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gunicorn_paster(1) [debian man page]

GUNICORN_PASTER(1)					User Contributed Perl Documentation					GUNICORN_PASTER(1)

NAME
gunicorn_paster - Event-based HTTP/WSGI server, Paste application entry-point SYNOPSIS
gunicorn_paster [OPTIONS] [SETTINGS_PATH] OPTIONS
-c CONFIG, --config=CONFIG Config file. [none] -b BIND, --bind=BIND Address to listen on. Ex. 127.0.0.1:8000 or unix:/tmp/gunicorn.sock -w WORKERS, --workers=WORKERS Number of workers to spawn. [1] -a ARBITER, --arbiter=ARBITER gunicorn arbiter entry point or module [egg:gunicorn#main] -p PIDFILE, --pid=PIDFILE Set the background PID FILE -D, --daemon Run daemonized in the background. -m UMASK, --umask=UMASK Define umask of daemon process -u USER, --user=USER Change worker user -g GROUP, --group=GROUP Change worker group -n PROC_NAME, --name=PROC_NAME Process name --log-level=LOGLEVEL Log level below which to silence messages. [info] --log-file=LOGFILE Log to a file. - equals stdout. [-] d, --debug Debug mode. only 1 worker. --version Show program's version number and exit -h, --help show this help message and exit DESCRIPTION
Green Unicorn (gunicorn) is an HTTP/WSGI server designed to serve fast clients or sleepy applications. That is to say; behind a buffering front-end server such as nginx or lighttpd. * Optional support for Eventlet and Gevent to provide asynchronous long-polling ("Comet") connections. * Process management: Gunicorn reaps and restarts workers that die. * Easy integration with Django and Paster compatible applications (Pylons, TurboGears 2, etc. * Load balancing via pre-fork and a shared socket * Graceful worker process restarts * Upgrading without losing connections * Decode chunked transfers on-the-fly, allowing upload progress notifications or stream-based protocols over HTTP TUNING
KERNEL PARAMETERS There are various kernel parameters that you might want to tune in order to deal with a large number of simultaneous connections. Generally these should only affect sites with a large number of concurrent requests and apply to any sort of network server you may be running. They're listed here for ease of reference. The commands listed are tested under Mac OS X 10.6. Your flavor of Unix may use slightly different flags. Always reference the appropriate man pages if uncertain. INCREASING THE FILE DESCRIPTOR LIMIT One of the first settings that usually needs to be bumped is the maximum number of open file descriptors for a given process. For the confused out there, remember that Unices treat sockets as files. $ sudo ulimit -n 1024 INCREASING THE LISTEN QUEUE SIZE Listening sockets have an associated queue of incoming connections that are waiting to be accepted. If you happen to have a stampede of clients that fill up this queue new connections will eventually start getting dropped. $ sudo sysctl -w kern.ipc.somaxconn="1024" WIDENING THE EPHEMERAL PORT RANGE After a socket is closed it eventually enters the TIME_WAIT state. This can become an issue after a prolonged burst of client activity. Eventually the ephemeral port range is used up which can cause new connections to stall while they wait for a valid port. This setting is generally only required on machines that are being used to test a network server. SEE ALSO
gunicorn(1) perl v5.14.2 2012-10-04 GUNICORN_PASTER(1)

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SYSTEMD-SOCKET-PROXYD(8)                                       systemd-socket-proxyd                                      SYSTEMD-SOCKET-PROXYD(8)

NAME
systemd-socket-proxyd - Bidirectionally proxy local sockets to another (possibly remote) socket. SYNOPSIS
systemd-socket-proxyd [OPTIONS...] HOST:PORT systemd-socket-proxyd [OPTIONS...] UNIX-DOMAIN-SOCKET-PATH DESCRIPTION
systemd-socket-proxyd is a generic socket-activated network socket forwarder proxy daemon for IPv4, IPv6 and UNIX stream sockets. It may be used to bi-directionally forward traffic from a local listening socket to a local or remote destination socket. One use of this tool is to provide socket activation support for services that do not natively support socket activation. On behalf of the service to activate, the proxy inherits the socket from systemd, accepts each client connection, opens a connection to a configured server for each client, and then bidirectionally forwards data between the two. This utility's behavior is similar to socat(1). The main differences for systemd-socket-proxyd are support for socket activation with "Accept=false" and an event-driven design that scales better with the number of connections. OPTIONS
The following options are understood: -h, --help Print a short help text and exit. --version Print a short version string and exit. --connections-max=, -c Sets the maximum number of simultaneous connections, defaults to 256. If the limit of concurrent connections is reached further connections will be refused. EXIT STATUS
On success, 0 is returned, a non-zero failure code otherwise. EXAMPLES
Simple Example Use two services with a dependency and no namespace isolation. Example 1. proxy-to-nginx.socket [Socket] ListenStream=80 [Install] WantedBy=sockets.target Example 2. proxy-to-nginx.service [Unit] Requires=nginx.service After=nginx.service Requires=proxy-to-nginx.socket After=proxy-to-nginx.socket [Service] ExecStart=/lib/systemd/systemd-socket-proxyd /tmp/nginx.sock PrivateTmp=yes PrivateNetwork=yes Example 3. nginx.conf [...] server { listen unix:/tmp/nginx.sock; [...] Example 4. Enabling the proxy # systemctl enable --now proxy-to-nginx.socket $ curl http://localhost:80/ Namespace Example Similar as above, but runs the socket proxy and the main service in the same private namespace, assuming that nginx.service has PrivateTmp= and PrivateNetwork= set, too. Example 5. proxy-to-nginx.socket [Socket] ListenStream=80 [Install] WantedBy=sockets.target Example 6. proxy-to-nginx.service [Unit] Requires=nginx.service After=nginx.service Requires=proxy-to-nginx.socket After=proxy-to-nginx.socket JoinsNamespaceOf=nginx.service [Service] ExecStart=/lib/systemd/systemd-socket-proxyd 127.0.0.1:8080 PrivateTmp=yes PrivateNetwork=yes Example 7. nginx.conf [...] server { listen 8080; [...] Example 8. Enabling the proxy # systemctl enable --now proxy-to-nginx.socket $ curl http://localhost:80/ SEE ALSO
systemd(1), systemd.socket(5), systemd.service(5), systemctl(1), socat(1), nginx(1), curl(1) systemd 237 SYSTEMD-SOCKET-PROXYD(8)
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