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Try::Tiny(3)		       User Contributed Perl Documentation		     Try::Tiny(3)

NAME
       Try::Tiny - minimal try/catch with proper localization of $@

SYNOPSIS
       You can use Try::Tiny's "try" and "catch" to expect and handle exceptional conditions,
       avoiding quirks in Perl and common mistakes:

	       # handle errors with a catch handler
	       try {
		       die "foo";
	       } catch {
		       warn "caught error: $_"; # not $@
	       };

       You can also use it like a standalone "eval" to catch and ignore any error conditions.
       Obviously, this is an extreme measure not to be undertaken lightly:

	       # just silence errors
	       try {
		       die "foo";
	       };

DESCRIPTION
       This module provides bare bones "try"/"catch"/"finally" statements that are designed to
       minimize common mistakes with eval blocks, and NOTHING else.

       This is unlike TryCatch which provides a nice syntax and avoids adding another call stack
       layer, and supports calling "return" from the "try" block to return from the parent
       subroutine. These extra features come at a cost of a few dependencies, namely
       Devel::Declare and Scope::Upper which are occasionally problematic, and the additional
       catch filtering uses Moose type constraints which may not be desirable either.

       The main focus of this module is to provide simple and reliable error handling for those
       having a hard time installing TryCatch, but who still want to write correct "eval" blocks
       without 5 lines of boilerplate each time.

       It's designed to work as correctly as possible in light of the various pathological edge
       cases (see "BACKGROUND") and to be compatible with any style of error values (simple
       strings, references, objects, overloaded objects, etc).

       If the "try" block dies, it returns the value of the last statement executed in the
       "catch" block, if there is one. Otherwise, it returns "undef" in scalar context or the
       empty list in list context. The following examples all assign "bar" to $x:

	       my $x = try { die "foo" } catch { "bar" };
	       my $x = try { die "foo" } || { "bar" };
	       my $x = (try { die "foo" }) // { "bar" };

	       my $x = eval { die "foo" } || "bar";

       You can add "finally" blocks, yielding the following:

	       my $x;
	       try { die 'foo' } finally { $x = 'bar' };
	       try { die 'foo' } catch { warn "Got a die: $_" } finally { $x = 'bar' };

       "finally" blocks are always executed making them suitable for cleanup code which cannot be
       handled using local.  You can add as many "finally" blocks to a given "try" block as you
       like.

EXPORTS
       All functions are exported by default using Exporter.

       If you need to rename the "try", "catch" or "finally" keyword consider using Sub::Import
       to get Sub::Exporter's flexibility.

       try (&;@)
	   Takes one mandatory "try" subroutine, an optional "catch" subroutine and "finally"
	   subroutine.

	   The mandatory subroutine is evaluated in the context of an "eval" block.

	   If no error occurred the value from the first block is returned, preserving
	   list/scalar context.

	   If there was an error and the second subroutine was given it will be invoked with the
	   error in $_ (localized) and as that block's first and only argument.

	   $@ does not contain the error. Inside the "catch" block it has the same value it had
	   before the "try" block was executed.

	   Note that the error may be false, but if that happens the "catch" block will still be
	   invoked.

	   Once all execution is finished then the "finally" block, if given, will execute.

       catch (&;$)
	   Intended to be used in the second argument position of "try".

	   Returns a reference to the subroutine it was given but blessed as "Try::Tiny::Catch"
	   which allows try to decode correctly what to do with this code reference.

		   catch { ... }

	   Inside the "catch" block the caught error is stored in $_, while previous value of $@
	   is still available for use.	This value may or may not be meaningful depending on what
	   happened before the "try", but it might be a good idea to preserve it in an error
	   stack.

	   For code that captures $@ when throwing new errors (i.e.  Class::Throwable), you'll
	   need to do:

		   local $@ = $_;

       finally (&;$)
	     try     { ... }
	     catch   { ... }
	     finally { ... };

	   Or

	     try     { ... }
	     finally { ... };

	   Or even

	     try     { ... }
	     finally { ... }
	     catch   { ... };

	   Intended to be the second or third element of "try". "finally" blocks are always
	   executed in the event of a successful "try" or if "catch" is run. This allows you to
	   locate cleanup code which cannot be done via "local()" e.g. closing a file handle.

	   When invoked, the "finally" block is passed the error that was caught.  If no error
	   was caught, it is passed nothing.  (Note that the "finally" block does not localize $_
	   with the error, since unlike in a "catch" block, there is no way to know if "$_ ==
	   undef" implies that there were no errors.) In other words, the following code does
	   just what you would expect:

	     try {
	       die_sometimes();
	     } catch {
	       # ...code run in case of error
	     } finally {
	       if (@_) {
		 print "The try block died with: @_\n";
	       } else {
		 print "The try block ran without error.\n";
	       }
	     };

	   You must always do your own error handling in the "finally" block. "Try::Tiny" will
	   not do anything about handling possible errors coming from code located in these
	   blocks.

	   In the same way "catch()" blesses the code reference this subroutine does the same
	   except it bless them as "Try::Tiny::Finally".

BACKGROUND
       There are a number of issues with "eval".

   Clobbering $@
       When you run an "eval" block and it succeeds, $@ will be cleared, potentially clobbering
       an error that is currently being caught.

       This causes action at a distance, clearing previous errors your caller may have not yet
       handled.

       $@ must be properly localized before invoking "eval" in order to avoid this issue.

       More specifically, $@ is clobbered at the beginning of the "eval", which also makes it
       impossible to capture the previous error before you die (for instance when making
       exception objects with error stacks).

       For this reason "try" will actually set $@ to its previous value (before the localization)
       in the beginning of the "eval" block.

   Localizing $@ silently masks errors
       Inside an "eval" block, "die" behaves sort of like:

	       sub die {
		       $@ = $_[0];
		       return_undef_from_eval();
	       }

       This means that if you were polite and localized $@ you can't die in that scope, or your
       error will be discarded (printing "Something's wrong" instead).

       The workaround is very ugly:

	       my $error = do {
		       local $@;
		       eval { ... };
		       $@;
	       };

	       ...
	       die $error;

   $@ might not be a true value
       This code is wrong:

	       if ( $@ ) {
		       ...
	       }

       because due to the previous caveats it may have been unset.

       $@ could also be an overloaded error object that evaluates to false, but that's asking for
       trouble anyway.

       The classic failure mode is:

	       sub Object::DESTROY {
		       eval { ... }
	       }

	       eval {
		       my $obj = Object->new;

		       die "foo";
	       };

	       if ( $@ ) {

	       }

       In this case since "Object::DESTROY" is not localizing $@ but still uses "eval", it will
       set $@ to "".

       The destructor is called when the stack is unwound, after "die" sets $@ to "foo at Foo.pm
       line 42\n", so by the time "if ( $@ )" is evaluated it has been cleared by "eval" in the
       destructor.

       The workaround for this is even uglier than the previous ones. Even though we can't save
       the value of $@ from code that doesn't localize, we can at least be sure the "eval" was
       aborted due to an error:

	       my $failed = not eval {
		       ...

		       return 1;
	       };

       This is because an "eval" that caught a "die" will always return a false value.

SHINY SYNTAX
       Using Perl 5.10 you can use "Switch statements" in perlsyn.

       The "catch" block is invoked in a topicalizer context (like a "given" block), but note
       that you can't return a useful value from "catch" using the "when" blocks without an
       explicit "return".

       This is somewhat similar to Perl 6's "CATCH" blocks. You can use it to concisely match
       errors:

	       try {
		       require Foo;
	       } catch {
		       when (/^Can't locate .*?\.pm in \@INC/) { } # ignore
		       default { die $_ }
	       };

CAVEATS
       o   @_ is not available within the "try" block, so you need to copy your arglist. In case
	   you want to work with argument values directly via @_ aliasing (i.e. allow "$_[1] =
	   "foo""), you need to pass @_ by reference:

		   sub foo {
			   my ( $self, @args ) = @_;
			   try { $self->bar(@args) }
		   }

	   or

		   sub bar_in_place {
			   my $self = shift;
			   my $args = \@_;
			   try { $_ = $self->bar($_) for @$args }
		   }

       o   "return" returns from the "try" block, not from the parent sub (note that this is also
	   how "eval" works, but not how TryCatch works):

	     sub parent_sub {
		 try {
		     die;
		 }
		 catch {
		     return;
		 };

		 say "this text WILL be displayed, even though an exception is thrown";
	     }

	   Instead, you should capture the return value:

	     sub parent_sub {
		 my $success = try {
		     die;
		     1;
		 }
		 return unless $success;

		 say "This text WILL NEVER appear!";
	     }

	   Note that if you have a "catch" block, it must return "undef" for this to work, since
	   if a "catch" block exists, its return value is returned in place of "undef" when an
	   exception is thrown.

       o   "try" introduces another caller stack frame. Sub::Uplevel is not used. Carp will not
	   report this when using full stack traces, though, because %Carp::Internal is used.
	   This lack of magic is considered a feature.

       o   The value of $_ in the "catch" block is not guaranteed to be the value of the
	   exception thrown ($@) in the "try" block.  There is no safe way to ensure this, since
	   "eval" may be used unhygenically in destructors.  The only guarantee is that the
	   "catch" will be called if an exception is thrown.

       o   The return value of the "catch" block is not ignored, so if testing the result of the
	   expression for truth on success, be sure to return a false value from the "catch"
	   block:

		   my $obj = try {
			   MightFail->new;
		   } catch {
			   ...

			   return; # avoid returning a true value;
		   };

		   return unless $obj;

       o   $SIG{__DIE__} is still in effect.

	   Though it can be argued that $SIG{__DIE__} should be disabled inside of "eval" blocks,
	   since it isn't people have grown to rely on it. Therefore in the interests of
	   compatibility, "try" does not disable $SIG{__DIE__} for the scope of the error
	   throwing code.

       o   Lexical $_ may override the one set by "catch".

	   For example Perl 5.10's "given" form uses a lexical $_, creating some confusing
	   behavior:

		   given ($foo) {
			   when (...) {
				   try {
					   ...
				   } catch {
					   warn $_; # will print $foo, not the error
					   warn $_[0]; # instead, get the error like this
				   }
			   }
		   }

SEE ALSO
       TryCatch
	   Much more feature complete, more convenient semantics, but at the cost of
	   implementation complexity.

       autodie
	   Automatic error throwing for builtin functions and more. Also designed to work well
	   with "given"/"when".

       Throwable
	   A lightweight role for rolling your own exception classes.

       Error
	   Exception object implementation with a "try" statement. Does not localize $@.

       Exception::Class::TryCatch
	   Provides a "catch" statement, but properly calling "eval" is your responsibility.

	   The "try" keyword pushes $@ onto an error stack, avoiding some of the issues with $@,
	   but you still need to localize to prevent clobbering.

LIGHTNING TALK
       I gave a lightning talk about this module, you can see the slides (Firefox only):

       <http://nothingmuch.woobling.org/talks/takahashi.xul?data=yapc_asia_2009/try_tiny.txt>

       Or read the source:

       <http://nothingmuch.woobling.org/talks/yapc_asia_2009/try_tiny.yml>

VERSION CONTROL
       <http://github.com/nothingmuch/try-tiny/>

AUTHOR
       Yuval Kogman <nothingmuch@woobling.org>

COPYRIGHT
	       Copyright (c) 2009 Yuval Kogman. All rights reserved.
	       This program is free software; you can redistribute
	       it and/or modify it under the terms of the MIT license.

perl v5.16.3				    2013-01-02				     Try::Tiny(3)
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