Linux and UNIX Man Pages

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages

mtools(5) [centos man page]

mtools(5)							      MTOOLS								 mtools(5)

Name
       mtools.conf - mtools configuration files

Description
       This  manual  page describes the configuration files for mtools. They are called `/etc/mtools.conf' and `~/.mtoolsrc'. If the environmental
       variable MTOOLSRC is set, its contents is used as the filename for a third configuration file. These configuration files describe the  fol-
       lowing items:

       *  Global configuration flags and variables

       *  Per drive flags and variables

   Location of the configuration files
       `/etc/mtools.conf' is the system-wide configuration file, and `~/.mtoolsrc' is the user's private configuration file.

       On some systems, the system-wide configuration file is called `/etc/default/mtools.conf' instead.

     General configuration file syntax
       The  configuration files is made up of sections. Each section starts with a keyword identifying the section followed by a colon.  Then fol-
       low variable assignments and flags. Variable assignments take the following form:
       name=value

       Flags are lone keywords without an equal sign and value following them.	A section either ends at the end of the file  or  where  the  next
       section begins.

       Lines  starting with a hash (#) are comments. Newline characters are equivalent to whitespace (except where ending a comment). The configu-
       ration file is case insensitive, except for item enclosed in quotes (such as filenames).

   Default values
       For most platforms, mtools contains reasonable compiled-in defaults for physical floppy drives.	Thus, you usually  don't  need	to  bother
       with  the  configuration file, if all you want to do with mtools is to access your floppy drives. On the other hand, the configuration file
       is needed if you also want to use mtools to access your hard disk partitions and DOSEMU image files.

   Global variables
       Global flags may be set to 1 or to 0.

       The following global flags are recognized:

       MTOOLS_SKIP_CHECK
	      If this is set to 1, mtools skips most of its sanity checks. This is needed to read some Atari disks which have been made  with  the
	      earlier ROMs, and which would not be recognized otherwise.

       MTOOLS_FAT_COMPATIBILITY
	      If  this is set to 1, mtools skips the fat size checks. Some disks have a bigger FAT than they really need to. These are rejected if
	      this option is not set.

       MTOOLS_LOWER_CASE
	      If this is set to 1, mtools displays all-upper-case short filenames as lowercase. This has been done to allow a  behavior  which	is
	      consistent with older versions of mtools which didn't know about the case bits.

       MTOOLS_NO_VFAT
	      If this is set to 1, mtools won't generate VFAT entries for filenames which are mixed-case, but otherwise legal dos filenames.  This
	      is useful when working with DOS versions which can't grok VFAT long names, such as FreeDOS.

       MTOOLS_DOTTED_DIR
	      In a wide directory, prints the short name with a dot instead of spaces separating the basename and the extension.

       MTOOLS_NAME_NUMERIC_TAIL
	      If this is set to one (default), generate numeric tails for all long names (~1).	If set to zero, only  generate	numeric  tails	if
	      otherwise a clash would have happened.

       MTOOLS_TWENTY_FOUR_HOUR_CLOCK
	      If 1, uses the European notation for times (twenty four hour clock), else uses the UK/US notation (am/pm)

       Example: Inserting the following line into your configuration file instructs mtools to skip the sanity checks:

	    MTOOLS_SKIP_CHECK=1

       Global variables may also be set via the environment:

	    export MTOOLS_SKIP_CHECK=1

       Global string variables may be set to any value:

       MTOOLS_DATE_STRING
	      The format used for printing dates of files.  By default, is dd-mm-yyyy.

   Per drive flags and variables
     General information
       Per drive flags and values may be described in a drive section. A drive section starts with drive "driveletter" :

       Then follow variable-value pairs and flags.

       This is a sample drive description:

	    drive a:
	      file="/dev/fd0" use_xdf=1

     Location information
       For each drive, you need to describe where its data is physically stored (image file, physical device, partition, offset).

       file   The name of the file or device holding the disk image. This is mandatory. The file name should be enclosed in quotes.

       partition
	      Tells  mtools  to  treat	the  drive as a partitioned device, and to use the given partition. Only primary partitions are accessible
	      using this method, and they are numbered from 1 to 4. For logical partitions, use the more general offset  variable.  The  partition
	      variable is intended for removable media such as Syquest disks, ZIP drives, and magneto-optical disks. Although traditional DOS sees
	      Syquest disks and magneto-optical disks as `giant floppy disks' which are unpartitioned, OS/2 and Windows NT treat  them	like  hard
	      disks,  i.e.  partitioned devices. The partition flag is also useful DOSEMU hdimages. It is not recommended for hard disks for which
	      direct access to partitions is available through mounting.

       offset
	      Describes where in the file the MS-DOS file system starts. This is useful for logical partitions in DOSEMU hdimages, and	for  ATARI
	      ram disks. By default, this is zero, meaning that the file system starts right at the beginning of the device or file.

     Disk Geometry Configuration
       Geometry information describes the physical characteristics about the disk. Its has three purposes:

       formatting
	      The  geometry information is written into the boot sector of the newly made disk. However, you may also describe the geometry infor-
	      mation on the command line. See section mformat, for details.

       filtering
	      On some Unixes there are device nodes which only support one physical geometry. For instance, you might need  a  different  node	to
	      access  a  disk as high density or as low density. The geometry is compared to the actual geometry stored on the boot sector to make
	      sure that this device node is able to correctly read the disk. If the geometry doesn't match, this drive entry fails, and  the  next
	      drive  entry  bearing  the  same	drive  letter  is  tried. See section multiple descriptions, for more details on supplying several
	      descriptions for one drive letter.

	      If no geometry information is supplied in the configuration file, all disks are accepted. On Linux (and on SPARC) there exist device
	      nodes  with  configurable  geometry  (`/dev/fd0',  `/dev/fd1'  etc), and thus filtering is not needed (and ignored) for disk drives.
	      (Mtools still does do filtering on plain files (disk images) in Linux: this is mainly intended for test purposes, as  I  don't  have
	      access to a Unix which would actually need filtering).

	      If you do not need filtering, but want still a default geometry for mformatting, you may switch off filtering using the mformat_only
	      flag.

	      If you want filtering, you should supply the filter flag.  If you supply a geometry, you must supply one of both flags.

       initial geometry
	      On devices that support it (usually floppy devices), the geometry information is also used to set the initial geometry. This initial
	      geometry	is applied while reading the boot sector, which contains the real geometry.  If no geometry information is supplied in the
	      configuration file, or if the mformat_only flag is supplied, no initial configuration is done.

	      On Linux, initial geometry is not really needed, as the configurable devices are able to auto-detect the disk type accurately enough
	      (for most common formats) to read the boot sector.

       Wrong  geometry	information  may  lead	to very bizarre errors. That's why I strongly recommend that you add the mformat_only flag to your
       drive description, unless you really need filtering or initial geometry.

       The following geometry related variables are available:

       cylinders
       tracks The number of cylinders. (cylinders is the preferred form, tracks is considered obsolete)

       heads  The number of heads (sides).

       sectors
	      The number of sectors per track.

       Example: the following drive section describes a 1.44M drive:

	    drive a:
		file="/dev/fd0H1440"
		fat_bits=12
		cylinders=80 heads=2 sectors=18
		mformat_only

       The following shorthand geometry descriptions are available:

       1.44m  high density 3 1/2 disk. Equivalent to: fat_bits=12 cylinders=80 heads=2 sectors=18

       1.2m   high density 5 1/4 disk. Equivalent to: fat_bits=12 cylinders=80 heads=2 sectors=15

       720k   double density 3 1/2 disk. Equivalent to: fat_bits=12 cylinders=80 heads=2 sectors=9

       360k   double density 5 1/4 disk. Equivalent to: fat_bits=12 cylinders=40 heads=2 sectors=9

       The shorthand format descriptions may be amended. For example, 360k sectors=8 describes a 320k  disk  and  is  equivalent  to:  fat_bits=12
       cylinders=40 heads=2 sectors=8

     Open Flags
       Moreover, the following flags are available:

       sync   All i/o operations are done synchronously

       nodelay
	      The device or file is opened with the O_NDELAY flag. This is needed on some non-Linux architectures.

       exclusive
	      The device or file is opened with the O_EXCL flag. On Linux, this ensures exclusive access to the floppy drive. On most other archi-
	      tectures, and for plain files it has no effect at all.

     General Purpose Drive Variables
       The following general purpose drive variables are available.  Depending to their type, these variables can be set to a string  (precmd)	or
       an integer (all others)

       fat_bits
	      The number of FAT bits. This may be 12 or 16. This is very rarely needed, as it can almost always be deduced from information in the
	      boot sector. On the contrary, describing the number of fat bits may actually be harmful if you get it wrong. You should only use	it
	      if mtools gets the auto-detected number of fat bits wrong, or if you want to mformat a disk with a weird number of fat bits.

       codepage
	      Describes  the  DOS  code  page used for short filenames. This is a number between 1 and 999. By default, code page 850 is used. The
	      reason for this is because this code page contains most of the characters that are also available in ISO-Latin-1. You may also spec-
	      ify a global code page for all drives by using the global default_codepage parameter (outside of any drive description). This param-
	      eters exists starting at version 4.0.0

       precmd
	      On some variants of Solaris, it is necessary to call 'volcheck -v' before opening a floppy device, in order for the system to notice
	      that there is indeed a disk in the drive. precmd="volcheck -v" in the drive clause establishes the desired behavior.

       blocksize
	      This parameter represents a default block size to be always used on this device.	All I/O is done with multiples of this block size,
	      independently of the sector size registered in the file system's boot sector.  This is useful for  character  devices  whose  sector
	      size is not 512, such as for example CD-ROM drives on Solaris.

       Only the file variable is mandatory. The other parameters may be left out. In that case a default value or an auto-detected value is used.

     General Purpose Drive Flags
       A flag can either be set to 1 (enabled) or 0 (disabled). If the value is omitted, it is enabled.  For example, scsi is equivalent to scsi=1

       nolock
	      Instruct	mtools	to not use locking on this drive.  This is needed on systems with buggy locking semantics.  However, enabling this
	      makes operation less safe in cases where several users may access the same drive at the same time.

       scsi   When set to 1, this option tells mtools to use raw SCSI I/O instead of the standard read/write calls  to	access	the  device.  Cur-
	      rently,  this  is supported on HP-UX, Solaris and SunOS.	This is needed because on some architectures, such as SunOS or Solaris, PC
	      media can't be accessed using the read and write system calls, because the OS expects them to contain a Sun specific "disk label".

	      As raw SCSI access always uses the whole device, you need to specify the "partition" flag in addition

	      On some architectures, such as Solaris, mtools needs root privileges to be able to use the  scsi	option.   Thus	mtools	should	be
	      installed setuid root on Solaris if you want to access Zip/Jaz drives.  Thus, if the scsi flag is given, privileged is automatically
	      implied, unless explicitly disabled by privileged=0

	      Mtools uses its root privileges to open the device, and to issue the actual SCSI I/O calls.  Moreover, root privileges are only used
	      for drives described in a system-wide configuration file such as `/etc/mtools.conf', and not for those described in `~/.mtoolsrc' or
	      `$MTOOLSRC'.

       privileged
	      When set to 1, this instructs mtools to use its setuid and setgid privileges for opening the given drive.  This option is only valid
	      for  drives  described in the system-wide configuration files (such as `/etc/mtools.conf', not `~/.mtoolsrc' or `$MTOOLSRC').  Obvi-
	      ously, this option is also a no op if mtools is not installed setuid or setgid.  This option is implied by 'scsi=1', but again  only
	      for  drives  defined in system-wide configuration files.	Privileged may also be set explicitly to 0, in order to tell mtools not to
	      use its privileges for a given drive even if scsi=1 is set.

	      Mtools only needs to be installed setuid if you use the privileged or scsi drive variables.  If you do not use these options, mtools
	      works perfectly well even when not installed setuid root.

       vold

	      Instructs  mtools  to  interpret	the device name as a vold identifier rather than as a filename.  The vold identifier is translated
	      into a real filename using the media_findname() and media_oldaliases() functions of the volmgt library.  This flag is only available
	      if you configured mtools with the --enable-new-vold option before compilation.

       swap

	      Consider the media as a word-swapped Atari disk.

       use_xdf
	      If  this	is  set  to  a non-zero value, mtools also tries to access this disk as an XDF disk. XDF is a high capacity format used by
	      OS/2. This is off by default. See section XDF, for more details.

       mformat_only
	      Tells mtools to use the geometry for this drive only for mformatting and not for filtering.

       filter
	      Tells mtools to use the geometry for this drive both for mformatting and filtering.

       remote
	      Tells mtools to connect to floppyd (see section  floppyd).

     Supplying multiple descriptions for a drive
       It is possible to supply multiple descriptions for a drive. In that case, the descriptions are tried in order until one is found that fits.
       Descriptions may fail for several reasons:

       1.     because the geometry is not appropriate,

       2.     because there is no disk in the drive,

       3.     or because of other problems.

       Multiple definitions are useful when using physical devices which are only able to support one single disk geometry.  Example:

	    drive a: file="/dev/fd0H1440" 1.44m
	    drive a: file="/dev/fd0H720" 720k

       This  instructs mtools to use /dev/fd0H1440 for 1.44m (high density) disks and /dev/fd0H720 for 720k (double density) disks. On Linux, this
       feature is not really needed, as the /dev/fd0 device is able to handle any geometry.

       You may also use multiple drive descriptions to access both of your physical drives through one drive letter:

	    drive z: file="/dev/fd0"
	    drive z: file="/dev/fd1"

       With this description, mdir z: accesses your first physical drive if it contains a disk. If the first drive doesn't contain a disk,  mtools
       checks the second drive.

       When  using  multiple  configuration files, drive descriptions in the files parsed last override descriptions for the same drive in earlier
       files. In order to avoid this, use the drive+ or +drive keywords instead of drive. The first adds a description to  the	end  of  the  list
       (i.e. it will be tried last), and the first adds it to the start of the list.

   Location of configuration files and parsing order
       The configuration files are parsed in the following order:

       1.     compiled-in defaults

       2.     `/etc/mtools.conf'

       3.     `~/.mtoolsrc'.

       4.     `$MTOOLSRC' (file pointed by the MTOOLSRC environmental variable)

       Options described in the later files override those described in the earlier files. Drives defined in earlier files persist if they are not
       overridden in the later files. For instance, drives A and B may be defined in `/etc/mtools.conf' and drives C  and  D  may  be  defined	in
       `~/.mtoolsrc'  However,	if  `~/.mtoolsrc'  also  defines  drive  A,  this  new	description  would  override the description of drive A in
       `/etc/mtools.conf' instead of adding to it. If you want to add a new description to a drive already described in an earlier file, you  need
       to use either the +drive or drive+ keyword.

   Backwards compatibility with old configuration file syntax
       The syntax described herein is new for version mtools-3.0. The old line-oriented syntax is still supported. Each line beginning with a sin-
       gle letter is considered to be a drive description using the old syntax. Old style and new style drive sections may  be	mixed  within  the
       same  configuration file, in order to make upgrading easier. Support for the old syntax will be phased out eventually, and in order to dis-
       courage its use, I purposefully omit its description here.

See also
       mtools

MTOOLS
09Jan13 mtools(5)
Man Page

Featured Tech Videos