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List::Util(3)		       User Contributed Perl Documentation		    List::Util(3)

NAME
       List::Util - A selection of general-utility list subroutines

SYNOPSIS
	   use List::Util qw(first max maxstr min minstr reduce shuffle sum);

DESCRIPTION
       "List::Util" contains a selection of subroutines that people have expressed would be nice
       to have in the perl core, but the usage would not really be high enough to warrant the use
       of a keyword, and the size so small such that being individual extensions would be
       wasteful.

       By default "List::Util" does not export any subroutines. The subroutines defined are

       first BLOCK LIST
	   Similar to "grep" in that it evaluates BLOCK setting $_ to each element of LIST in
	   turn. "first" returns the first element where the result from BLOCK is a true value.
	   If BLOCK never returns true or LIST was empty then "undef" is returned.

	       $foo = first { defined($_) } @list    # first defined value in @list
	       $foo = first { $_ > $value } @list    # first value in @list which
						     # is greater than $value

	   This function could be implemented using "reduce" like this

	       $foo = reduce { defined($a) ? $a : wanted($b) ? $b : undef } undef, @list

	   for example wanted() could be defined() which would return the first defined value in
	   @list

       max LIST
	   Returns the entry in the list with the highest numerical value. If the list is empty
	   then "undef" is returned.

	       $foo = max 1..10 	       # 10
	       $foo = max 3,9,12	       # 12
	       $foo = max @bar, @baz	       # whatever

	   This function could be implemented using "reduce" like this

	       $foo = reduce { $a > $b ? $a : $b } 1..10

       maxstr LIST
	   Similar to "max", but treats all the entries in the list as strings and returns the
	   highest string as defined by the "gt" operator.  If the list is empty then "undef" is
	   returned.

	       $foo = maxstr 'A'..'Z'	       # 'Z'
	       $foo = maxstr "hello","world"   # "world"
	       $foo = maxstr @bar, @baz        # whatever

	   This function could be implemented using "reduce" like this

	       $foo = reduce { $a gt $b ? $a : $b } 'A'..'Z'

       min LIST
	   Similar to "max" but returns the entry in the list with the lowest numerical value. If
	   the list is empty then "undef" is returned.

	       $foo = min 1..10 	       # 1
	       $foo = min 3,9,12	       # 3
	       $foo = min @bar, @baz	       # whatever

	   This function could be implemented using "reduce" like this

	       $foo = reduce { $a < $b ? $a : $b } 1..10

       minstr LIST
	   Similar to "min", but treats all the entries in the list as strings and returns the
	   lowest string as defined by the "lt" operator.  If the list is empty then "undef" is
	   returned.

	       $foo = minstr 'A'..'Z'	       # 'A'
	       $foo = minstr "hello","world"   # "hello"
	       $foo = minstr @bar, @baz        # whatever

	   This function could be implemented using "reduce" like this

	       $foo = reduce { $a lt $b ? $a : $b } 'A'..'Z'

       reduce BLOCK LIST
	   Reduces LIST by calling BLOCK, in a scalar context, multiple times, setting $a and $b
	   each time. The first call will be with $a and $b set to the first two elements of the
	   list, subsequent calls will be done by setting $a to the result of the previous call
	   and $b to the next element in the list.

	   Returns the result of the last call to BLOCK. If LIST is empty then "undef" is
	   returned. If LIST only contains one element then that element is returned and BLOCK is
	   not executed.

	       $foo = reduce { $a < $b ? $a : $b } 1..10       # min
	       $foo = reduce { $a lt $b ? $a : $b } 'aa'..'zz' # minstr
	       $foo = reduce { $a + $b } 1 .. 10	       # sum
	       $foo = reduce { $a . $b } @bar		       # concat

	   If your algorithm requires that "reduce" produce an identity value, then make sure
	   that you always pass that identity value as the first argument to prevent "undef"
	   being returned

	     $foo = reduce { $a + $b } 0, @values;	       # sum with 0 identity value

       shuffle LIST
	   Returns the elements of LIST in a random order

	       @cards = shuffle 0..51	   # 0..51 in a random order

       sum LIST
	   Returns the sum of all the elements in LIST. If LIST is empty then "undef" is
	   returned.

	       $foo = sum 1..10 	       # 55
	       $foo = sum 3,9,12	       # 24
	       $foo = sum @bar, @baz	       # whatever

	   This function could be implemented using "reduce" like this

	       $foo = reduce { $a + $b } 1..10

	   If your algorithm requires that "sum" produce an identity of 0, then make sure that
	   you always pass 0 as the first argument to prevent "undef" being returned

	     $foo = sum 0, @values;

       sum0 LIST
	   Similar to "sum", except this returns 0 when given an empty list, rather than "undef".

KNOWN BUGS
       With perl versions prior to 5.005 there are some cases where reduce will return an
       incorrect result. This will show up as test 7 of reduce.t failing.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONS
       The following are additions that have been requested, but I have been reluctant to add due
       to them being very simple to implement in perl

	 # One argument is true

	 sub any { $_ && return 1 for @_; 0 }

	 # All arguments are true

	 sub all { $_ || return 0 for @_; 1 }

	 # All arguments are false

	 sub none { $_ && return 0 for @_; 1 }

	 # One argument is false

	 sub notall { $_ || return 1 for @_; 0 }

	 # How many elements are true

	 sub true { scalar grep { $_ } @_ }

	 # How many elements are false

	 sub false { scalar grep { !$_ } @_ }

SEE ALSO
       Scalar::Util, List::MoreUtils

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (c) 1997-2007 Graham Barr <gbarr@pobox.com>. All rights reserved.  This program
       is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl
       itself.

perl v5.16.3				    2012-12-27				    List::Util(3)
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