by saying -m pdftex:dvi) the document is compiled into DVI using
pdflatex. This module is also loaded by the command line option --pdf.
vtex Instructs Rubber to use the VTeX compiler. By default this uses vlatex as the compiler to produce PDF output. With the option ps
(e.g. when saying "rubber -m vtex:ps foo.tex") the compiler used is vlatexp and the result is a PostScript file.
The automatic behavior of Rubber is based on searching for macros in the LaTeX sources. When this is not enough, directives can be added
in the comments of the sources. A directive is a line like
% rubber: cmd args
The line must begin with a "%", then any sequence of "%" signs and spaces, then the text "rubber:" followed by spaces and a command name,
possibly followed by spaces and arguments.
alias <name1> <name2>
Pretend that the LaTeX macro name1 is equivalent to name2. This can be useful when defining wrappers around supported macros.
Indicates that the specified file should be removed when cleaning using --clean.
Consider the specified file as a dependency, so that its modification time will be checked.
make <file> [<options>]
Declare that the specified file has to be generated. Options can specify the way it should be produced, the available options are
from <file> to specify the source and with <rule> to specify the conversion rule. For instance, saying "make foo.pdf from foo.eps"
indicates that foo.pdf should be produced from foo.eps, with any conversion rule that can do it. See the info documentation for
details on file conversion.
module <module> [<options>]
Loads the specified module, possibly with options. This is equivalent to the command-line option --module.
onchange <file> <command>
Execute the specified shell command after compiling if the contents of the specified file have changed. The file name ends at the
Specify options related to paper size. Currently they are used to give -t options to dvips and -p options to dvipdfm.
Adds the specified directory to the search path for TeX (and Rubber). The name of the directory is everything that follows the spa-
ces after "path".
Read the specified file of directives. The file must contain one directive per line. Empty lines and lines that begin with "%" are
Read extra conversion rules from the specified file. The format of this file is the same as that of rules.ini, see the info docu-
mentation for details.
set <name> <value>
Set the value of a variable. For details on the existing variables and their meaning, see the info documentataion.
Watch the specified file for changes. If the contents of this file has changed after a compilation, then another compilation is
triggered. This is useful in the case of tables of contents, for instance.
If a command has the form foo.bar, it is considered a command bar for the module foo. If this module is not registered when the directive
is found, then the command is silently ignored. For the standard modules, the directives are the following:
Set the minimum number of crossref required for automatic inclusion of the referenced entry in the citation list. This sets the
option -min-crossrefs when calling bibtex(1).
Adds the specified directory to the search path for BibTeX databases (.bib files).
If the argument is true, yes or 1, declare that the bibliography is sorted (this is the default), otherwise declare that the cita-
tions appear in the same order as in the text. This may require additional calls to bibtex.
Adds the specified directory to the search path for BibTeX styles (.bst files).
Pass the specified command-line switches to dvipdfm.
Pass the specified command-line switches to dvips.
index.tool (index) <name>
Specifies which tool is to be used to process the index. The currently supported tools are makeindex(1) (the default choice) and
xindy(1). The argument index is optional, it may be used to specify the list of indexes the command applies to. When present, it
must be enclosed in parentheses; the list is comma-separated. When the argument is not present, the command applies to all indices.
index.language (index) <language>
Selects the language used for sorting the index. This only applies when using xindy(1) as the indexing tool. The optional argument
has the same semantics as above.
index.modules (index) <module>...
Specify which modules to use when processing an index with xindy(1). The optional argument has the same semantics as above.
index.order (index) <options>
Modifies the sorting options for the indexes. The arguments are words (separated by spaces) among standard, german and letter.
This only applies when using makeindex(1). The optional argument has the same semantics as above.
index.path (index) <directory>
Adds the specified directory to the search path for index styles (.ist files). The optional argument has the same semantics as
index.style (index) <style>
Specifies the index style to be used. The optional argument has the same semantics as above.
makeidx.language, .modules, .order, .path, .style, .tool
These directives are the same as for the index module, except that they don't accept the optional argument.
multibib.crossrefs, .path, .sorted, .stylepath
These directives are the same as for the bibtex module but they apply to bibliographies managed by the multibib package. They take
an optional first argument, with the same convention as for the directives of the index module, which may be used to specify the
list of bibliographies the command applies to.
There are surely a some...
This page documents Rubber version 1.1. The program and this man-page are maintained by Emmanuel Beffara <email@example.com>. The homepage
for Rubber can be found at http://www.pps.jussieu.fr/~beffara/soft/rubber/.
The full documentation for rubber is maintained as a Texinfo manual. If the info and rubber programs are properly installed at your site,
should give you access to the complete manual.