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CentOS 7.0 - man page for test::more (centos section 3)

Test::More(3)		       User Contributed Perl Documentation		    Test::More(3)

NAME
       Test::More - yet another framework for writing test scripts

SYNOPSIS
	 use Test::More tests => 23;
	 # or
	 use Test::More skip_all => $reason;
	 # or
	 use Test::More;   # see done_testing()

	 BEGIN { use_ok( 'Some::Module' ); }
	 require_ok( 'Some::Module' );

	 # Various ways to say "ok"
	 ok($got eq $expected, $test_name);

	 is  ($got, $expected, $test_name);
	 isnt($got, $expected, $test_name);

	 # Rather than print STDERR "# here's what went wrong\n"
	 diag("here's what went wrong");

	 like  ($got, qr/expected/, $test_name);
	 unlike($got, qr/expected/, $test_name);

	 cmp_ok($got, '==', $expected, $test_name);

	 is_deeply($got_complex_structure, $expected_complex_structure, $test_name);

	 SKIP: {
	     skip $why, $how_many unless $have_some_feature;

	     ok( foo(),       $test_name );
	     is( foo(42), 23, $test_name );
	 };

	 TODO: {
	     local $TODO = $why;

	     ok( foo(),       $test_name );
	     is( foo(42), 23, $test_name );
	 };

	 can_ok($module, @methods);
	 isa_ok($object, $class);

	 pass($test_name);
	 fail($test_name);

	 BAIL_OUT($why);

	 # UNIMPLEMENTED!!!
	 my @status = Test::More::status;

DESCRIPTION
       STOP! If you're just getting started writing tests, have a look at Test::Simple first.
       This is a drop in replacement for Test::Simple which you can switch to once you get the
       hang of basic testing.

       The purpose of this module is to provide a wide range of testing utilities.  Various ways
       to say "ok" with better diagnostics, facilities to skip tests, test future features and
       compare complicated data structures.  While you can do almost anything with a simple
       "ok()" function, it doesn't provide good diagnostic output.

   I love it when a plan comes together
       Before anything else, you need a testing plan.  This basically declares how many tests
       your script is going to run to protect against premature failure.

       The preferred way to do this is to declare a plan when you "use Test::More".

	 use Test::More tests => 23;

       There are cases when you will not know beforehand how many tests your script is going to
       run.  In this case, you can declare your tests at the end.

	 use Test::More;

	 ... run your tests ...

	 done_testing( $number_of_tests_run );

       Sometimes you really don't know how many tests were run, or it's too difficult to
       calculate.  In which case you can leave off $number_of_tests_run.

       In some cases, you'll want to completely skip an entire testing script.

	 use Test::More skip_all => $skip_reason;

       Your script will declare a skip with the reason why you skipped and exit immediately with
       a zero (success).  See Test::Harness for details.

       If you want to control what functions Test::More will export, you have to use the 'import'
       option.	For example, to import everything but 'fail', you'd do:

	 use Test::More tests => 23, import => ['!fail'];

       Alternatively, you can use the plan() function.	Useful for when you have to calculate the
       number of tests.

	 use Test::More;
	 plan tests => keys %Stuff * 3;

       or for deciding between running the tests at all:

	 use Test::More;
	 if( $^O eq 'MacOS' ) {
	     plan skip_all => 'Test irrelevant on MacOS';
	 }
	 else {
	     plan tests => 42;
	 }

       done_testing
	       done_testing();
	       done_testing($number_of_tests);

	   If you don't know how many tests you're going to run, you can issue the plan when
	   you're done running tests.

	   $number_of_tests is the same as plan(), it's the number of tests you expected to run.
	   You can omit this, in which case the number of tests you ran doesn't matter, just the
	   fact that your tests ran to conclusion.

	   This is safer than and replaces the "no_plan" plan.

   Test names
       By convention, each test is assigned a number in order.	This is largely done
       automatically for you.  However, it's often very useful to assign a name to each test.
       Which would you rather see:

	 ok 4
	 not ok 5
	 ok 6

       or

	 ok 4 - basic multi-variable
	 not ok 5 - simple exponential
	 ok 6 - force == mass * acceleration

       The later gives you some idea of what failed.  It also makes it easier to find the test in
       your script, simply search for "simple exponential".

       All test functions take a name argument.  It's optional, but highly suggested that you use
       it.

   I'm ok, you're not ok.
       The basic purpose of this module is to print out either "ok #" or "not ok #" depending on
       if a given test succeeded or failed.  Everything else is just gravy.

       All of the following print "ok" or "not ok" depending on if the test succeeded or failed.
       They all also return true or false, respectively.

       ok
	     ok($got eq $expected, $test_name);

	   This simply evaluates any expression ("$got eq $expected" is just a simple example)
	   and uses that to determine if the test succeeded or failed.	A true expression passes,
	   a false one fails.  Very simple.

	   For example:

	       ok( $exp{9} == 81,		    'simple exponential' );
	       ok( Film->can('db_Main'),	    'set_db()' );
	       ok( $p->tests == 4,		    'saw tests' );
	       ok( !grep !defined $_, @items,	    'items populated' );

	   (Mnemonic:  "This is ok.")

	   $test_name is a very short description of the test that will be printed out.  It makes
	   it very easy to find a test in your script when it fails and gives others an idea of
	   your intentions.  $test_name is optional, but we very strongly encourage its use.

	   Should an ok() fail, it will produce some diagnostics:

	       not ok 18 - sufficient mucus
	       #   Failed test 'sufficient mucus'
	       #   in foo.t at line 42.

	   This is the same as Test::Simple's ok() routine.

       is
       isnt
	     is  ( $got, $expected, $test_name );
	     isnt( $got, $expected, $test_name );

	   Similar to ok(), is() and isnt() compare their two arguments with "eq" and "ne"
	   respectively and use the result of that to determine if the test succeeded or failed.
	   So these:

	       # Is the ultimate answer 42?
	       is( ultimate_answer(), 42,	   "Meaning of Life" );

	       # $foo isn't empty
	       isnt( $foo, '',	   "Got some foo" );

	   are similar to these:

	       ok( ultimate_answer() eq 42,	   "Meaning of Life" );
	       ok( $foo ne '',	   "Got some foo" );

	   "undef" will only ever match "undef".  So you can test a value agains "undef" like
	   this:

	       is($not_defined, undef, "undefined as expected");

	   (Mnemonic:  "This is that."	"This isn't that.")

	   So why use these?  They produce better diagnostics on failure.  ok() cannot know what
	   you are testing for (beyond the name), but is() and isnt() know what the test was and
	   why it failed.  For example this test:

	       my $foo = 'waffle';  my $bar = 'yarblokos';
	       is( $foo, $bar,	 'Is foo the same as bar?' );

	   Will produce something like this:

	       not ok 17 - Is foo the same as bar?
	       #   Failed test 'Is foo the same as bar?'
	       #   in foo.t at line 139.
	       #	  got: 'waffle'
	       #     expected: 'yarblokos'

	   So you can figure out what went wrong without rerunning the test.

	   You are encouraged to use is() and isnt() over ok() where possible, however do not be
	   tempted to use them to find out if something is true or false!

	     # XXX BAD!
	     is( exists $brooklyn{tree}, 1, 'A tree grows in Brooklyn' );

	   This does not check if "exists $brooklyn{tree}" is true, it checks if it returns 1.
	   Very different.  Similar caveats exist for false and 0.  In these cases, use ok().

	     ok( exists $brooklyn{tree},    'A tree grows in Brooklyn' );

	   A simple call to isnt() usually does not provide a strong test but there are cases
	   when you cannot say much more about a value than that it is different from some other
	   value:

	     new_ok $obj, "Foo";

	     my $clone = $obj->clone;
	     isa_ok $obj, "Foo", "Foo->clone";

	     isnt $obj, $clone, "clone() produces a different object";

	   For those grammatical pedants out there, there's an "isn't()" function which is an
	   alias of isnt().

       like
	     like( $got, qr/expected/, $test_name );

	   Similar to ok(), like() matches $got against the regex "qr/expected/".

	   So this:

	       like($got, qr/expected/, 'this is like that');

	   is similar to:

	       ok( $got =~ /expected/, 'this is like that');

	   (Mnemonic "This is like that".)

	   The second argument is a regular expression.  It may be given as a regex reference
	   (i.e. "qr//") or (for better compatibility with older perls) as a string that looks
	   like a regex (alternative delimiters are currently not supported):

	       like( $got, '/expected/', 'this is like that' );

	   Regex options may be placed on the end ('/expected/i').

	   Its advantages over ok() are similar to that of is() and isnt().  Better diagnostics
	   on failure.

       unlike
	     unlike( $got, qr/expected/, $test_name );

	   Works exactly as like(), only it checks if $got does not match the given pattern.

       cmp_ok
	     cmp_ok( $got, $op, $expected, $test_name );

	   Halfway between ok() and is() lies cmp_ok().  This allows you to compare two arguments
	   using any binary perl operator.

	       # ok( $got eq $expected );
	       cmp_ok( $got, 'eq', $expected, 'this eq that' );

	       # ok( $got == $expected );
	       cmp_ok( $got, '==', $expected, 'this == that' );

	       # ok( $got && $expected );
	       cmp_ok( $got, '&&', $expected, 'this && that' );
	       ...etc...

	   Its advantage over ok() is when the test fails you'll know what $got and $expected
	   were:

	       not ok 1
	       #   Failed test in foo.t at line 12.
	       #     '23'
	       #	 &&
	       #     undef

	   It's also useful in those cases where you are comparing numbers and is()'s use of "eq"
	   will interfere:

	       cmp_ok( $big_hairy_number, '==', $another_big_hairy_number );

	   It's especially useful when comparing greater-than or smaller-than relation between
	   values:

	       cmp_ok( $some_value, '<=', $upper_limit );

       can_ok
	     can_ok($module, @methods);
	     can_ok($object, @methods);

	   Checks to make sure the $module or $object can do these @methods (works with
	   functions, too).

	       can_ok('Foo', qw(this that whatever));

	   is almost exactly like saying:

	       ok( Foo->can('this') &&
		   Foo->can('that') &&
		   Foo->can('whatever')
		 );

	   only without all the typing and with a better interface.  Handy for quickly testing an
	   interface.

	   No matter how many @methods you check, a single can_ok() call counts as one test.  If
	   you desire otherwise, use:

	       foreach my $meth (@methods) {
		   can_ok('Foo', $meth);
	       }

       isa_ok
	     isa_ok($object,   $class, $object_name);
	     isa_ok($subclass, $class, $object_name);
	     isa_ok($ref,      $type,  $ref_name);

	   Checks to see if the given "$object->isa($class)".  Also checks to make sure the
	   object was defined in the first place.  Handy for this sort of thing:

	       my $obj = Some::Module->new;
	       isa_ok( $obj, 'Some::Module' );

	   where you'd otherwise have to write

	       my $obj = Some::Module->new;
	       ok( defined $obj && $obj->isa('Some::Module') );

	   to safeguard against your test script blowing up.

	   You can also test a class, to make sure that it has the right ancestor:

	       isa_ok( 'Vole', 'Rodent' );

	   It works on references, too:

	       isa_ok( $array_ref, 'ARRAY' );

	   The diagnostics of this test normally just refer to 'the object'.  If you'd like them
	   to be more specific, you can supply an $object_name (for example 'Test customer').

       new_ok
	     my $obj = new_ok( $class );
	     my $obj = new_ok( $class => \@args );
	     my $obj = new_ok( $class => \@args, $object_name );

	   A convenience function which combines creating an object and calling isa_ok() on that
	   object.

	   It is basically equivalent to:

	       my $obj = $class->new(@args);
	       isa_ok $obj, $class, $object_name;

	   If @args is not given, an empty list will be used.

	   This function only works on new() and it assumes new() will return just a single
	   object which isa $class.

       subtest
	       subtest $name => \&code;

	   subtest() runs the &code as its own little test with its own plan and its own result.
	   The main test counts this as a single test using the result of the whole subtest to
	   determine if its ok or not ok.

	   For example...

	     use Test::More tests => 3;

	     pass("First test");

	     subtest 'An example subtest' => sub {
		 plan tests => 2;

		 pass("This is a subtest");
		 pass("So is this");
	     };

	     pass("Third test");

	   This would produce.

	     1..3
	     ok 1 - First test
		 1..2
		 ok 1 - This is a subtest
		 ok 2 - So is this
	     ok 2 - An example subtest
	     ok 3 - Third test

	   A subtest may call "skip_all".  No tests will be run, but the subtest is considered a
	   skip.

	     subtest 'skippy' => sub {
		 plan skip_all => 'cuz I said so';
		 pass('this test will never be run');
	     };

	   Returns true if the subtest passed, false otherwise.

	   Due to how subtests work, you may omit a plan if you desire.  This adds an implicit
	   "done_testing()" to the end of your subtest.  The following two subtests are
	   equivalent:

	     subtest 'subtest with implicit done_testing()', sub {
		 ok 1, 'subtests with an implicit done testing should work';
		 ok 1, '... and support more than one test';
		 ok 1, '... no matter how many tests are run';
	     };

	     subtest 'subtest with explicit done_testing()', sub {
		 ok 1, 'subtests with an explicit done testing should work';
		 ok 1, '... and support more than one test';
		 ok 1, '... no matter how many tests are run';
		 done_testing();
	     };

       pass
       fail
	     pass($test_name);
	     fail($test_name);

	   Sometimes you just want to say that the tests have passed.  Usually the case is you've
	   got some complicated condition that is difficult to wedge into an ok().  In this case,
	   you can simply use pass() (to declare the test ok) or fail (for not ok).  They are
	   synonyms for ok(1) and ok(0).

	   Use these very, very, very sparingly.

   Module tests
       You usually want to test if the module you're testing loads ok, rather than just vomiting
       if its load fails.  For such purposes we have "use_ok" and "require_ok".

       use_ok
	      BEGIN { use_ok($module); }
	      BEGIN { use_ok($module, @imports); }

	   These simply use the given $module and test to make sure the load happened ok.  It's
	   recommended that you run use_ok() inside a BEGIN block so its functions are exported
	   at compile-time and prototypes are properly honored.

	   If @imports are given, they are passed through to the use.  So this:

	      BEGIN { use_ok('Some::Module', qw(foo bar)) }

	   is like doing this:

	      use Some::Module qw(foo bar);

	   Version numbers can be checked like so:

	      # Just like "use Some::Module 1.02"
	      BEGIN { use_ok('Some::Module', 1.02) }

	   Don't try to do this:

	      BEGIN {
		  use_ok('Some::Module');

		  ...some code that depends on the use...
		  ...happening at compile time...
	      }

	   because the notion of "compile-time" is relative.  Instead, you want:

	     BEGIN { use_ok('Some::Module') }
	     BEGIN { ...some code that depends on the use... }

	   If you want the equivalent of "use Foo ()", use a module but not import anything, use
	   "require_ok".

	     BEGIN { require_ok "Foo" }

       require_ok
	      require_ok($module);
	      require_ok($file);

	   Like use_ok(), except it requires the $module or $file.

   Complex data structures
       Not everything is a simple eq check or regex.  There are times you need to see if two data
       structures are equivalent.  For these instances Test::More provides a handful of useful
       functions.

       NOTE I'm not quite sure what will happen with filehandles.

       is_deeply
	     is_deeply( $got, $expected, $test_name );

	   Similar to is(), except that if $got and $expected are references, it does a deep
	   comparison walking each data structure to see if they are equivalent.  If the two
	   structures are different, it will display the place where they start differing.

	   is_deeply() compares the dereferenced values of references, the references themselves
	   (except for their type) are ignored.  This means aspects such as blessing and ties are
	   not considered "different".

	   is_deeply() currently has very limited handling of function reference and globs.  It
	   merely checks if they have the same referent.  This may improve in the future.

	   Test::Differences and Test::Deep provide more in-depth functionality along these
	   lines.

   Diagnostics
       If you pick the right test function, you'll usually get a good idea of what went wrong
       when it failed.	But sometimes it doesn't work out that way.  So here we have ways for you
       to write your own diagnostic messages which are safer than just "print STDERR".

       diag
	     diag(@diagnostic_message);

	   Prints a diagnostic message which is guaranteed not to interfere with test output.
	   Like "print" @diagnostic_message is simply concatenated together.

	   Returns false, so as to preserve failure.

	   Handy for this sort of thing:

	       ok( grep(/foo/, @users), "There's a foo user" ) or
		   diag("Since there's no foo, check that /etc/bar is set up right");

	   which would produce:

	       not ok 42 - There's a foo user
	       #   Failed test 'There's a foo user'
	       #   in foo.t at line 52.
	       # Since there's no foo, check that /etc/bar is set up right.

	   You might remember "ok() or diag()" with the mnemonic "open() or die()".

	   NOTE The exact formatting of the diagnostic output is still changing, but it is
	   guaranteed that whatever you throw at it it won't interfere with the test.

       note
	     note(@diagnostic_message);

	   Like diag(), except the message will not be seen when the test is run in a harness.
	   It will only be visible in the verbose TAP stream.

	   Handy for putting in notes which might be useful for debugging, but don't indicate a
	   problem.

	       note("Tempfile is $tempfile");

       explain
	     my @dump = explain @diagnostic_message;

	   Will dump the contents of any references in a human readable format.  Usually you want
	   to pass this into "note" or "diag".

	   Handy for things like...

	       is_deeply($have, $want) || diag explain $have;

	   or

	       note explain \%args;
	       Some::Class->method(%args);

   Conditional tests
       Sometimes running a test under certain conditions will cause the test script to die.  A
       certain function or method isn't implemented (such as fork() on MacOS), some resource
       isn't available (like a net connection) or a module isn't available.  In these cases it's
       necessary to skip tests, or declare that they are supposed to fail but will work in the
       future (a todo test).

       For more details on the mechanics of skip and todo tests see Test::Harness.

       The way Test::More handles this is with a named block.  Basically, a block of tests which
       can be skipped over or made todo.  It's best if I just show you...

       SKIP: BLOCK
	     SKIP: {
		 skip $why, $how_many if $condition;

		 ...normal testing code goes here...
	     }

	   This declares a block of tests that might be skipped, $how_many tests there are, $why
	   and under what $condition to skip them.  An example is the easiest way to illustrate:

	       SKIP: {
		   eval { require HTML::Lint };

		   skip "HTML::Lint not installed", 2 if $@;

		   my $lint = new HTML::Lint;
		   isa_ok( $lint, "HTML::Lint" );

		   $lint->parse( $html );
		   is( $lint->errors, 0, "No errors found in HTML" );
	       }

	   If the user does not have HTML::Lint installed, the whole block of code won't be run
	   at all.  Test::More will output special ok's which Test::Harness interprets as
	   skipped, but passing, tests.

	   It's important that $how_many accurately reflects the number of tests in the SKIP
	   block so the # of tests run will match up with your plan.  If your plan is "no_plan"
	   $how_many is optional and will default to 1.

	   It's perfectly safe to nest SKIP blocks.  Each SKIP block must have the label "SKIP",
	   or Test::More can't work its magic.

	   You don't skip tests which are failing because there's a bug in your program, or for
	   which you don't yet have code written.  For that you use TODO.  Read on.

       TODO: BLOCK
	       TODO: {
		   local $TODO = $why if $condition;

		   ...normal testing code goes here...
	       }

	   Declares a block of tests you expect to fail and $why.  Perhaps it's because you
	   haven't fixed a bug or haven't finished a new feature:

	       TODO: {
		   local $TODO = "URI::Geller not finished";

		   my $card = "Eight of clubs";
		   is( URI::Geller->your_card, $card, 'Is THIS your card?' );

		   my $spoon;
		   URI::Geller->bend_spoon;
		   is( $spoon, 'bent',	  "Spoon bending, that's original" );
	       }

	   With a todo block, the tests inside are expected to fail.  Test::More will run the
	   tests normally, but print out special flags indicating they are "todo".  Test::Harness
	   will interpret failures as being ok.  Should anything succeed, it will report it as an
	   unexpected success.	You then know the thing you had todo is done and can remove the
	   TODO flag.

	   The nice part about todo tests, as opposed to simply commenting out a block of tests,
	   is it's like having a programmatic todo list.  You know how much work is left to be
	   done, you're aware of what bugs there are, and you'll know immediately when they're
	   fixed.

	   Once a todo test starts succeeding, simply move it outside the block.  When the block
	   is empty, delete it.

       todo_skip
	       TODO: {
		   todo_skip $why, $how_many if $condition;

		   ...normal testing code...
	       }

	   With todo tests, it's best to have the tests actually run.  That way you'll know when
	   they start passing.	Sometimes this isn't possible.	Often a failing test will cause
	   the whole program to die or hang, even inside an "eval BLOCK" with and using "alarm".
	   In these extreme cases you have no choice but to skip over the broken tests entirely.

	   The syntax and behavior is similar to a "SKIP: BLOCK" except the tests will be marked
	   as failing but todo.  Test::Harness will interpret them as passing.

       When do I use SKIP vs. TODO?
	   If it's something the user might not be able to do, use SKIP.  This includes optional
	   modules that aren't installed, running under an OS that doesn't have some feature
	   (like fork() or symlinks), or maybe you need an Internet connection and one isn't
	   available.

	   If it's something the programmer hasn't done yet, use TODO.	This is for any code you
	   haven't written yet, or bugs you have yet to fix, but want to put tests in your
	   testing script (always a good idea).

   Test control
       BAIL_OUT
	       BAIL_OUT($reason);

	   Indicates to the harness that things are going so badly all testing should terminate.
	   This includes the running of any additional test scripts.

	   This is typically used when testing cannot continue such as a critical module failing
	   to compile or a necessary external utility not being available such as a database
	   connection failing.

	   The test will exit with 255.

	   For even better control look at Test::Most.

   Discouraged comparison functions
       The use of the following functions is discouraged as they are not actually testing
       functions and produce no diagnostics to help figure out what went wrong.  They were
       written before is_deeply() existed because I couldn't figure out how to display a useful
       diff of two arbitrary data structures.

       These functions are usually used inside an ok().

	   ok( eq_array(\@got, \@expected) );

       "is_deeply()" can do that better and with diagnostics.

	   is_deeply( \@got, \@expected );

       They may be deprecated in future versions.

       eq_array
	     my $is_eq = eq_array(\@got, \@expected);

	   Checks if two arrays are equivalent.  This is a deep check, so multi-level structures
	   are handled correctly.

       eq_hash
	     my $is_eq = eq_hash(\%got, \%expected);

	   Determines if the two hashes contain the same keys and values.  This is a deep check.

       eq_set
	     my $is_eq = eq_set(\@got, \@expected);

	   Similar to eq_array(), except the order of the elements is not important.  This is a
	   deep check, but the irrelevancy of order only applies to the top level.

	       ok( eq_set(\@got, \@expected) );

	   Is better written:

	       is_deeply( [sort @got], [sort @expected] );

	   NOTE By historical accident, this is not a true set comparison.  While the order of
	   elements does not matter, duplicate elements do.

	   NOTE eq_set() does not know how to deal with references at the top level.  The
	   following is an example of a comparison which might not work:

	       eq_set([\1, \2], [\2, \1]);

	   Test::Deep contains much better set comparison functions.

   Extending and Embedding Test::More
       Sometimes the Test::More interface isn't quite enough.  Fortunately, Test::More is built
       on top of Test::Builder which provides a single, unified backend for any test library to
       use.  This means two test libraries which both use Test::Builder can be used together in
       the same program.

       If you simply want to do a little tweaking of how the tests behave, you can access the
       underlying Test::Builder object like so:

       builder
	       my $test_builder = Test::More->builder;

	   Returns the Test::Builder object underlying Test::More for you to play with.

EXIT CODES
       If all your tests passed, Test::Builder will exit with zero (which is normal).  If
       anything failed it will exit with how many failed.  If you run less (or more) tests than
       you planned, the missing (or extras) will be considered failures.  If no tests were ever
       run Test::Builder will throw a warning and exit with 255.  If the test died, even after
       having successfully completed all its tests, it will still be considered a failure and
       will exit with 255.

       So the exit codes are...

	   0		       all tests successful
	   255		       test died or all passed but wrong # of tests run
	   any other number    how many failed (including missing or extras)

       If you fail more than 254 tests, it will be reported as 254.

       NOTE  This behavior may go away in future versions.

CAVEATS and NOTES
       Backwards compatibility
	   Test::More works with Perls as old as 5.6.0.

       utf8 / "Wide character in print"
	   If you use utf8 or other non-ASCII characters with Test::More you might get a "Wide
	   character in print" warning.  Using "binmode STDOUT, ":utf8"" will not fix it.
	   Test::Builder (which powers Test::More) duplicates STDOUT and STDERR.  So any changes
	   to them, including changing their output disciplines, will not be seem by Test::More.

	   The work around is to change the filehandles used by Test::Builder directly.

	       my $builder = Test::More->builder;
	       binmode $builder->output,	 ":utf8";
	       binmode $builder->failure_output, ":utf8";
	       binmode $builder->todo_output,	 ":utf8";

       Overloaded objects
	   String overloaded objects are compared as strings (or in cmp_ok()'s case, strings or
	   numbers as appropriate to the comparison op).  This prevents Test::More from piercing
	   an object's interface allowing better blackbox testing.  So if a function starts
	   returning overloaded objects instead of bare strings your tests won't notice the
	   difference.	This is good.

	   However, it does mean that functions like is_deeply() cannot be used to test the
	   internals of string overloaded objects.  In this case I would suggest Test::Deep which
	   contains more flexible testing functions for complex data structures.

       Threads
	   Test::More will only be aware of threads if "use threads" has been done before
	   Test::More is loaded.  This is ok:

	       use threads;
	       use Test::More;

	   This may cause problems:

	       use Test::More
	       use threads;

	   5.8.1 and above are supported.  Anything below that has too many bugs.

HISTORY
       This is a case of convergent evolution with Joshua Pritikin's Test module.  I was largely
       unaware of its existence when I'd first written my own ok() routines.  This module exists
       because I can't figure out how to easily wedge test names into Test's interface (along
       with a few other problems).

       The goal here is to have a testing utility that's simple to learn, quick to use and
       difficult to trip yourself up with while still providing more flexibility than the
       existing Test.pm.  As such, the names of the most common routines are kept tiny, special
       cases and magic side-effects are kept to a minimum.  WYSIWYG.

SEE ALSO
       Test::Simple if all this confuses you and you just want to write some tests.  You can
       upgrade to Test::More later (it's forward compatible).

       Test::Harness is the test runner and output interpreter for Perl.  It's the thing that
       powers "make test" and where the "prove" utility comes from.

       Test::Legacy tests written with Test.pm, the original testing module, do not play well
       with other testing libraries.  Test::Legacy emulates the Test.pm interface and does play
       well with others.

       Test::Differences for more ways to test complex data structures.  And it plays well with
       Test::More.

       Test::Class is like xUnit but more perlish.

       Test::Deep gives you more powerful complex data structure testing.

       Test::Inline shows the idea of embedded testing.

       Bundle::Test installs a whole bunch of useful test modules.

AUTHORS
       Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com> with much inspiration from Joshua Pritikin's Test
       module and lots of help from Barrie Slaymaker, Tony Bowden, blackstar.co.uk, chromatic,
       Fergal Daly and the perl-qa gang.

BUGS
       See http://rt.cpan.org to report and view bugs.

SOURCE
       The source code repository for Test::More can be found at
       http://github.com/schwern/test-more/.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright 2001-2008 by Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com>.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.

       See http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html

perl v5.16.3				    2011-02-23				    Test::More(3)


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