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JSON(3) 		       User Contributed Perl Documentation			  JSON(3)

NAME
       JSON - JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) encoder/decoder

SYNOPSIS
	use JSON; # imports encode_json, decode_json, to_json and from_json.

	# simple and fast interfaces (expect/generate UTF-8)

	$utf8_encoded_json_text = encode_json $perl_hash_or_arrayref;
	$perl_hash_or_arrayref	= decode_json $utf8_encoded_json_text;

	# OO-interface

	$json = JSON->new->allow_nonref;

	$json_text   = $json->encode( $perl_scalar );
	$perl_scalar = $json->decode( $json_text );

	$pretty_printed = $json->pretty->encode( $perl_scalar ); # pretty-printing

	# If you want to use PP only support features, call with '-support_by_pp'
	# When XS unsupported feature is enable, using PP (de|en)code instead of XS ones.

	use JSON -support_by_pp;

	# option-acceptable interfaces (expect/generate UNICODE by default)

	$json_text   = to_json( $perl_scalar, { ascii => 1, pretty => 1 } );
	$perl_scalar = from_json( $json_text, { utf8  => 1 } );

	# Between (en|de)code_json and (to|from)_json, if you want to write
	# a code which communicates to an outer world (encoded in UTF-8),
	# recommend to use (en|de)code_json.

VERSION
	   2.59

       This version is compatible with JSON::XS 2.34 and later.

NOTE
       JSON::PP was earlier included in the "JSON" distribution, but has since Perl 5.14 been a
       core module. For this reason, JSON::PP was removed from the JSON distribution and can now
       be found also in the Perl5 repository at

       o   <http://perl5.git.perl.org/perl.git>

       (The newest JSON::PP version still exists in CPAN.)

       Instead, the "JSON" distribution will include JSON::backportPP for backwards
       computability. JSON.pm should thus work as it did before.

DESCRIPTION
	************************** CAUTION ********************************
	* This is 'JSON module version 2' and there are many differences  *
	* to version 1.xx						  *
	* Please check your applications using old version.		 *
	*   See to 'INCOMPATIBLE CHANGES TO OLD VERSION'		  *
	*******************************************************************

       JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a simple data format.  See to <http://www.json.org/>
       and "RFC4627"(<http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt>).

       This module converts Perl data structures to JSON and vice versa using either JSON::XS or
       JSON::PP.

       JSON::XS is the fastest and most proper JSON module on CPAN which must be compiled and
       installed in your environment.  JSON::PP is a pure-Perl module which is bundled in this
       distribution and has a strong compatibility to JSON::XS.

       This module try to use JSON::XS by default and fail to it, use JSON::PP instead.  So its
       features completely depend on JSON::XS or JSON::PP.

       See to "BACKEND MODULE DECISION".

       To distinguish the module name 'JSON' and the format type JSON, the former is quoted by
       C<> (its results vary with your using media), and the latter is left just as it is.

       Module name : "JSON"

       Format type : JSON

   FEATURES
       o   correct unicode handling

	   This module (i.e. backend modules) knows how to handle Unicode, documents how and when
	   it does so, and even documents what "correct" means.

	   Even though there are limitations, this feature is available since Perl version 5.6.

	   JSON::XS requires Perl 5.8.2 (but works correctly in 5.8.8 or later), so in older
	   versions "JSON" should call JSON::PP as the backend which can be used since Perl
	   5.005.

	   With Perl 5.8.x JSON::PP works, but from 5.8.0 to 5.8.2, because of a Perl side
	   problem, JSON::PP works slower in the versions. And in 5.005, the Unicode handling is
	   not available.  See to "UNICODE HANDLING ON PERLS" in JSON::PP for more information.

	   See also to "A FEW NOTES ON UNICODE AND PERL" in JSON::XS and
	   "ENCODING/CODESET_FLAG_NOTES" in JSON::XS.

       o   round-trip integrity

	   When you serialise a perl data structure using only data types supported by JSON and
	   Perl, the deserialised data structure is identical on the Perl level. (e.g. the string
	   "2.0" doesn't suddenly become "2" just because it looks like a number). There are
	   minor exceptions to this, read the "MAPPING" section below to learn about those.

       o   strict checking of JSON correctness

	   There is no guessing, no generating of illegal JSON texts by default, and only JSON is
	   accepted as input by default (the latter is a security feature).

	   See to "FEATURES" in JSON::XS and "FEATURES" in JSON::PP.

       o   fast

	   This module returns a JSON::XS object itself if available.  Compared to other JSON
	   modules and other serialisers such as Storable, JSON::XS usually compares favorably in
	   terms of speed, too.

	   If not available, "JSON" returns a JSON::PP object instead of JSON::XS and it is very
	   slow as pure-Perl.

       o   simple to use

	   This module has both a simple functional interface as well as an object oriented
	   interface interface.

       o   reasonably versatile output formats

	   You can choose between the most compact guaranteed-single-line format possible (nice
	   for simple line-based protocols), a pure-ASCII format (for when your transport is not
	   8-bit clean, still supports the whole Unicode range), or a pretty-printed format (for
	   when you want to read that stuff). Or you can combine those features in whatever way
	   you like.

FUNCTIONAL INTERFACE
       Some documents are copied and modified from "FUNCTIONAL INTERFACE" in JSON::XS.	"to_json"
       and "from_json" are additional functions.

   encode_json
	   $json_text = encode_json $perl_scalar

       Converts the given Perl data structure to a UTF-8 encoded, binary string.

       This function call is functionally identical to:

	   $json_text = JSON->new->utf8->encode($perl_scalar)

   decode_json
	   $perl_scalar = decode_json $json_text

       The opposite of "encode_json": expects an UTF-8 (binary) string and tries to parse that as
       an UTF-8 encoded JSON text, returning the resulting reference.

       This function call is functionally identical to:

	   $perl_scalar = JSON->new->utf8->decode($json_text)

   to_json
	  $json_text = to_json($perl_scalar)

       Converts the given Perl data structure to a json string.

       This function call is functionally identical to:

	  $json_text = JSON->new->encode($perl_scalar)

       Takes a hash reference as the second.

	  $json_text = to_json($perl_scalar, $flag_hashref)

       So,

	  $json_text = to_json($perl_scalar, {utf8 => 1, pretty => 1})

       equivalent to:

	  $json_text = JSON->new->utf8(1)->pretty(1)->encode($perl_scalar)

       If you want to write a modern perl code which communicates to outer world, you should use
       "encode_json" (supposed that JSON data are encoded in UTF-8).

   from_json
	  $perl_scalar = from_json($json_text)

       The opposite of "to_json": expects a json string and tries to parse it, returning the
       resulting reference.

       This function call is functionally identical to:

	   $perl_scalar = JSON->decode($json_text)

       Takes a hash reference as the second.

	   $perl_scalar = from_json($json_text, $flag_hashref)

       So,

	   $perl_scalar = from_json($json_text, {utf8 => 1})

       equivalent to:

	   $perl_scalar = JSON->new->utf8(1)->decode($json_text)

       If you want to write a modern perl code which communicates to outer world, you should use
       "decode_json" (supposed that JSON data are encoded in UTF-8).

   JSON::is_bool
	   $is_boolean = JSON::is_bool($scalar)

       Returns true if the passed scalar represents either JSON::true or JSON::false, two
       constants that act like 1 and 0 respectively and are also used to represent JSON "true"
       and "false" in Perl strings.

   JSON::true
       Returns JSON true value which is blessed object.  It "isa" JSON::Boolean object.

   JSON::false
       Returns JSON false value which is blessed object.  It "isa" JSON::Boolean object.

   JSON::null
       Returns "undef".

       See MAPPING, below, for more information on how JSON values are mapped to Perl.

HOW DO I DECODE A DATA FROM OUTER AND ENCODE TO OUTER
       This section supposes that your perl version is 5.8 or later.

       If you know a JSON text from an outer world - a network, a file content, and so on, is
       encoded in UTF-8, you should use "decode_json" or "JSON" module object with "utf8" enable.
       And the decoded result will contain UNICODE characters.

	 # from network
	 my $json	 = JSON->new->utf8;
	 my $json_text	 = CGI->new->param( 'json_data' );
	 my $perl_scalar = $json->decode( $json_text );

	 # from file content
	 local $/;
	 open( my $fh, '<', 'json.data' );
	 $json_text   = <$fh>;
	 $perl_scalar = decode_json( $json_text );

       If an outer data is not encoded in UTF-8, firstly you should "decode" it.

	 use Encode;
	 local $/;
	 open( my $fh, '<', 'json.data' );
	 my $encoding = 'cp932';
	 my $unicode_json_text = decode( $encoding, <$fh> ); # UNICODE

	 # or you can write the below code.
	 #
	 # open( my $fh, "<:encoding($encoding)", 'json.data' );
	 # $unicode_json_text = <$fh>;

       In this case, $unicode_json_text is of course UNICODE string.  So you cannot use
       "decode_json" nor "JSON" module object with "utf8" enable.  Instead of them, you use
       "JSON" module object with "utf8" disable or "from_json".

	 $perl_scalar = $json->utf8(0)->decode( $unicode_json_text );
	 # or
	 $perl_scalar = from_json( $unicode_json_text );

       Or "encode 'utf8'" and "decode_json":

	 $perl_scalar = decode_json( encode( 'utf8', $unicode_json_text ) );
	 # this way is not efficient.

       And now, you want to convert your $perl_scalar into JSON data and send it to an outer
       world - a network or a file content, and so on.

       Your data usually contains UNICODE strings and you want the converted data to be encoded
       in UTF-8, you should use "encode_json" or "JSON" module object with "utf8" enable.

	 print encode_json( $perl_scalar ); # to a network? file? or display?
	 # or
	 print $json->utf8->encode( $perl_scalar );

       If $perl_scalar does not contain UNICODE but $encoding-encoded strings for some reason,
       then its characters are regarded as latin1 for perl (because it does not concern with your
       $encoding).  You cannot use "encode_json" nor "JSON" module object with "utf8" enable.
       Instead of them, you use "JSON" module object with "utf8" disable or "to_json".	Note that
       the resulted text is a UNICODE string but no problem to print it.

	 # $perl_scalar contains $encoding encoded string values
	 $unicode_json_text = $json->utf8(0)->encode( $perl_scalar );
	 # or
	 $unicode_json_text = to_json( $perl_scalar );
	 # $unicode_json_text consists of characters less than 0x100
	 print $unicode_json_text;

       Or "decode $encoding" all string values and "encode_json":

	 $perl_scalar->{ foo } = decode( $encoding, $perl_scalar->{ foo } );
	 # ... do it to each string values, then encode_json
	 $json_text = encode_json( $perl_scalar );

       This method is a proper way but probably not efficient.

       See to Encode, perluniintro.

COMMON OBJECT-ORIENTED INTERFACE
   new
	   $json = JSON->new

       Returns a new "JSON" object inherited from either JSON::XS or JSON::PP that can be used to
       de/encode JSON strings.

       All boolean flags described below are by default disabled.

       The mutators for flags all return the JSON object again and thus calls can be chained:

	  my $json = JSON->new->utf8->space_after->encode({a => [1,2]})
	  => {"a": [1, 2]}

   ascii
	   $json = $json->ascii([$enable])

	   $enabled = $json->get_ascii

       If $enable is true (or missing), then the encode method will not generate characters
       outside the code range 0..127. Any Unicode characters outside that range will be escaped
       using either a single \uXXXX or a double \uHHHH\uLLLLL escape sequence, as per RFC4627.

       If $enable is false, then the encode method will not escape Unicode characters unless
       required by the JSON syntax or other flags. This results in a faster and more compact
       format.

       This feature depends on the used Perl version and environment.

       See to "UNICODE HANDLING ON PERLS" in JSON::PP if the backend is PP.

	 JSON->new->ascii(1)->encode([chr 0x10401])
	 => ["\ud801\udc01"]

   latin1
	   $json = $json->latin1([$enable])

	   $enabled = $json->get_latin1

       If $enable is true (or missing), then the encode method will encode the resulting JSON
       text as latin1 (or iso-8859-1), escaping any characters outside the code range 0..255.

       If $enable is false, then the encode method will not escape Unicode characters unless
       required by the JSON syntax or other flags.

	 JSON->new->latin1->encode (["\x{89}\x{abc}"]
	 => ["\x{89}\\u0abc"]	 # (perl syntax, U+abc escaped, U+89 not)

   utf8
	   $json = $json->utf8([$enable])

	   $enabled = $json->get_utf8

       If $enable is true (or missing), then the encode method will encode the JSON result into
       UTF-8, as required by many protocols, while the decode method expects to be handled an
       UTF-8-encoded string. Please note that UTF-8-encoded strings do not contain any characters
       outside the range 0..255, they are thus useful for bytewise/binary I/O.

       In future versions, enabling this option might enable autodetection of the UTF-16 and
       UTF-32 encoding families, as described in RFC4627.

       If $enable is false, then the encode method will return the JSON string as a (non-encoded)
       Unicode string, while decode expects thus a Unicode string. Any decoding or encoding (e.g.
       to UTF-8 or UTF-16) needs to be done yourself, e.g. using the Encode module.

       Example, output UTF-16BE-encoded JSON:

	 use Encode;
	 $jsontext = encode "UTF-16BE", JSON::XS->new->encode ($object);

       Example, decode UTF-32LE-encoded JSON:

	 use Encode;
	 $object = JSON::XS->new->decode (decode "UTF-32LE", $jsontext);

       See to "UNICODE HANDLING ON PERLS" in JSON::PP if the backend is PP.

   pretty
	   $json = $json->pretty([$enable])

       This enables (or disables) all of the "indent", "space_before" and "space_after" (and in
       the future possibly more) flags in one call to generate the most readable (or most
       compact) form possible.

       Equivalent to:

	  $json->indent->space_before->space_after

       The indent space length is three and JSON::XS cannot change the indent space length.

   indent
	   $json = $json->indent([$enable])

	   $enabled = $json->get_indent

       If $enable is true (or missing), then the "encode" method will use a multiline format as
       output, putting every array member or object/hash key-value pair into its own line,
       identifying them properly.

       If $enable is false, no newlines or indenting will be produced, and the resulting JSON
       text is guaranteed not to contain any "newlines".

       This setting has no effect when decoding JSON texts.

       The indent space length is three.  With JSON::PP, you can also access "indent_length" to
       change indent space length.

   space_before
	   $json = $json->space_before([$enable])

	   $enabled = $json->get_space_before

       If $enable is true (or missing), then the "encode" method will add an extra optional space
       before the ":" separating keys from values in JSON objects.

       If $enable is false, then the "encode" method will not add any extra space at those
       places.

       This setting has no effect when decoding JSON texts.

       Example, space_before enabled, space_after and indent disabled:

	  {"key" :"value"}

   space_after
	   $json = $json->space_after([$enable])

	   $enabled = $json->get_space_after

       If $enable is true (or missing), then the "encode" method will add an extra optional space
       after the ":" separating keys from values in JSON objects and extra whitespace after the
       "," separating key-value pairs and array members.

       If $enable is false, then the "encode" method will not add any extra space at those
       places.

       This setting has no effect when decoding JSON texts.

       Example, space_before and indent disabled, space_after enabled:

	  {"key": "value"}

   relaxed
	   $json = $json->relaxed([$enable])

	   $enabled = $json->get_relaxed

       If $enable is true (or missing), then "decode" will accept some extensions to normal JSON
       syntax (see below). "encode" will not be affected in anyway. Be aware that this option
       makes you accept invalid JSON texts as if they were valid!. I suggest only to use this
       option to parse application-specific files written by humans (configuration files,
       resource files etc.)

       If $enable is false (the default), then "decode" will only accept valid JSON texts.

       Currently accepted extensions are:

       o   list items can have an end-comma

	   JSON separates array elements and key-value pairs with commas. This can be annoying if
	   you write JSON texts manually and want to be able to quickly append elements, so this
	   extension accepts comma at the end of such items not just between them:

	      [
		 1,
		 2, <- this comma not normally allowed
	      ]
	      {
		 "k1": "v1",
		 "k2": "v2", <- this comma not normally allowed
	      }

       o   shell-style '#'-comments

	   Whenever JSON allows whitespace, shell-style comments are additionally allowed. They
	   are terminated by the first carriage-return or line-feed character, after which more
	   white-space and comments are allowed.

	     [
		1, # this comment not allowed in JSON
		   # neither this one...
	     ]

   canonical
	   $json = $json->canonical([$enable])

	   $enabled = $json->get_canonical

       If $enable is true (or missing), then the "encode" method will output JSON objects by
       sorting their keys. This is adding a comparatively high overhead.

       If $enable is false, then the "encode" method will output key-value pairs in the order
       Perl stores them (which will likely change between runs of the same script).

       This option is useful if you want the same data structure to be encoded as the same JSON
       text (given the same overall settings). If it is disabled, the same hash might be encoded
       differently even if contains the same data, as key-value pairs have no inherent ordering
       in Perl.

       This setting has no effect when decoding JSON texts.

   allow_nonref
	   $json = $json->allow_nonref([$enable])

	   $enabled = $json->get_allow_nonref

       If $enable is true (or missing), then the "encode" method can convert a non-reference into
       its corresponding string, number or null JSON value, which is an extension to RFC4627.
       Likewise, "decode" will accept those JSON values instead of croaking.

       If $enable is false, then the "encode" method will croak if it isn't passed an arrayref or
       hashref, as JSON texts must either be an object or array. Likewise, "decode" will croak if
       given something that is not a JSON object or array.

	  JSON->new->allow_nonref->encode ("Hello, World!")
	  => "Hello, World!"

   allow_unknown
	   $json = $json->allow_unknown ([$enable])

	   $enabled = $json->get_allow_unknown

       If $enable is true (or missing), then "encode" will *not* throw an exception when it
       encounters values it cannot represent in JSON (for example, filehandles) but instead will
       encode a JSON "null" value.  Note that blessed objects are not included here and are
       handled separately by c<allow_nonref>.

       If $enable is false (the default), then "encode" will throw an exception when it
       encounters anything it cannot encode as JSON.

       This option does not affect "decode" in any way, and it is recommended to leave it off
       unless you know your communications partner.

   allow_blessed
	   $json = $json->allow_blessed([$enable])

	   $enabled = $json->get_allow_blessed

       If $enable is true (or missing), then the "encode" method will not barf when it encounters
       a blessed reference. Instead, the value of the convert_blessed option will decide whether
       "null" ("convert_blessed" disabled or no "TO_JSON" method found) or a representation of
       the object ("convert_blessed" enabled and "TO_JSON" method found) is being encoded. Has no
       effect on "decode".

       If $enable is false (the default), then "encode" will throw an exception when it
       encounters a blessed object.

   convert_blessed
	   $json = $json->convert_blessed([$enable])

	   $enabled = $json->get_convert_blessed

       If $enable is true (or missing), then "encode", upon encountering a blessed object, will
       check for the availability of the "TO_JSON" method on the object's class. If found, it
       will be called in scalar context and the resulting scalar will be encoded instead of the
       object. If no "TO_JSON" method is found, the value of "allow_blessed" will decide what to
       do.

       The "TO_JSON" method may safely call die if it wants. If "TO_JSON" returns other blessed
       objects, those will be handled in the same way. "TO_JSON" must take care of not causing an
       endless recursion cycle (== crash) in this case. The name of "TO_JSON" was chosen because
       other methods called by the Perl core (== not by the user of the object) are usually in
       upper case letters and to avoid collisions with the "to_json" function or method.

       This setting does not yet influence "decode" in any way.

       If $enable is false, then the "allow_blessed" setting will decide what to do when a
       blessed object is found.

       convert_blessed_universally mode
	   If use "JSON" with "-convert_blessed_universally", the "UNIVERSAL::TO_JSON" subroutine
	   is defined as the below code:

	      *UNIVERSAL::TO_JSON = sub {
		  my $b_obj = B::svref_2object( $_[0] );
		  return    $b_obj->isa('B::HV') ? { %{ $_[0] } }
			  : $b_obj->isa('B::AV') ? [ @{ $_[0] } ]
			  : undef
			  ;
	      }

	   This will cause that "encode" method converts simple blessed objects into JSON objects
	   as non-blessed object.

	      JSON -convert_blessed_universally;
	      $json->allow_blessed->convert_blessed->encode( $blessed_object )

	   This feature is experimental and may be removed in the future.

   filter_json_object
	   $json = $json->filter_json_object([$coderef])

       When $coderef is specified, it will be called from "decode" each time it decodes a JSON
       object. The only argument passed to the coderef is a reference to the newly-created hash.
       If the code references returns a single scalar (which need not be a reference), this value
       (i.e. a copy of that scalar to avoid aliasing) is inserted into the deserialised data
       structure. If it returns an empty list (NOTE: not "undef", which is a valid scalar), the
       original deserialised hash will be inserted. This setting can slow down decoding
       considerably.

       When $coderef is omitted or undefined, any existing callback will be removed and "decode"
       will not change the deserialised hash in any way.

       Example, convert all JSON objects into the integer 5:

	  my $js = JSON->new->filter_json_object (sub { 5 });
	  # returns [5]
	  $js->decode ('[{}]'); # the given subroutine takes a hash reference.
	  # throw an exception because allow_nonref is not enabled
	  # so a lone 5 is not allowed.
	  $js->decode ('{"a":1, "b":2}');

   filter_json_single_key_object
	   $json = $json->filter_json_single_key_object($key [=> $coderef])

       Works remotely similar to "filter_json_object", but is only called for JSON objects having
       a single key named $key.

       This $coderef is called before the one specified via "filter_json_object", if any. It gets
       passed the single value in the JSON object. If it returns a single value, it will be
       inserted into the data structure. If it returns nothing (not even "undef" but the empty
       list), the callback from "filter_json_object" will be called next, as if no single-key
       callback were specified.

       If $coderef is omitted or undefined, the corresponding callback will be disabled. There
       can only ever be one callback for a given key.

       As this callback gets called less often then the "filter_json_object" one, decoding speed
       will not usually suffer as much. Therefore, single-key objects make excellent targets to
       serialise Perl objects into, especially as single-key JSON objects are as close to the
       type-tagged value concept as JSON gets (it's basically an ID/VALUE tuple). Of course, JSON
       does not support this in any way, so you need to make sure your data never looks like a
       serialised Perl hash.

       Typical names for the single object key are "__class_whatever__", or
       "$__dollars_are_rarely_used__$" or "}ugly_brace_placement", or even things like
       "__class_md5sum(classname)__", to reduce the risk of clashing with real hashes.

       Example, decode JSON objects of the form "{ "__widget__" => <id> }" into the corresponding
       $WIDGET{<id>} object:

	  # return whatever is in $WIDGET{5}:
	  JSON
	     ->new
	     ->filter_json_single_key_object (__widget__ => sub {
		   $WIDGET{ $_[0] }
		})
	     ->decode ('{"__widget__": 5')

	  # this can be used with a TO_JSON method in some "widget" class
	  # for serialisation to json:
	  sub WidgetBase::TO_JSON {
	     my ($self) = @_;

	     unless ($self->{id}) {
		$self->{id} = ..get..some..id..;
		$WIDGET{$self->{id}} = $self;
	     }

	     { __widget__ => $self->{id} }
	  }

   shrink
	   $json = $json->shrink([$enable])

	   $enabled = $json->get_shrink

       With JSON::XS, this flag resizes strings generated by either "encode" or "decode" to their
       minimum size possible. This can save memory when your JSON texts are either very very long
       or you have many short strings. It will also try to downgrade any strings to octet-form if
       possible: perl stores strings internally either in an encoding called UTF-X or in octet-
       form. The latter cannot store everything but uses less space in general (and some buggy
       Perl or C code might even rely on that internal representation being used).

       With JSON::PP, it is noop about resizing strings but tries "utf8::downgrade" to the
       returned string by "encode". See to utf8.

       See to "OBJECT-ORIENTED INTERFACE" in JSON::XS and "METHODS" in JSON::PP.

   max_depth
	   $json = $json->max_depth([$maximum_nesting_depth])

	   $max_depth = $json->get_max_depth

       Sets the maximum nesting level (default 512) accepted while encoding or decoding. If a
       higher nesting level is detected in JSON text or a Perl data structure, then the encoder
       and decoder will stop and croak at that point.

       Nesting level is defined by number of hash- or arrayrefs that the encoder needs to
       traverse to reach a given point or the number of "{" or "[" characters without their
       matching closing parenthesis crossed to reach a given character in a string.

       If no argument is given, the highest possible setting will be used, which is rarely
       useful.

       Note that nesting is implemented by recursion in C. The default value has been chosen to
       be as large as typical operating systems allow without crashing. (JSON::XS)

       With JSON::PP as the backend, when a large value (100 or more) was set and it de/encodes a
       deep nested object/text, it may raise a warning 'Deep recursion on subroutine' at the perl
       runtime phase.

       See "SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS" in JSON::XS for more info on why this is useful.

   max_size
	   $json = $json->max_size([$maximum_string_size])

	   $max_size = $json->get_max_size

       Set the maximum length a JSON text may have (in bytes) where decoding is being attempted.
       The default is 0, meaning no limit. When "decode" is called on a string that is longer
       then this many bytes, it will not attempt to decode the string but throw an exception.
       This setting has no effect on "encode" (yet).

       If no argument is given, the limit check will be deactivated (same as when 0 is
       specified).

       See "SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS" in JSON::XS, below, for more info on why this is useful.

   encode
	   $json_text = $json->encode($perl_scalar)

       Converts the given Perl data structure (a simple scalar or a reference to a hash or array)
       to its JSON representation. Simple scalars will be converted into JSON string or number
       sequences, while references to arrays become JSON arrays and references to hashes become
       JSON objects. Undefined Perl values (e.g. "undef") become JSON "null" values.  References
       to the integers 0 and 1 are converted into "true" and "false".

   decode
	   $perl_scalar = $json->decode($json_text)

       The opposite of "encode": expects a JSON text and tries to parse it, returning the
       resulting simple scalar or reference. Croaks on error.

       JSON numbers and strings become simple Perl scalars. JSON arrays become Perl arrayrefs and
       JSON objects become Perl hashrefs. "true" becomes 1 ("JSON::true"), "false" becomes 0
       ("JSON::false") and "null" becomes "undef".

   decode_prefix
	   ($perl_scalar, $characters) = $json->decode_prefix($json_text)

       This works like the "decode" method, but instead of raising an exception when there is
       trailing garbage after the first JSON object, it will silently stop parsing there and
       return the number of characters consumed so far.

	  JSON->new->decode_prefix ("[1] the tail")
	  => ([], 3)

       See to "OBJECT-ORIENTED INTERFACE" in JSON::XS

   property
	   $boolean = $json->property($property_name)

       Returns a boolean value about above some properties.

       The available properties are "ascii", "latin1", "utf8", "indent","space_before",
       "space_after", "relaxed", "canonical", "allow_nonref", "allow_unknown", "allow_blessed",
       "convert_blessed", "shrink", "max_depth" and "max_size".

	  $boolean = $json->property('utf8');
	   => 0
	  $json->utf8;
	  $boolean = $json->property('utf8');
	   => 1

       Sets the property with a given boolean value.

	   $json = $json->property($property_name => $boolean);

       With no argument, it returns all the above properties as a hash reference.

	   $flag_hashref = $json->property();

INCREMENTAL PARSING
       Most of this section are copied and modified from "INCREMENTAL PARSING" in JSON::XS.

       In some cases, there is the need for incremental parsing of JSON texts.	This module does
       allow you to parse a JSON stream incrementally.	It does so by accumulating text until it
       has a full JSON object, which it then can decode. This process is similar to using
       "decode_prefix" to see if a full JSON object is available, but is much more efficient (and
       can be implemented with a minimum of method calls).

       The backend module will only attempt to parse the JSON text once it is sure it has enough
       text to get a decisive result, using a very simple but truly incremental parser. This
       means that it sometimes won't stop as early as the full parser, for example, it doesn't
       detect parenthesis mismatches. The only thing it guarantees is that it starts decoding as
       soon as a syntactically valid JSON text has been seen. This means you need to set resource
       limits (e.g. "max_size") to ensure the parser will stop parsing in the presence if syntax
       errors.

       The following methods implement this incremental parser.

   incr_parse
	   $json->incr_parse( [$string] ) # void context

	   $obj_or_undef = $json->incr_parse( [$string] ) # scalar context

	   @obj_or_empty = $json->incr_parse( [$string] ) # list context

       This is the central parsing function. It can both append new text and extract objects from
       the stream accumulated so far (both of these functions are optional).

       If $string is given, then this string is appended to the already existing JSON fragment
       stored in the $json object.

       After that, if the function is called in void context, it will simply return without doing
       anything further. This can be used to add more text in as many chunks as you want.

       If the method is called in scalar context, then it will try to extract exactly one JSON
       object. If that is successful, it will return this object, otherwise it will return
       "undef". If there is a parse error, this method will croak just as "decode" would do (one
       can then use "incr_skip" to skip the erroneous part). This is the most common way of using
       the method.

       And finally, in list context, it will try to extract as many objects from the stream as it
       can find and return them, or the empty list otherwise. For this to work, there must be no
       separators between the JSON objects or arrays, instead they must be concatenated back-to-
       back. If an error occurs, an exception will be raised as in the scalar context case. Note
       that in this case, any previously-parsed JSON texts will be lost.

       Example: Parse some JSON arrays/objects in a given string and return them.

	   my @objs = JSON->new->incr_parse ("[5][7][1,2]");

   incr_text
	   $lvalue_string = $json->incr_text

       This method returns the currently stored JSON fragment as an lvalue, that is, you can
       manipulate it. This only works when a preceding call to "incr_parse" in scalar context
       successfully returned an object. Under all other circumstances you must not call this
       function (I mean it.  although in simple tests it might actually work, it will fail under
       real world conditions). As a special exception, you can also call this method before
       having parsed anything.

       This function is useful in two cases: a) finding the trailing text after a JSON object or
       b) parsing multiple JSON objects separated by non-JSON text (such as commas).

	   $json->incr_text =~ s/\s*,\s*//;

       In Perl 5.005, "lvalue" attribute is not available.  You must write codes like the below:

	   $string = $json->incr_text;
	   $string =~ s/\s*,\s*//;
	   $json->incr_text( $string );

   incr_skip
	   $json->incr_skip

       This will reset the state of the incremental parser and will remove the parsed text from
       the input buffer. This is useful after "incr_parse" died, in which case the input buffer
       and incremental parser state is left unchanged, to skip the text parsed so far and to
       reset the parse state.

   incr_reset
	   $json->incr_reset

       This completely resets the incremental parser, that is, after this call, it will be as if
       the parser had never parsed anything.

       This is useful if you want to repeatedly parse JSON objects and want to ignore any
       trailing data, which means you have to reset the parser after each successful decode.

       See to "INCREMENTAL PARSING" in JSON::XS for examples.

JSON::PP SUPPORT METHODS
       The below methods are JSON::PP own methods, so when "JSON" works with JSON::PP (i.e. the
       created object is a JSON::PP object), available.  See to "JSON::PP OWN METHODS" in
       JSON::PP in detail.

       If you use "JSON" with additional "-support_by_pp", some methods are available even with
       JSON::XS. See to "USE PP FEATURES EVEN THOUGH XS BACKEND".

	  BEING { $ENV{PERL_JSON_BACKEND} = 'JSON::XS' }

	  use JSON -support_by_pp;

	  my $json = JSON->new;
	  $json->allow_nonref->escape_slash->encode("/");

	  # functional interfaces too.
	  print to_json(["/"], {escape_slash => 1});
	  print from_json('["foo"]', {utf8 => 1});

       If you do not want to all functions but "-support_by_pp", use "-no_export".

	  use JSON -support_by_pp, -no_export;
	  # functional interfaces are not exported.

   allow_singlequote
	   $json = $json->allow_singlequote([$enable])

       If $enable is true (or missing), then "decode" will accept any JSON strings quoted by
       single quotations that are invalid JSON format.

	   $json->allow_singlequote->decode({"foo":'bar'});
	   $json->allow_singlequote->decode({'foo':"bar"});
	   $json->allow_singlequote->decode({'foo':'bar'});

       As same as the "relaxed" option, this option may be used to parse application-specific
       files written by humans.

   allow_barekey
	   $json = $json->allow_barekey([$enable])

       If $enable is true (or missing), then "decode" will accept bare keys of JSON object that
       are invalid JSON format.

       As same as the "relaxed" option, this option may be used to parse application-specific
       files written by humans.

	   $json->allow_barekey->decode('{foo:"bar"}');

   allow_bignum
	   $json = $json->allow_bignum([$enable])

       If $enable is true (or missing), then "decode" will convert the big integer Perl cannot
       handle as integer into a Math::BigInt object and convert a floating number (any) into a
       Math::BigFloat.

       On the contrary, "encode" converts "Math::BigInt" objects and "Math::BigFloat" objects
       into JSON numbers with "allow_blessed" enable.

	  $json->allow_nonref->allow_blessed->allow_bignum;
	  $bigfloat = $json->decode('2.000000000000000000000000001');
	  print $json->encode($bigfloat);
	  # => 2.000000000000000000000000001

       See to MAPPING about the conversion of JSON number.

   loose
	   $json = $json->loose([$enable])

       The unescaped [\x00-\x1f\x22\x2f\x5c] strings are invalid in JSON strings and the module
       doesn't allow to "decode" to these (except for \x2f).  If $enable is true (or missing),
       then "decode"  will accept these unescaped strings.

	   $json->loose->decode(qq|["abc
					  def"]|);

       See to "JSON::PP OWN METHODS" in JSON::PP.

   escape_slash
	   $json = $json->escape_slash([$enable])

       According to JSON Grammar, slash (U+002F) is escaped. But by default JSON backend modules
       encode strings without escaping slash.

       If $enable is true (or missing), then "encode" will escape slashes.

   indent_length
	   $json = $json->indent_length($length)

       With JSON::XS, The indent space length is 3 and cannot be changed.  With JSON::PP, it sets
       the indent space length with the given $length.	The default is 3. The acceptable range is
       0 to 15.

   sort_by
	   $json = $json->sort_by($function_name)
	   $json = $json->sort_by($subroutine_ref)

       If $function_name or $subroutine_ref are set, its sort routine are used.

	  $js = $pc->sort_by(sub { $JSON::PP::a cmp $JSON::PP::b })->encode($obj);
	  # is($js, q|{"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4,"e":5,"f":6,"g":7,"h":8,"i":9}|);

	  $js = $pc->sort_by('own_sort')->encode($obj);
	  # is($js, q|{"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4,"e":5,"f":6,"g":7,"h":8,"i":9}|);

	  sub JSON::PP::own_sort { $JSON::PP::a cmp $JSON::PP::b }

       As the sorting routine runs in the JSON::PP scope, the given subroutine name and the
       special variables $a, $b will begin with 'JSON::PP::'.

       If $integer is set, then the effect is same as "canonical" on.

       See to "JSON::PP OWN METHODS" in JSON::PP.

MAPPING
       This section is copied from JSON::XS and modified to "JSON".  JSON::XS and JSON::PP
       mapping mechanisms are almost equivalent.

       See to "MAPPING" in JSON::XS.

   JSON -> PERL
       object
	   A JSON object becomes a reference to a hash in Perl. No ordering of object keys is
	   preserved (JSON does not preserver object key ordering itself).

       array
	   A JSON array becomes a reference to an array in Perl.

       string
	   A JSON string becomes a string scalar in Perl - Unicode codepoints in JSON are
	   represented by the same codepoints in the Perl string, so no manual decoding is
	   necessary.

       number
	   A JSON number becomes either an integer, numeric (floating point) or string scalar in
	   perl, depending on its range and any fractional parts. On the Perl level, there is no
	   difference between those as Perl handles all the conversion details, but an integer
	   may take slightly less memory and might represent more values exactly than floating
	   point numbers.

	   If the number consists of digits only, "JSON" will try to represent it as an integer
	   value. If that fails, it will try to represent it as a numeric (floating point) value
	   if that is possible without loss of precision. Otherwise it will preserve the number
	   as a string value (in which case you lose roundtripping ability, as the JSON number
	   will be re-encoded to a JSON string).

	   Numbers containing a fractional or exponential part will always be represented as
	   numeric (floating point) values, possibly at a loss of precision (in which case you
	   might lose perfect roundtripping ability, but the JSON number will still be re-encoded
	   as a JSON number).

	   Note that precision is not accuracy - binary floating point values cannot represent
	   most decimal fractions exactly, and when converting from and to floating point, "JSON"
	   only guarantees precision up to but not including the least significant bit.

	   If the backend is JSON::PP and "allow_bignum" is enable, the big integers and the
	   numeric can be optionally converted into Math::BigInt and Math::BigFloat objects.

       true, false
	   These JSON atoms become "JSON::true" and "JSON::false", respectively. They are
	   overloaded to act almost exactly like the numbers 1 and 0. You can check whether a
	   scalar is a JSON boolean by using the "JSON::is_bool" function.

	   If "JSON::true" and "JSON::false" are used as strings or compared as strings, they
	   represent as "true" and "false" respectively.

	      print JSON::true . "\n";
	       => true
	      print JSON::true + 1;
	       => 1

	      ok(JSON::true eq 'true');
	      ok(JSON::true eq	'1');
	      ok(JSON::true == 1);

	   "JSON" will install these missing overloading features to the backend modules.

       null
	   A JSON null atom becomes "undef" in Perl.

	   "JSON::null" returns "undef".

   PERL -> JSON
       The mapping from Perl to JSON is slightly more difficult, as Perl is a truly typeless
       language, so we can only guess which JSON type is meant by a Perl value.

       hash references
	   Perl hash references become JSON objects. As there is no inherent ordering in hash
	   keys (or JSON objects), they will usually be encoded in a pseudo-random order that can
	   change between runs of the same program but stays generally the same within a single
	   run of a program. "JSON" optionally sort the hash keys (determined by the canonical
	   flag), so the same data structure will serialise to the same JSON text (given same
	   settings and version of JSON::XS), but this incurs a runtime overhead and is only
	   rarely useful, e.g. when you want to compare some JSON text against another for
	   equality.

	   In future, the ordered object feature will be added to JSON::PP using "tie" mechanism.

       array references
	   Perl array references become JSON arrays.

       other references
	   Other unblessed references are generally not allowed and will cause an exception to be
	   thrown, except for references to the integers 0 and 1, which get turned into "false"
	   and "true" atoms in JSON. You can also use "JSON::false" and "JSON::true" to improve
	   readability.

	      to_json [\0,JSON::true]	   # yields [false,true]

       JSON::true, JSON::false, JSON::null
	   These special values become JSON true and JSON false values, respectively. You can
	   also use "\1" and "\0" directly if you want.

	   JSON::null returns "undef".

       blessed objects
	   Blessed objects are not directly representable in JSON. See the "allow_blessed" and
	   "convert_blessed" methods on various options on how to deal with this: basically, you
	   can choose between throwing an exception, encoding the reference as if it weren't
	   blessed, or provide your own serialiser method.

	   With "convert_blessed_universally" mode,  "encode" converts blessed hash references or
	   blessed array references (contains other blessed references) into JSON members and
	   arrays.

	      use JSON -convert_blessed_universally;
	      JSON->new->allow_blessed->convert_blessed->encode( $blessed_object );

	   See to convert_blessed.

       simple scalars
	   Simple Perl scalars (any scalar that is not a reference) are the most difficult
	   objects to encode: JSON::XS and JSON::PP will encode undefined scalars as JSON "null"
	   values, scalars that have last been used in a string context before encoding as JSON
	   strings, and anything else as number value:

	      # dump as number
	      encode_json [2]			   # yields [2]
	      encode_json [-3.0e17]		   # yields [-3e+17]
	      my $value = 5; encode_json [$value]  # yields [5]

	      # used as string, so dump as string
	      print $value;
	      encode_json [$value]		   # yields ["5"]

	      # undef becomes null
	      encode_json [undef]		   # yields [null]

	   You can force the type to be a string by stringifying it:

	      my $x = 3.1; # some variable containing a number
	      "$x";	   # stringified
	      $x .= "";    # another, more awkward way to stringify
	      print $x;    # perl does it for you, too, quite often

	   You can force the type to be a number by numifying it:

	      my $x = "3"; # some variable containing a string
	      $x += 0;	   # numify it, ensuring it will be dumped as a number
	      $x *= 1;	   # same thing, the choice is yours.

	   You can not currently force the type in other, less obscure, ways.

	   Note that numerical precision has the same meaning as under Perl (so binary to decimal
	   conversion follows the same rules as in Perl, which can differ to other languages).
	   Also, your perl interpreter might expose extensions to the floating point numbers of
	   your platform, such as infinities or NaN's - these cannot be represented in JSON, and
	   it is an error to pass those in.

       Big Number
	   If the backend is JSON::PP and "allow_bignum" is enable, "encode" converts
	   "Math::BigInt" objects and "Math::BigFloat" objects into JSON numbers.

JSON and ECMAscript
       See to "JSON and ECMAscript" in JSON::XS.

JSON and YAML
       JSON is not a subset of YAML.  See to "JSON and YAML" in JSON::XS.

BACKEND MODULE DECISION
       When you use "JSON", "JSON" tries to "use" JSON::XS. If this call failed, it will "uses"
       JSON::PP. The required JSON::XS version is 2.2 or later.

       The "JSON" constructor method returns an object inherited from the backend module, and
       JSON::XS object is a blessed scalar reference while JSON::PP is a blessed hash reference.

       So, your program should not depend on the backend module, especially returned objects
       should not be modified.

	my $json = JSON->new; # XS or PP?
	$json->{stash} = 'this is xs object'; # this code may raise an error!

       To check the backend module, there are some methods - "backend", "is_pp" and "is_xs".

	 JSON->backend; # 'JSON::XS' or 'JSON::PP'

	 JSON->backend->is_pp: # 0 or 1

	 JSON->backend->is_xs: # 1 or 0

	 $json->is_xs; # 1 or 0

	 $json->is_pp; # 0 or 1

       If you set an environment variable "PERL_JSON_BACKEND", the calling action will be
       changed.

       PERL_JSON_BACKEND = 0 or PERL_JSON_BACKEND = 'JSON::PP'
	   Always use JSON::PP

       PERL_JSON_BACKEND == 1 or PERL_JSON_BACKEND = 'JSON::XS,JSON::PP'
	   (The default) Use compiled JSON::XS if it is properly compiled & installed, otherwise
	   use JSON::PP.

       PERL_JSON_BACKEND == 2 or PERL_JSON_BACKEND = 'JSON::XS'
	   Always use compiled JSON::XS, die if it isn't properly compiled & installed.

       PERL_JSON_BACKEND = 'JSON::backportPP'
	   Always use JSON::backportPP.  JSON::backportPP is JSON::PP back port module.  "JSON"
	   includes JSON::backportPP instead of JSON::PP.

       These ideas come from DBI::PurePerl mechanism.

       example:

	BEGIN { $ENV{PERL_JSON_BACKEND} = 'JSON::PP' }
	use JSON; # always uses JSON::PP

       In future, it may be able to specify another module.

USE PP FEATURES EVEN THOUGH XS BACKEND
       Many methods are available with either JSON::XS or JSON::PP and when the backend module is
       JSON::XS, if any JSON::PP specific (i.e. JSON::XS unsupported) method is called, it will
       "warn" and be noop.

       But If you "use" "JSON" passing the optional string "-support_by_pp", it makes a part of
       those unsupported methods available.  This feature is achieved by using JSON::PP in
       "de/encode".

	  BEGIN { $ENV{PERL_JSON_BACKEND} = 2 } # with JSON::XS
	  use JSON -support_by_pp;
	  my $json = JSON->new;
	  $json->allow_nonref->escape_slash->encode("/");

       At this time, the returned object is a "JSON::Backend::XS::Supportable" object (re-blessed
       XS object), and	by checking JSON::XS unsupported flags in de/encoding, can support some
       unsupported methods - "loose", "allow_bignum", "allow_barekey", "allow_singlequote",
       "escape_slash" and "indent_length".

       When any unsupported methods are not enable, "XS de/encode" will be used as is. The switch
       is achieved by changing the symbolic tables.

       "-support_by_pp" is effective only when the backend module is JSON::XS and it makes the
       de/encoding speed down a bit.

       See to "JSON::PP SUPPORT METHODS".

INCOMPATIBLE CHANGES TO OLD VERSION
       There are big incompatibility between new version (2.00) and old (1.xx).  If you use old
       "JSON" 1.xx in your code, please check it.

       See to "Transition ways from 1.xx to 2.xx."

       jsonToObj and objToJson are obsoleted.
	   Non Perl-style name "jsonToObj" and "objToJson" are obsoleted (but not yet deleted
	   from the source).  If you use these functions in your code, please replace them with
	   "from_json" and "to_json".

       Global variables are no longer available.
	   "JSON" class variables - $JSON::AUTOCONVERT, $JSON::BareKey, etc...	- are not
	   available any longer.  Instead, various features can be used through object methods.

       Package JSON::Converter and JSON::Parser are deleted.
	   Now "JSON" bundles with JSON::PP which can handle JSON more properly than them.

       Package JSON::NotString is deleted.
	   There was "JSON::NotString" class which represents JSON value "true", "false", "null"
	   and numbers. It was deleted and replaced by "JSON::Boolean".

	   "JSON::Boolean" represents "true" and "false".

	   "JSON::Boolean" does not represent "null".

	   "JSON::null" returns "undef".

	   "JSON" makes JSON::XS::Boolean and JSON::PP::Boolean is-a relation to JSON::Boolean.

       function JSON::Number is obsoleted.
	   "JSON::Number" is now needless because JSON::XS and JSON::PP have round-trip
	   integrity.

       JSONRPC modules are deleted.
	   Perl implementation of JSON-RPC protocol - "JSONRPC ", "JSONRPC::Transport::HTTP" and
	   "Apache::JSONRPC " are deleted in this distribution.  Instead of them, there is
	   JSON::RPC which supports JSON-RPC protocol version 1.1.

   Transition ways from 1.xx to 2.xx.
       You should set "suport_by_pp" mode firstly, because it is always successful for the below
       codes even with JSON::XS.

	   use JSON -support_by_pp;

       Exported jsonToObj (simple)
	     from_json($json_text);

       Exported objToJson (simple)
	     to_json($perl_scalar);

       Exported jsonToObj (advanced)
	     $flags = {allow_barekey => 1, allow_singlequote => 1};
	     from_json($json_text, $flags);

	   equivalent to:

	     $JSON::BareKey = 1;
	     $JSON::QuotApos = 1;
	     jsonToObj($json_text);

       Exported objToJson (advanced)
	     $flags = {allow_blessed => 1, allow_barekey => 1};
	     to_json($perl_scalar, $flags);

	   equivalent to:

	     $JSON::BareKey = 1;
	     objToJson($perl_scalar);

       jsonToObj as object method
	     $json->decode($json_text);

       objToJson as object method
	     $json->encode($perl_scalar);

       new method with parameters
	   The "new" method in 2.x takes any parameters no longer.  You can set parameters
	   instead;

	      $json = JSON->new->pretty;

       $JSON::Pretty, $JSON::Indent, $JSON::Delimiter
	   If "indent" is enable, that means $JSON::Pretty flag set. And $JSON::Delimiter was
	   substituted by "space_before" and "space_after".  In conclusion:

	      $json->indent->space_before->space_after;

	   Equivalent to:

	     $json->pretty;

	   To change indent length, use "indent_length".

	   (Only with JSON::PP, if "-support_by_pp" is not used.)

	     $json->pretty->indent_length(2)->encode($perl_scalar);

       $JSON::BareKey
	   (Only with JSON::PP, if "-support_by_pp" is not used.)

	     $json->allow_barekey->decode($json_text)

       $JSON::ConvBlessed
	   use "-convert_blessed_universally". See to convert_blessed.

       $JSON::QuotApos
	   (Only with JSON::PP, if "-support_by_pp" is not used.)

	     $json->allow_singlequote->decode($json_text)

       $JSON::SingleQuote
	   Disable. "JSON" does not make such a invalid JSON string any longer.

       $JSON::KeySort
	     $json->canonical->encode($perl_scalar)

	   This is the ascii sort.

	   If you want to use with your own sort routine, check the "sort_by" method.

	   (Only with JSON::PP, even if "-support_by_pp" is used currently.)

	     $json->sort_by($sort_routine_ref)->encode($perl_scalar)

	     $json->sort_by(sub { $JSON::PP::a <=> $JSON::PP::b })->encode($perl_scalar)

	   Can't access $a and $b but $JSON::PP::a and $JSON::PP::b.

       $JSON::SkipInvalid
	     $json->allow_unknown

       $JSON::AUTOCONVERT
	   Needless. "JSON" backend modules have the round-trip integrity.

       $JSON::UTF8
	   Needless because "JSON" (JSON::XS/JSON::PP) sets the UTF8 flag on properly.

	       # With UTF8-flagged strings

	       $json->allow_nonref;
	       $str = chr(1000); # UTF8-flagged

	       $json_text  = $json->utf8(0)->encode($str);
	       utf8::is_utf8($json_text);
	       # true
	       $json_text  = $json->utf8(1)->encode($str);
	       utf8::is_utf8($json_text);
	       # false

	       $str = '"' . chr(1000) . '"'; # UTF8-flagged

	       $perl_scalar  = $json->utf8(0)->decode($str);
	       utf8::is_utf8($perl_scalar);
	       # true
	       $perl_scalar  = $json->utf8(1)->decode($str);
	       # died because of 'Wide character in subroutine'

	   See to "A FEW NOTES ON UNICODE AND PERL" in JSON::XS.

       $JSON::UnMapping
	   Disable. See to MAPPING.

       $JSON::SelfConvert
	   This option was deleted.  Instead of it, if a given blessed object has the "TO_JSON"
	   method, "TO_JSON" will be executed with "convert_blessed".

	     $json->convert_blessed->encode($blessed_hashref_or_arrayref)
	     # if need, call allow_blessed

	   Note that it was "toJson" in old version, but now not "toJson" but "TO_JSON".

TODO
       example programs

THREADS
       No test with JSON::PP. If with JSON::XS, See to "THREADS" in JSON::XS.

BUGS
       Please report bugs relevant to "JSON" to <makamaka[at]cpan.org>.

SEE ALSO
       Most of the document is copied and modified from JSON::XS doc.

       JSON::XS, JSON::PP

       "RFC4627"(<http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4627.txt>)

AUTHOR
       Makamaka Hannyaharamitu, <makamaka[at]cpan.org>

       JSON::XS was written by	Marc Lehmann <schmorp[at]schmorp.de>

       The release of this new version owes to the courtesy of Marc Lehmann.

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
       Copyright 2005-2013 by Makamaka Hannyaharamitu

       This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.16.3				    2013-06-05					  JSON(3)
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