Locale::Country(3) User Contributed Perl Documentation Locale::Country(3)
Locale::Country - standard codes for country identification
$country = code2country('jp' [,CODESET]); # $country gets 'Japan'
$code = country2code('Norway' [,CODESET]); # $code gets 'no'
@codes = all_country_codes( [CODESET]);
@names = all_country_names();
# semi-private routines
Locale::Country::alias_code('uk' => 'gb');
Locale::Country::rename_country('gb' => 'Great Britain');
The "Locale::Country" module provides access to several code sets that can be used for
identifying countries, such as those defined in ISO 3166-1.
Most of the routines take an optional additional argument which specifies the code set to
use. If not specified, the default ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes will be used.
SUPPORTED CODE SETS
There are several different code sets you can use for identifying countries. A code set
may be specified using either a name, or a constant that is automatically exported by this
For example, the two are equivalent:
$country = code2country('jp','alpha-2');
$country = code2country('jp',LOCALE_CODE_ALPHA_2);
The codesets currently supported are:
This is the set of two-letter (lowercase) codes from ISO 3166-1, such as 'tv' for
This is the default code set.
This is the set of three-letter (lowercase) codes from ISO 3166-1, such as 'brb' for
Barbados. These codes are actually defined and maintained by the U.N. Statistics
This is the set of three-digit numeric codes from ISO 3166-1, such as 064 for Bhutan.
These codes are actually defined and maintained by the U.N. Statistics division.
If a 2-digit code is entered, it is converted to 3 digits by prepending a 0.
The FIPS 10 data are two-letter (uppercase) codes assigned by the National Geospatial-
NOTE: The FIPS-10 document is being withdrawn. It was deprecated in 2008, and is
being updated now only until all the agencies that use it have switched to something
I will continue to support the FIPS-10 codeset as long as it is available, but at the
point it is no longer available, support will be withdrawn immediately. If an
official end-of-life date is announced, I will include a notice here. Otherwise,
support for the codeset will be discontinued when the document is withdrawn.
You are encouraged to no longer use the FIPS-10 codeset.
The IANA is responsible for delegating management of the top level country domains.
The country domains are the two-letter (lowercase) codes from ISO 3166 with a few
code2country ( CODE [,CODESET] )
country2code ( NAME [,CODESET] )
country_code2code ( CODE ,CODESET ,CODESET2 )
all_country_codes ( [CODESET] )
all_country_names ( [CODESET] )
Locale::Country::rename_country ( CODE ,NEW_NAME [,CODESET] )
Locale::Country::add_country ( CODE ,NAME [,CODESET] )
Locale::Country::delete_country ( CODE [,CODESET] )
Locale::Country::add_country_alias ( NAME ,NEW_NAME )
Locale::Country::delete_country_alias ( NAME )
Locale::Country::rename_country_code ( CODE ,NEW_CODE [,CODESET] )
Locale::Country::add_country_code_alias ( CODE ,NEW_CODE [,CODESET] )
Locale::Country::delete_country_code_alias ( CODE [,CODESET] )
These routines are all documented in the Locale::Codes::API man page.
alias_code ( ALIAS, CODE [,CODESET] )
Version 2.07 included 2 functions for modifying the internal data: rename_country and
alias_code. Both of these could be used only to modify the internal data for country
As of 3.10, the internal data for all types of codes can be modified.
The alias_code function is preserved for backwards compatibility, but the following
two are identical:
and the latter should be used for consistency.
The alias_code function is deprecated and will be removed at some point in the future.
Note: this function was previously called _alias_code, but the leading underscore has
been dropped. The old name was supported for all 2.X releases, but has been dropped as
The Locale-Codes distribution.
The list of functions supported by this module.
ISO codes for country sub-divisions (states, counties, provinces, etc), as defined in
ISO 3166-2. This module is not part of the Locale-Codes distribution, but is
available from CPAN in CPAN/modules/by-module/Locale/
Official home page for the ISO 3166 maintenance agency.
Unfortunately, they do not make the actual ISO available for free, so I cannot check
the alpha-3 and numerical codes here.
The source of ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes used by this module.
The source of the official ISO 3166-1 three-letter codes and three-digit codes.
For some reason, this table is incomplete! Several countries are missing from it, and
I cannot find them anywhere on the UN site. I get as much of the data from here as I
The official list of the FIPS 10 codes.
Official source of the top-level domain names.
The World Factbook maintained by the CIA is a potential source of the data.
Unfortunately, it adds/preserves non-standard codes, so it is no longer used as a
source of data.
Another unofficial source of data. Currently, it is not used to get data, but the
notes and explanatory material were very useful for understanding discrepancies
between the sources.
See Locale::Codes for full author history.
Currently maintained by Sullivan Beck (email@example.com).
Copyright (c) 1997-2001 Canon Research Centre Europe (CRE).
Copyright (c) 2001-2010 Neil Bowers
Copyright (c) 2010-2013 Sullivan Beck
This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
terms as Perl itself.
perl v5.16.3 2013-06-03 Locale::Country(3)