Unicode::Collate::Locale(3pm) Perl Programmers Reference Guide Unicode::Collate::Locale(3pm)
Unicode::Collate::Locale - Linguistic tailoring for DUCET via Unicode::Collate
$Collator = Unicode::Collate::Locale->
new(locale => $locale_name, %tailoring);
@sorted = $Collator->sort(@not_sorted);
$result = $Collator->cmp($a, $b); # returns 1, 0, or -1.
Note: Strings in @not_sorted, $a and $b are interpreted according to Perl's Unicode
support. See perlunicode, perluniintro, perlunitut, perlunifaq, utf8. Otherwise you can
use "preprocess" (cf. "Unicode::Collate") or should decode them before.
This module provides linguistic tailoring for it taking advantage of "Unicode::Collate".
The "new" method returns a collator object.
A parameter list for the constructor is a hash, which can include a special key "locale"
and its value (case-insensitive) standing for a Unicode base language code (two or three-
letter). For example, "Unicode::Collate::Locale->new(locale => 'FR')" returns a collator
tailored for French.
$locale_name may be suffixed with a Unicode script code (four-letter), a Unicode region
code, a Unicode language variant code. These codes are case-insensitive, and separated
with '_' or '-'. E.g. "en_US" for English in USA, "az_Cyrl" for Azerbaijani in the
Cyrillic script, "es_ES_traditional" for Spanish in Spain (Traditional).
If $locale_name is not available, fallback is selected in the following order:
1. language with a variant code
2. language with a script code
3. language with a region code
Tailoring tags provided by "Unicode::Collate" are allowed as long as they are not used for
"locale" support. Esp. the "table" tag is always untailorable, since it is reserved for
E.g. a collator for French, which ignores diacritics and case difference (i.e. level 1),
with reversed case ordering and no normalization.
level => 1,
locale => 'fr',
upper_before_lower => 1,
normalization => undef
Overriding a behavior already tailored by "locale" is disallowed if such a tailoring is
passed to "new()".
locale => 'da',
upper_before_lower => 0, # causes error as reserved by 'da'
However "change()" inherited from "Unicode::Collate" allows such a tailoring that is
reserved by "locale". Examples:
new(locale => 'ca')->change(backwards => undef)
new(locale => 'da')->change(upper_before_lower => 0)
new(locale => 'ja')->change(overrideCJK => undef)
"Unicode::Collate::Locale" is a subclass of "Unicode::Collate" and methods other than
"new" are inherited from "Unicode::Collate".
Here is a list of additional methods:
Returns a language code accepted and used actually on collation. If linguistic
tailoring is not provided for a language code you passed (intensionally for some
languages, or due to the incomplete implementation), this method returns a string
'default' meaning no special tailoring.
(Since Unicode::Collate::Locale 0.87) Returns the version number (perhaps
"/\d\.\d\d/") of the locale, as that of Locale/*.pl.
Note: Locale/*.pl that a collator uses should be identified by a combination of return
values from "getlocale" and "locale_version".
A list of tailorable locales
locale name description
az Azerbaijani (Azeri)
de__phonebook German (umlaut as 'ae', 'oe', 'ue')
es__traditional Spanish ('ch' and 'll' as a grapheme)
fi Finnish (v and w are primary equal)
fi__phonebook Finnish (v and w as separate characters)
ja Japanese 
ko Korean 
nb Norwegian Bokmal
nn Norwegian Nynorsk
nso Northern Sotho
se Northern Sami
si__dictionary Sinhala (U+0DA5 = U+0DA2,0DCA,0DA4)
sr_Latn Serbian in Latin (tailored as Croatian)
sv Swedish (v and w are primary equal)
sv__reformed Swedish (v and w as separate characters)
zh__big5han Chinese (ideographs: big5 order)
zh__gb2312han Chinese (ideographs: GB-2312 order)
zh__pinyin Chinese (ideographs: pinyin order) 
zh__stroke Chinese (ideographs: stroke order) 
Locales according to the default UCA rules include chr (Cherokee), de (German), en
(English), ga (Irish), id (Indonesian), it (Italian), ka (Georgian), ms (Malay), nl
(Dutch), pt (Portuguese), st (Southern Sotho), sw (Swahili), xh (Xhosa), zu (Zulu).
 ja: Ideographs are sorted in JIS X 0208 order. Fullwidth and halfwidth forms are
identical to their normal form. The difference between hiragana and katakana is at the
4th level, the comparison also requires "(variable => 'Non-ignorable')", and then
"katakana_before_hiragana" has no effect.
 ko: Plenty of ideographs are sorted by their reading. Such an ideograph is primary
(level 1) equal to, and secondary (level 2) greater than, the corresponding hangul
 zh__pinyin and zh__stroke: implemented alt='short', where a smaller number of
ideographs are tailored.
Installation of "Unicode::Collate::Locale" requires Collate/Locale.pm,
Collate/Locale/*.pm, Collate/CJK/*.pm and Collate/allkeys.txt. On building,
"Unicode::Collate::Locale" doesn't require any of data/*.txt, gendata/*, and mklocale.
Tests for "Unicode::Collate::Locale" are named t/loc_*.t.
tailoring is not maximum
Even if a certain letter is tailored, its equivalent would not always tailored as well
as it. For example, even though W is tailored, fullwidth W ("U+FF37"), W with acute
("U+1E82"), etc. are not tailored. The result may depend on whether source strings are
normalized or not, and whether decomposed or composed. Thus "(normalization =>
undef)" is less preferred.
The Unicode::Collate::Locale module for perl was written by SADAHIRO Tomoyuki,
<SADAHIRO@cpan.org>. This module is Copyright(C) 2004-2012, SADAHIRO Tomoyuki. Japan.
All rights reserved.
This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
terms as Perl itself.
Unicode Collation Algorithm - UTS #10
The Default Unicode Collation Element Table (DUCET)
Unicode Locale Data Markup Language (LDML) - UTS #35
CLDR - Unicode Common Locale Data Repository
perl v5.16.3 2013-03-04 Unicode::Collate::Locale(3pm)