Entry(3) User Contributed Perl Documentation Entry(3)
Tk::Entry - Create and manipulate Entry widgets
$entry = $parent->Entry(?options?);
-background -highlightbackground -insertontime -selectforeground
-borderwidth -highlightcolor -insertwidth -takefocus
-cursor -highlightthickness -justify -textvariable
-exportselection -insertbackground -relief -xscrollcommand
-font -insertborderwidth -selectbackground
-foreground -insertofftime -selectborderwidth
Command-Line Name: -disabledbackground
Database Name: disabledBackground
Database Class: DisabledBackground
Specifies the background color to use when the entry is disabled. If this option is
the empty string, the normal background color is used.
Command-Line Name: -disabledforeground
Database Name: disabledForeground
Database Class: DisabledForeground
Specifies the foreground color to use when the entry is disabled. If this option is
the empty string, the normal foreground color is used.
Specifies a script to eval when validateCommand returns 0. Setting it to <undef>
disables this feature (the default). The best use of this option is to set it to
bell. See Validation below for more information.
Command-Line Name: -readonlybackground
Database Name: readonlyBackground
Database Class: ReadonlyBackground
Specifies the background color to use when the entry is read-only. If this option is
the empty string, the normal background color is used.
If this option is specified, then the true contents of the entry are not displayed in
the window. Instead, each character in the entry's value will be displayed as the
first character in the value of this option, such as ``*''. This is useful, for
example, if the entry is to be used to enter a password. If characters in the entry
are selected and copied elsewhere, the information copied will be what is displayed,
not the true contents of the entry.
Specifies one of three states for the entry: normal, disabled, or readonly. If the
entry is readonly, then the value may not be changed using widget commands and no
insertion cursor will be displayed, even if the input focus is in the widget; the
contents of the widget may still be selected. If the entry is disabled, the value may
not be changed, no insertion cursor will be displayed, the contents will not be
selectable, and the entry may be displayed in a different color, depending on the
values of the -disabledforeground and -disabledbackground options.
Specifies the mode in which validation should operate: none, focus, focusin, focusout,
key, or all. It defaults to none. When you want validation, you must explicitly
state which mode you wish to use. See Validation below for more.
Specifies a script to eval when you want to validate the input into the entry widget.
Setting it to "undef" disables this feature (the default). This command must return a
valid boolean value. If it returns 0 (or the valid boolean equivalent) then it means
you reject the new edition and it will not occur and the invalidCommand will be
evaluated if it is set. If it returns 1, then the new edition occurs. See Validation
below for more information.
Specifies an integer value indicating the desired width of the entry window, in
average-size characters of the widget's font. If the value is less than or equal to
zero, the widget picks a size just large enough to hold its current text.
The Entry method creates a new window (given by the $entry argument) and makes it into an
entry widget. Additional options, described above, may be specified on the command line
or in the option database to configure aspects of the entry such as its colors, font, and
relief. The entry command returns its $entry argument. At the time this command is
invoked, there must not exist a window named $entry, but $entry's parent must exist.
An entry is a widget that displays a one-line text string and allows that string to be
edited using methods described below, which are typically bound to keystrokes and mouse
actions. When first created, an entry's string is empty. A portion of the entry may be
selected as described below. If an entry is exporting its selection (see the
exportSelection option), then it will observe the standard X11 protocols for handling the
selection; entry selections are available as type STRING. Entries also observe the
standard Tk rules for dealing with the input focus. When an entry has the input focus it
displays an insertion cursor to indicate where new characters will be inserted.
Entries are capable of displaying strings that are too long to fit entirely within the
widget's window. In this case, only a portion of the string will be displayed; methods
described below may be used to change the view in the window. Entries use the standard
xScrollCommand mechanism for interacting with scrollbars (see the description of the
-xscrollcommand option for details). They also support scanning, as described below.
Validation of entry widgets is derived from part of the patch written by
email@example.com. This works by setting the validateCommand option to a callback
which will be evaluated according to the validate option as follows:
Default. This means no validation will occur.
validateCommand will be called when the entry receives or loses focus.
validateCommand will be called when the entry receives focus.
validateCommand will be called when the entry loses focus.
key validateCommand will be called when the entry is edited.
all validateCommand will be called for all above conditions.
The validateCommand and invalidCommand are called with the following arguments:
o The proposed value of the entry. If you are configuring the entry widget to have a
new textvariable, this will be the value of that textvariable.
o The characters to be added (or deleted). This will be "undef" if validation is due to
focus, explcit call to validate or if change is due to "-textvariable" changing.
o The current value of entry i.e. before the proposed change.
o index of char string to be added/deleted, if any. -1 otherwise
o type of action. 1 == INSERT, 0 == DELETE, -1 if it's a forced validation or
In general, the textVariable and validateCommand can be dangerous to mix. If you try set
the textVariable to something that the validateCommand will not accept it will be set back
to the value of the entry widget. Using the textVariable for read-only purposes will
never cause problems.
The validateCommand will turn itself off by setting validate to none when an error occurs,
for example when the validateCommand or invalidCommand encounters an error in its script
while evaluating, or validateCommand does not return a valid boolean value.
With the perl/Tk version validate option is supposed to be "suspended" while executing the
validateCommand or the invalidCommand. This is experimental but in theory either callback
can "correct" the value of the widget, and override the proposed change. (validateCommand
should still return false to inhibit the change from happening when it returns.)
The Entry method creates a widget object. This object supports the configure and cget
methods described in Tk::options which can be used to enquire and modify the options
described above. The widget also inherits all the methods provided by the generic
Many of the additional methods for entries take one or more indices as arguments. An
index specifies a particular character in the entry's string, in any of the following
Specifies the character as a numerical index, where 0 corresponds to the first
character in the string.
Indicates the anchor point for the selection, which is set with the selectionFrom and
end Indicates the character just after the last one in the entry's string. This is
equivalent to specifying a numerical index equal to the length of the entry's string.
Indicates the character adjacent to and immediately following the insertion cursor.
Indicates the first character in the selection. It is an error to use this form if
the selection isn't in the entry window.
Indicates the character just after the last one in the selection. It is an error to
use this form if the selection isn't in the entry window.
In this form, number is treated as an x-coordinate in the entry's window; the
character spanning that x-coordinate is used. For example, ``@0'' indicates the left-
most character in the window.
Abbreviations may be used for any of the forms above, e.g. ``e'' or ``sel.f''. In
general, out-of-range indices are automatically rounded to the nearest legal value.
The following additional methods are available for entry widgets:
Returns a list of four numbers describing the bounding box of the character given by
index. The first two elements of the list give the x and y coordinates of the upper-
left corner of the screen area covered by the character (in pixels relative to the
widget) and the last two elements give the width and height of the character, in
pixels. The bounding box may refer to a region outside the visible area of the
Returns the current value of the configuration option given by option. Option may
have any of the values accepted by the entry command.
$entry->configure(?option?, ?value, option, value, ...?)
Query or modify the configuration options of the widget. If no option is specified,
returns a list describing all of the available options for $entry (see Tk::configure
for information on the format of this list). If option is specified with no value,
then the command returns a list describing the one named option (this list will be
identical to the corresponding sublist of the value returned if no option is
specified). If one or more option-value pairs are specified, then the command
modifies the given widget option(s) to have the given value(s); in this case the
command returns an empty string. Option may have any of the values accepted by the
Delete one or more elements of the entry. First is the index of the first character
to delete, and last is the index of the character just after the last one to delete.
If last isn't specified it defaults to first+1, i.e. a single character is deleted.
This method returns an empty string.
Returns the entry's string.
Arrange for the insertion cursor to be displayed just before the character given by
index. Returns an empty string.
Returns the numerical index corresponding to index.
Insert the characters of string just before the character indicated by index. Returns
an empty string.
This method is used to implement scanning on entries. It has two forms, depending on
Records x and the current view in the entry widget; used in conjunction with
later scanDragto methods. Typically this method is associated with a mouse
button press in the widget. It returns an empty string.
This method computes the difference between its x argument and the x argument
to the last scanMark method for the widget. It then adjusts the view left or
right by 10 times the difference in x-coordinates. This method is typically
associated with mouse motion events in the widget, to produce the effect of
dragging the entry at high speed through the widget. The return value is an
This method is used to adjust the selection within an entry. It has several forms,
depending on Option:
Locate the end of the selection nearest to the character given by index, and
adjust that end of the selection to be at index (i.e including but not going
beyond index). The other end of the selection is made the anchor point for
future selectionTo methods. If the selection isn't currently in the entry,
then a new selection is created to include the characters between index and
the most recent selection anchor point, inclusive. Returns an empty string.
Clear the selection if it is currently in this widget. If the selection isn't
in this widget then the method has no effect. Returns an empty string.
Set the selection anchor point to just before the character given by index.
Doesn't change the selection. Returns an empty string.
Returns 1 if there is are characters selected in the entry, 0 if nothing is
Sets the selection to include the characters starting with the one indexed by
start and ending with the one just before end. If end refers to the same
character as start or an earlier one, then the entry's selection is cleared.
If index is before the anchor point, set the selection to the characters from
index up to but not including the anchor point. If index is the same as the
anchor point, do nothing. If index is after the anchor point, set the
selection to the characters from the anchor point up to but not including
index. The anchor point is determined by the most recent selectionFrom or
selectionAdjust method in this widget. If the selection isn't in this widget
then a new selection is created using the most recent anchor point specified
for the widget. Returns an empty string.
This command is used to force an evaluation of the validateCommand independent of the
conditions specified by the validate option. It returns 0 or 1.
This command is used to query and change the horizontal position of the text in the
widget's window. It can take any of the following forms:
Returns a list containing two elements. Each element is a real fraction
between 0 and 1; together they describe the horizontal span that is visible
in the window. For example, if the first element is .2 and the second element
is .7, 20% of the entry's text is off-screen to the left, the middle 50% is
visible in the window, and 30% of the text is off-screen to the right. These
are the same values passed to scrollbars via the -xscrollcommand option.
Adjusts the view in the window so that the character given by index is
displayed at the left edge of the window.
Adjusts the view in the window so that the character fraction of the way
through the text appears at the left edge of the window. Fraction must be a
fraction between 0 and 1.
This method shifts the view in the window left or right according to number
and what. Number must be an integer. What must be either units or pages or
an abbreviation of one of these. If what is units, the view adjusts left or
right by number average-width characters on the display; if it is pages then
the view adjusts by number screenfuls. If number is negative then characters
farther to the left become visible; if it is positive then characters farther
to the right become visible.
Tk automatically creates class bindings for entries that give them the following default
behavior. In the descriptions below, ``word'' refers to a contiguous group of letters,
digits, or ``_'' characters, or any single character other than these.
 Clicking mouse button 1 positions the insertion cursor just before the character
underneath the mouse cursor, sets the input focus to this widget, and clears any
selection in the widget. Dragging with mouse button 1 strokes out a selection between
the insertion cursor and the character under the mouse.
 Double-clicking with mouse button 1 selects the word under the mouse and positions the
insertion cursor at the beginning of the word. Dragging after a double click will
stroke out a selection consisting of whole words.
 Triple-clicking with mouse button 1 selects all of the text in the entry and positions
the insertion cursor before the first character.
 The ends of the selection can be adjusted by dragging with mouse button 1 while the
Shift key is down; this will adjust the end of the selection that was nearest to the
mouse cursor when button 1 was pressed. If the button is double-clicked before
dragging then the selection will be adjusted in units of whole words.
 Clicking mouse button 1 with the Control key down will position the insertion cursor
in the entry without affecting the selection.
 If any normal printing characters are typed in an entry, they are inserted at the
point of the insertion cursor.
 The view in the entry can be adjusted by dragging with mouse button 2. If mouse
button 2 is clicked without moving the mouse, the selection is copied into the entry
at the position of the mouse cursor.
 If the mouse is dragged out of the entry on the left or right sides while button 1 is
pressed, the entry will automatically scroll to make more text visible (if there is
more text off-screen on the side where the mouse left the window).
 The Left and Right keys move the insertion cursor one character to the left or right;
they also clear any selection in the entry and set the selection anchor. If Left or
Right is typed with the Shift key down, then the insertion cursor moves and the
selection is extended to include the new character. Control-Left and Control-Right
move the insertion cursor by words, and Control-Shift-Left and Control-Shift-Right
move the insertion cursor by words and also extend the selection. Control-b and
Control-f behave the same as Left and Right, respectively. Meta-b and Meta-f behave
the same as Control-Left and Control-Right, respectively.
The Home key, or Control-a, will move the insertion cursor to the beginning of the
entry and clear any selection in the entry. Shift-Home moves the insertion cursor to
the beginning of the entry and also extends the selection to that point.
The End key, or Control-e, will move the insertion cursor to the end of the entry and
clear any selection in the entry. Shift-End moves the cursor to the end and extends
the selection to that point.
The Select key and Control-Space set the selection anchor to the position of the
insertion cursor. They don't affect the current selection. Shift-Select and Control-
Shift-Space adjust the selection to the current position of the insertion cursor,
selecting from the anchor to the insertion cursor if there was not any selection
Control-/ selects all the text in the entry.
Control-\ clears any selection in the entry.
The F16 key (labelled Copy on many Sun workstations) or Meta-w copies the selection in
the widget to the clipboard, if there is a selection.
The F20 key (labelled Cut on many Sun workstations) or Control-w copies the selection
in the widget to the clipboard and deletes the selection. If there is no selection in
the widget then these keys have no effect.
The F18 key (labelled Paste on many Sun workstations) or Control-y inserts the
contents of the clipboard at the position of the insertion cursor.
The Delete key deletes the selection, if there is one in the entry. If there is no
selection, it deletes the character to the right of the insertion cursor.
The BackSpace key and Control-h delete the selection, if there is one in the entry.
If there is no selection, it deletes the character to the left of the insertion
Control-d deletes the character to the right of the insertion cursor.
Meta-d deletes the word to the right of the insertion cursor.
Control-k deletes all the characters to the right of the insertion cursor.
Control-t reverses the order of the two characters to the right of the insertion
If the entry is disabled using the -state option, then the entry's view can still be
adjusted and text in the entry can still be selected, but no insertion cursor will be
displayed and no text modifications will take place.
The behavior of entries can be changed by defining new bindings for individual widgets
or by redefining the class bindings.
perl v5.16.3 2014-06-10 Entry(3)