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pTk(3)			       User Contributed Perl Documentation			   pTk(3)

NAME
       Tk2portableTk - how to make your Tk source portable to other interpreted languages.

Author
       Ilya Zakharevich <ilya@math.ohio-state.edu>  has contributed most of this document. Many
       thanks.

DESCRIPTION
       PortableTk is an attempt to make Tk useful from other languages. Currently tk4.0 runs
       under Perl using this approach. Below, Lang is the notation for an external language to
       which PortableTk glues Tk code.

       The main problem with using the code developed for TCL with different languages is the
       absence of data types: almost anything is "char*". It makes automatic translation
       hopeless. However, if you "typedef" several new symbols to be "char*", you can still use
       your code in TCL, and it will make the automatic translation possible.

       Another problem with the approach that "everything is a string" is impossibility to have a
       result that says "NotApplicable" without setting an error. Thus different Tk command
       return different string values that mean "error happened", like "", " " or "??". Other
       languages can be more flexible, so in portableTk you should inform the compiler that what
       you want to return means "error" (see "Setting variables").

       Currently PortableTk uses several different approachs to simplify translation: several TCL
       functions that are especially dangerous to use are undefined, so you can easily find
       places that need to be updated to use Language-independent functions based on compiler
       warnings.  Eventually a way to use these Language-independent functions under proper TCL
       will be also provided.  The end of this document provides a starting point for such a
       project.

Structure of pTk, porting your code
       pTk, that is a port of Tk, is very special with respect to porting of other code to
       portableTk. The problem is that currently there is very little hope to merge the
       modifications back into Tk, so a special strategy is needed to maintain this port. Do not
       use this strategy to port your own code.

       pTk is produced from Tk via a two-step process: first, some manual editing (the result is
       in the subdirectory "mTk"), and second, automatic conversion by the "munge" script
       (written in Perl). Thus the subdirectory "pTk/mTk" contains code with minimal possible
       difference from the virgin Tk code, so it is easier to merge(1) the differences between Tk
       versions into modified code.

       It looks like the strategy for a portable code should be exactly opposite: starting from
       TCL-based code, apply "munge", and then hand-edit the resulting code. Probably it is also
       possible to target your code to portableTk from scratch, since this will make it possible
       to run it under a lot of Languages.

       The only reason anyone would like to look into contents of "pTk/mTk" directory is to find
       out which constructs are not supported by "munge". On the other hand, "pTk" directory
       contains code that is conformant to portableTk, so you can look there to find example
       code.

       "munge" is the script that converts most common Tk constructs to their "portableTk"
       equivalent. For your code to qualify, you should follow Tk conventions on indentation and
       names of variables, in particular, the array of arguments for the "...CmdProc" should be
       called "argv".

       For details on what "munge" can do, see "Translation of some TCL functions".

PortableTk API
   Checking what you are running under
       PortableTk provides a symbol "????". If this symbol is defined, your source is compiled
       with it.

   New types of configuration options
       PortableTk defines several new types of configuration options:

	TK_CONFIG_CALLBACK
	TK_CONFIG_LANGARG
	TK_CONFIG_SCALARVAR
	TK_CONFIG_HASHVAR
	TK_CONFIG_ARRAYVAR
	TK_CONFIG_IMAGE

       You should use them instead of TK_CONFIG_STRING whenever appropriate. This allows your
       application to receive a direct representation of the corresponding resource instead of
       the string representation, if this is possible under given language.

       ???? It looks like "TK_CONFIG_IMAGE" and "TK_CONFIG_SCALARVAR" set variables of type
       "char*".

   Language data
       The following data types are defined:

       "Tcl_Obj *"
	   is the main datatype of the language.  This is a type that your C function gets
	   pointers to for arguments when the corresponding Lang function is called.  The
	   corresponding config type is "TK_CONFIG_LANGARG".

	   This is also a type that keeps information about contents of Lang variable.

       "Var"
	   Is a substitute for a "char *" that contains name of variable. In Lang it is an object
	   that contains reference to another Lang variable.

       "LangResultSave"
	   ????

       "LangCallback"
	   "LangCallback*" a substitute for a "char *" that contains command to call. The
	   corresponding config type is "TK_CONFIG_CALLBACK".

       "LangFreeProc"
	   It is the type that the "Lang_SplitList" sets. Before you call it, declare

	       Args *args;
	       LangFreeProc *freeProc = NULL;
	       ...
	       code = Lang_SplitList(interp, value,
		   &argc, &args, &freeProc);

	   After you use the split values, call

	       if (args != NULL && freeProc) (*freeProc)(argc,args);

	   It is not guaranteed that the "args" can survive deletion of "value".

   Conversion
       The following macros and functions are used for conversion between strings and the
       additional types:

	LangCallback * LangMakeCallback(Tcl_Obj *)
	Tcl_Obj * LangCallbackArg(LangCallback *)
	char * LangString(Tcl_Obj *)

       After you use the result of LangCallbackArg(), you should free it with "freeProc"
       "LANG_DYNAMIC" (it is not guaranteed that any change of "Tcl_Obj *" will not be reflected
       in <LangCallback>, so you cannot do LangSet...() in between, and you should reset it to
       "NULL" if you want to do any further assignments to this "Tcl_Obj *").

       The following function returns the "Tcl_Obj *" that is a reference to "Var":

	Tcl_Obj * LangVarArg(Var)

       ???? It is very anti-intuitive, I hope the name is changed.

	int LangCmpCallback(LangCallback *a,Tcl_Obj * b)

       (currently only a stub), and, at last,

	LangCallback * LangCopyCallback(LangCallback *)

   Callbacks
       Above we have seen the new datatype "LangCallback" and the corresponding Config option
       "TK_CONFIG_CALLBACK". The following functions are provided for manipulation of
       "LangCallback"s:

	void LangFreeCallback(LangCallback *)
	int LangDoCallback(Tcl_Interp *,LangCallback *,
	       int result,int argc, char *format,...)

       The argument "format" of "LangDoCallback" should contain a string that is suitable for
       "sprintf" with optional arguments of "LangDoCallback".  "result" should be false if result
       of callback is not needed.

	int LangMethodCall(Tcl_Interp *,Tcl_Obj *,char *method,
	       int result,int argc,...)

       ????

       Conceptually, "LangCallback*" is a substitute for ubiquitous "char *" in TCL. So you
       should use "LangFreeCallback" instead of "ckfree" or "free" if appropriate.

   Setting variables
	void LangFreeArg (Tcl_Obj *, Tcl_FreeProc *freeProc)
	Tcl_Obj *  LangCopyArg (Tcl_Obj *);
	void Tcl_AppendArg (Tcl_Interp *interp, Tcl_Obj *)
	void LangSetString(Tcl_Obj * *, char *s)
	void LangSetDefault(Tcl_Obj * *, char *s)

       These two are equivalent unless s is an empty string. In this case "LangSetDefault"
       behaves like "LangSetString" with "s==NULL", i.e., it sets the current value of the Lang
       variable to be false.

	void LangSetInt(Tcl_Obj * *,int)
	void LangSetDouble(Tcl_Obj * *,double)

       The Lang functions separate uninitialized and initialized data comparing data with "NULL".
       So the declaration for an "Tcl_Obj *" should look like

	Tcl_Obj * arg = NULL;

       if you want to use this "arg" with the above functions. After you are done, you should use
       "LangFreeArg" with "TCL_DYNAMIC" as "freeProc".

   Language functions
       Use

       "int  LangNull(Tcl_Obj *)"
	   to check that an object is false;

       "int  LangStringMatch(char *string, Tcl_Obj * match)"
	   ????

       "void LangExit(int)"
	   to make a proper shutdown;

       "int LangEval(Tcl_Interp *interp, char *cmd, int global)"
	   to call Lang "eval";

       "void Lang_SetErrorCode(Tcl_Interp *interp,char *code)"
       "char *Lang_GetErrorCode(Tcl_Interp *interp)"
       "char *Lang_GetErrorInfo(Tcl_Interp *interp)"
       "void LangCloseHandler(Tcl_Interp *interp,Tcl_Obj * arg,FILE *f,Lang_FileCloseProc *proc)"
	   currently stubs only;

       "int LangSaveVar(Tcl_Interp *,Tcl_Obj * arg,Var *varPtr,int type)"
	   to save the structure "arg" into Lang variable *varPtr;

       "void LangFreeVar(Var var)"
	   to free the result;

       "int LangEventCallback(Tcl_Interp *,LangCallback *,XEvent *,KeySym)"
	   ????

       "int LangEventHook(int flags)"
       "void LangBadFile(int fd)"
       "int LangCmpConfig(char *spec, char *arg, size_t length)"
	   unsupported????;

       "void Tcl_AppendArg (Tcl_Interp *interp, Tcl_Obj *)"

       Another useful construction is

	Tcl_Obj * variable = LangFindVar(interp, Tk_Window tkwin, char *name);

       After using the above function, you should call

	LangFreeVar(Var variable);

       ???? Note discrepancy in types!

       If you want to find the value of a variable (of type "Tcl_Obj *") given the variable name,
       use "Tcl_GetVar(interp, varName, flags)". If you are interested in the string value of
       this variable, use "LangString(Tcl_GetVar(...))".

       To get a C array of "Tcl_Obj *" of length "n", use

	   Tcl_Obj * *args = LangAllocVec(n);
	   ...
	   LangFreeVec(n,args);

       You can set the values of the "Tcl_Obj *"s using "LangSet..." functions, and get string
       value using "LangString".

       If you want to merge an array of "Tcl_Obj *"s into one "Tcl_Obj *" (that will be an array
       variable), use

	   result = Tcl_Merge(listLength, list);

   Translation of some TCL functions
       We mark items that can be dealt with by "munge" by Autoconverted.

       "Tcl_AppendResult"
	   does not take "(char*)NULL", but "NULL" as delimiter. Autoconverted.

       "Tcl_CreateCommand", "Tcl_DeleteCommand"
	   "Tk_CreateWidget", "Tk_DeleteWidget", the second argument is the window itself, not
	   the pathname. Autoconverted.

       "sprintf(interp->result, "%d %d %d %d",...)"
	   "Tcl_IntResults(interp,4,0,...)". Autoconverted.

       "interp->result = "1";"
	   "Tcl_SetResult(interp,"1", TCL_STATIC)". Autoconverted.

       Reading "interp->result"
	   "Tcl_GetResult(interp)". Autoconverted.

       "interp->result = Tk_PathName(textPtr->tkwin);"
	   "Tk_WidgetResult(interp,textPtr->tkwin)". Autoconverted.

       Sequence "Tcl_PrintDouble, Tcl_PrintDouble, ..., Tcl_AppendResult"
	   Use a single command

	    void Tcl_DoubleResults(Tcl_Interp *interp, int append,
		   int argc,...);

	   "append" governs whether it is required to clear the result first.

	   A similar command for "int" arguments is "Tcl_IntResults".

       "Tcl_SplitList"
	   Use "Lang_SplitList" (see the description above).

Translation back to TCL
       To use your portableTk program with TCL, put

	#include "ptcl.h"

       before inclusion of "tk.h", and link the resulting code with "ptclGlue.c".

       These files currently implement the following:

       Additional config types:
	    TK_CONFIG_CALLBACK
	    TK_CONFIG_LANGARG
	    TK_CONFIG_SCALARVAR
	    TK_CONFIG_HASHVAR
	    TK_CONFIG_ARRAYVAR
	    TK_CONFIG_IMAGE

       Types:
	    Var, Tcl_Obj *, LangCallback, LangFreeProc.

       Functions and macros:
	    Lang_SplitList, LangString, LangSetString, LangSetDefault,
	    LangSetInt, LangSetDouble Tcl_ArgResult, LangCallbackArg,
	    LangSaveVar, LangFreeVar,
	    LangFreeSplitProc, LangFreeArg, Tcl_DoubleResults, Tcl_IntResults,
	    LangDoCallback, Tk_WidgetResult, Tcl_CreateCommand,
	    Tcl_DeleteCommand, Tcl_GetResult.

       Current implementation contains enough to make it possible to compile "mTk/tkText*.[ch]"
       with the virgin Tk.

   New types of events ????
       PortableTk defines following new types of events:

	TK_EVENTTYPE_NONE
	TK_EVENTTYPE_STRING
	TK_EVENTTYPE_NUMBER
	TK_EVENTTYPE_WINDOW
	TK_EVENTTYPE_ATOM
	TK_EVENTTYPE_DISPLAY
	TK_EVENTTYPE_DATA

       and a function

	char * Tk_EventInfo(int letter,
		   Tk_Window tkwin, XEvent *eventPtr,
		   KeySym keySym, int *numPtr, int *isNum, int *type,
		   int num_size, char *numStorage)

Checking for trouble
       If you start with working TCL code, you can start convertion using the above hints. Good
       indication that you are doing is OK is absence of "sprintf" and "sscanf" in your code (at
       least in the part that is working with interpreter).

Additional API
       What is described here is not included into base portableTk distribution. Currently it is
       coded in TCL and as Perl macros (core is coded as functions, so theoretically you can use
       the same object files with different interpreted languages).

   "ListFactory"
       Dynamic arrays in TCL are used for two different purposes: to construct strings, and to
       construct lists. These two usages will have separate interfaces in other languages (since
       list is a different type from a string), so you should use a different interface in your
       code.

       The type for construction of dynamic lists is "ListFactory". The API below is a
       counterpart of the API for construction of dynamic lists in TCL:

	void ListFactoryInit(ListFactory *)
	void ListFactoryFinish(ListFactory *)
	void ListFactoryFree(ListFactory *)
	Tcl_Obj * * ListFactoryArg(ListFactory *)
	void ListFactoryAppend(ListFactory *, Tcl_Obj * *arg)
	void ListFactoryAppendCopy(ListFactory *, Tcl_Obj * *arg)
	ListFactory * ListFactoryNewLevel(ListFactory *)
	ListFactory * ListFactoryEndLevel(ListFactory *)
	void ListFactoryResult(Tcl_Interp *, ListFactory *)

       The difference is that a call to "ListFactoryFinish" should precede the actual usage of
       the value of "ListFactory", and there are two different ways to append an "Tcl_Obj *" to a
       "ListFactory": ListFactoryAppendCopy() guarantees that the value of "arg" is copied to the
       list, but ListFactoryAppend() may append to the list a reference to the current value of
       "arg". If you are not going to change the value of "arg" after appending, the call to
       ListFactoryAppend may be quicker.

       As in TCL, the call to ListFactoryFree() does not free the "ListFactory", only the objects
       it references.

       The functions ListFactoryNewLevel() and ListFactoryEndLevel() return a pointer to a
       "ListFactory" to fill. The argument of ListFactoryEndLevel() cannot be used after a call
       to this function.

   DStrings
       Production of strings are still supported in portableTk.

   Accessing "Tcl_Obj *"s
       The following functions for getting a value of an "Tcl_Obj *" may be provided:

	double LangDouble(Tcl_Obj *)
	int LangInt(Tcl_Obj *)
	long LangLong(Tcl_Obj *)
	int LangIsList(Tcl_Obj * arg)

       The function LangIsList() is supported only partially under TCL, since there is no data
       types. It checks whether there is a space inside the string "arg".

   Assigning numbers to "Tcl_Obj *"s
       While LangSetDouble() and LangSetInt() are supported ways to assign numbers to assign an
       integer value to a variable, for the sake of efficiency under TCL it is supposed that the
       destination of these commands was massaged before the call so it contains a long enough
       string to sprintf() the numbers inside it. If you are going to immediately use the
       resulting "Tcl_Obj *", the best way to do this is to declare a buffer in the beginning of
       a block by

	  dArgBuffer;

       and assign this buffer to the "Tcl_Obj *" by

	  void LangSetDefaultBuffer(Tcl_Obj * *)

       You can also create the buffer(s) manually and assign them using

	  void LangSetBuffer(Tcl_Obj * *, char *)

       This is the only choice if you need to assign numeric values to several "Tcl_Obj *"s
       simultaneously. The advantage of the first approach is that the above declarations can be
       made "nop"s in different languages.

       Note that if you apply "LangSetDefaultBuffer" to an "Tcl_Obj *" that contains some value,
       you can create a leak if you do not free that "Tcl_Obj *" first. This is a non-problem in
       real languages, but can be a trouble in "TCL", unless you use only the above API.

   Creating new "Tcl_Obj *"s
       The API for creating a new "Tcl_Obj *" is

	void LangNewArg(Tcl_Obj * *, LangFreeProc *)

       The API for creating a new "Tcl_Obj *" is absent. Just initialize "Tcl_Obj *" to be
       "NULL", and apply one of "LangSet..." methods.

       After you use this "Tcl_Obj *", it should be freed thusly:

       "LangFreeArg(arg, freeProc)".

   Evaluating a list
       Use

	int LangArgEval(Tcl_Interp *, Tcl_Obj * arg)

       Here "arg" should be a list to evaluate, in particular, the first element should be a
       "LangCallback" massaged to be an "Tcl_Obj *". The arguments can be send to the subroutine
       by reference or by value in different languages.

   Getting result as "Tcl_Obj *"
       Use "Tcl_ArgResult". It is not guaranteed that result survives this operation, so the
       "Tcl_Obj *" you get should be the only mean to access the data from this moment on. After
       you use this "Tcl_Obj *", you should free it with "freeProc" "LANG_DYNAMIC" (you can do
       LangSet...() in between).

perl v5.16.3				    2014-06-10					   pTk(3)
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