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Math::BigRat(3pm)		 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		Math::BigRat(3pm)

NAME
       Math::BigRat - Arbitrary big rational numbers

SYNOPSIS
	       use Math::BigRat;

	       my $x = Math::BigRat->new('3/7'); $x += '5/9';

	       print $x->bstr(),"\n";
	       print $x ** 2,"\n";

	       my $y = Math::BigRat->new('inf');
	       print "$y ", ($y->is_inf ? 'is' : 'is not') , " infinity\n";

	       my $z = Math::BigRat->new(144); $z->bsqrt();

DESCRIPTION
       Math::BigRat complements Math::BigInt and Math::BigFloat by providing support for
       arbitrary big rational numbers.

   MATH LIBRARY
       You can change the underlying module that does the low-level math operations by using:

	       use Math::BigRat try => 'GMP';

       Note: This needs Math::BigInt::GMP installed.

       The following would first try to find Math::BigInt::Foo, then Math::BigInt::Bar, and when
       this also fails, revert to Math::BigInt::Calc:

	       use Math::BigRat try => 'Foo,Math::BigInt::Bar';

       If you want to get warned when the fallback occurs, replace "try" with "lib":

	       use Math::BigRat lib => 'Foo,Math::BigInt::Bar';

       If you want the code to die instead, replace "try" with "only":

	       use Math::BigRat only => 'Foo,Math::BigInt::Bar';

METHODS
       Any methods not listed here are derived from Math::BigFloat (or Math::BigInt), so make
       sure you check these two modules for further information.

   new()
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new('1/3');

       Create a new Math::BigRat object. Input can come in various forms:

	       $x = Math::BigRat->new(123);			       # scalars
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new('inf');			       # infinity
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new('123.3'); 		       # float
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new('1/3');			       # simple string
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new('1 / 3'); 		       # spaced
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new('1 / 0.1');		       # w/ floats
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new(Math::BigInt->new(3));	       # BigInt
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new(Math::BigFloat->new('3.1'));     # BigFloat
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new(Math::BigInt::Lite->new('2'));   # BigLite

	       # You can also give D and N as different objects:
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new(
		       Math::BigInt->new(-123),
		       Math::BigInt->new(7),
		       );		       # => -123/7

   numerator()
	       $n = $x->numerator();

       Returns a copy of the numerator (the part above the line) as signed BigInt.

   denominator()
	       $d = $x->denominator();

       Returns a copy of the denominator (the part under the line) as positive BigInt.

   parts()
	       ($n,$d) = $x->parts();

       Return a list consisting of (signed) numerator and (unsigned) denominator as BigInts.

   numify()
	       my $y = $x->numify();

       Returns the object as a scalar. This will lose some data if the object cannot be
       represented by a normal Perl scalar (integer or float), so use as_int() or as_float()
       instead.

       This routine is automatically used whenever a scalar is required:

	       my $x = Math::BigRat->new('3/1');
	       @array = (0,1,2,3);
	       $y = $array[$x]; 	       # set $y to 3

   as_int()/as_number()
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new('13/7');
	       print $x->as_int(),"\n"; 	       # '1'

       Returns a copy of the object as BigInt, truncated to an integer.

       "as_number()" is an alias for "as_int()".

   as_float()
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new('13/7');
	       print $x->as_float(),"\n";	       # '1'

	       $x = Math::BigRat->new('2/3');
	       print $x->as_float(5),"\n";	       # '0.66667'

       Returns a copy of the object as BigFloat, preserving the accuracy as wanted, or the
       default of 40 digits.

       This method was added in v0.22 of Math::BigRat (April 2008).

   as_hex()
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new('13');
	       print $x->as_hex(),"\n"; 	       # '0xd'

       Returns the BigRat as hexadecimal string. Works only for integers.

   as_bin()
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new('13');
	       print $x->as_bin(),"\n"; 	       # '0x1101'

       Returns the BigRat as binary string. Works only for integers.

   as_oct()
	       $x = Math::BigRat->new('13');
	       print $x->as_oct(),"\n"; 	       # '015'

       Returns the BigRat as octal string. Works only for integers.

   from_hex()/from_bin()/from_oct()
	       my $h = Math::BigRat->from_hex('0x10');
	       my $b = Math::BigRat->from_bin('0b10000000');
	       my $o = Math::BigRat->from_oct('020');

       Create a BigRat from an hexadecimal, binary or octal number in string form.

   length()
	       $len = $x->length();

       Return the length of $x in digits for integer values.

   digit()
	       print Math::BigRat->new('123/1')->digit(1);     # 1
	       print Math::BigRat->new('123/1')->digit(-1);    # 3

       Return the N'ths digit from X when X is an integer value.

   bnorm()
	       $x->bnorm();

       Reduce the number to the shortest form. This routine is called automatically whenever it
       is needed.

   bfac()
	       $x->bfac();

       Calculates the factorial of $x. For instance:

	       print Math::BigRat->new('3/1')->bfac(),"\n";    # 1*2*3
	       print Math::BigRat->new('5/1')->bfac(),"\n";    # 1*2*3*4*5

       Works currently only for integers.

   bround()/round()/bfround()
       Are not yet implemented.

   bmod()
	       use Math::BigRat;
	       my $x = Math::BigRat->new('7/4');
	       my $y = Math::BigRat->new('4/3');
	       print $x->bmod($y);

       Set $x to the remainder of the division of $x by $y.

   bneg()
	       $x->bneg();

       Used to negate the object in-place.

   is_one()
	       print "$x is 1\n" if $x->is_one();

       Return true if $x is exactly one, otherwise false.

   is_zero()
	       print "$x is 0\n" if $x->is_zero();

       Return true if $x is exactly zero, otherwise false.

   is_pos()/is_positive()
	       print "$x is >= 0\n" if $x->is_positive();

       Return true if $x is positive (greater than or equal to zero), otherwise false. Please
       note that '+inf' is also positive, while 'NaN' and '-inf' aren't.

       "is_positive()" is an alias for "is_pos()".

   is_neg()/is_negative()
	       print "$x is < 0\n" if $x->is_negative();

       Return true if $x is negative (smaller than zero), otherwise false. Please note that
       '-inf' is also negative, while 'NaN' and '+inf' aren't.

       "is_negative()" is an alias for "is_neg()".

   is_int()
	       print "$x is an integer\n" if $x->is_int();

       Return true if $x has a denominator of 1 (e.g. no fraction parts), otherwise false. Please
       note that '-inf', 'inf' and 'NaN' aren't integer.

   is_odd()
	       print "$x is odd\n" if $x->is_odd();

       Return true if $x is odd, otherwise false.

   is_even()
	       print "$x is even\n" if $x->is_even();

       Return true if $x is even, otherwise false.

   bceil()
	       $x->bceil();

       Set $x to the next bigger integer value (e.g. truncate the number to integer and then
       increment it by one).

   bfloor()
	       $x->bfloor();

       Truncate $x to an integer value.

   bsqrt()
	       $x->bsqrt();

       Calculate the square root of $x.

   broot()
	       $x->broot($n);

       Calculate the N'th root of $x.

   badd()/bmul()/bsub()/bdiv()/bdec()/binc()
       Please see the documentation in Math::BigInt.

   copy()
	       my $z = $x->copy();

       Makes a deep copy of the object.

       Please see the documentation in Math::BigInt for further details.

   bstr()/bsstr()
	       my $x = Math::BigInt->new('8/4');
	       print $x->bstr(),"\n";		       # prints 1/2
	       print $x->bsstr(),"\n";		       # prints 1/2

       Return a string representing this object.

   bacmp()/bcmp()
       Used to compare numbers.

       Please see the documentation in Math::BigInt for further details.

   blsft()/brsft()
       Used to shift numbers left/right.

       Please see the documentation in Math::BigInt for further details.

   bpow()
	       $x->bpow($y);

       Compute $x ** $y.

       Please see the documentation in Math::BigInt for further details.

   bexp()
	       $x->bexp($accuracy);	       # calculate e ** X

       Calculates two integers A and B so that A/B is equal to "e ** $x", where "e" is Euler's
       number.

       This method was added in v0.20 of Math::BigRat (May 2007).

       See also blog().

   bnok()
	       $x->bnok($y);		  # x over y (binomial coefficient n over k)

       Calculates the binomial coefficient n over k, also called the "choose" function. The
       result is equivalent to:

	       ( n )	  n!
	       | - |  = -------
	       ( k )	k!(n-k)!

       This method was added in v0.20 of Math::BigRat (May 2007).

   config()
	       use Data::Dumper;

	       print Dumper ( Math::BigRat->config() );
	       print Math::BigRat->config()->{lib},"\n";

       Returns a hash containing the configuration, e.g. the version number, lib loaded etc. The
       following hash keys are currently filled in with the appropriate information.

	       key	       RO/RW   Description
				       Example
	       ============================================================
	       lib	       RO      Name of the Math library
				       Math::BigInt::Calc
	       lib_version     RO      Version of 'lib'
				       0.30
	       class	       RO      The class of config you just called
				       Math::BigRat
	       version	       RO      version number of the class you used
				       0.10
	       upgrade	       RW      To which class numbers are upgraded
				       undef
	       downgrade       RW      To which class numbers are downgraded
				       undef
	       precision       RW      Global precision
				       undef
	       accuracy        RW      Global accuracy
				       undef
	       round_mode      RW      Global round mode
				       even
	       div_scale       RW      Fallback accuracy for div
				       40
	       trap_nan        RW      Trap creation of NaN (undef = no)
				       undef
	       trap_inf        RW      Trap creation of +inf/-inf (undef = no)
				       undef

       By passing a reference to a hash you may set the configuration values. This works only for
       values that a marked with a "RW" above, anything else is read-only.

   objectify()
       This is an internal routine that turns scalars into objects.

BUGS
       Some things are not yet implemented, or only implemented half-way:

       inf handling (partial)
       NaN handling (partial)
       rounding (not implemented except for bceil/bfloor)
       $x ** $y where $y is not an integer
       bmod(), blog(), bmodinv() and bmodpow() (partial)

LICENSE
       This program is free software; you may redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.

SEE ALSO
       Math::BigFloat and Math::Big as well as Math::BigInt::BitVect, Math::BigInt::Pari and
       Math::BigInt::GMP.

       See <http://search.cpan.org/search?dist=bignum> for a way to use Math::BigRat.

       The package at <http://search.cpan.org/search?dist=Math%3A%3ABigRat> may contain more
       documentation and examples as well as testcases.

AUTHORS
       (C) by Tels <http://bloodgate.com/> 2001 - 2009.

       Currently maintained by Jonathan "Duke" Leto <jonathan@leto.net> <http://leto.net>

perl v5.16.3				    2013-03-04				Math::BigRat(3pm)
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