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IO::Scalar(3)		       User Contributed Perl Documentation		    IO::Scalar(3)

NAME
       IO::Scalar - IO:: interface for reading/writing a scalar

SYNOPSIS
       Perform I/O on strings, using the basic OO interface...

	   use 5.005;
	   use IO::Scalar;
	   $data = "My message:\n";

	   ### Open a handle on a string, and append to it:
	   $SH = new IO::Scalar \$data;
	   $SH->print("Hello");
	   $SH->print(", world!\nBye now!\n");
	   print "The string is now: ", $data, "\n";

	   ### Open a handle on a string, read it line-by-line, then close it:
	   $SH = new IO::Scalar \$data;
	   while (defined($_ = $SH->getline)) {
	       print "Got line: $_";
	   }
	   $SH->close;

	   ### Open a handle on a string, and slurp in all the lines:
	   $SH = new IO::Scalar \$data;
	   print "All lines:\n", $SH->getlines;

	   ### Get the current position (either of two ways):
	   $pos = $SH->getpos;
	   $offset = $SH->tell;

	   ### Set the current position (either of two ways):
	   $SH->setpos($pos);
	   $SH->seek($offset, 0);

	   ### Open an anonymous temporary scalar:
	   $SH = new IO::Scalar;
	   $SH->print("Hi there!");
	   print "I printed: ", ${$SH->sref}, "\n";	 ### get at value

       Don't like OO for your I/O?  No problem.  Thanks to the magic of an invisible tie(), the
       following now works out of the box, just as it does with IO::Handle:

	   use 5.005;
	   use IO::Scalar;
	   $data = "My message:\n";

	   ### Open a handle on a string, and append to it:
	   $SH = new IO::Scalar \$data;
	   print $SH "Hello";
	   print $SH ", world!\nBye now!\n";
	   print "The string is now: ", $data, "\n";

	   ### Open a handle on a string, read it line-by-line, then close it:
	   $SH = new IO::Scalar \$data;
	   while (<$SH>) {
	       print "Got line: $_";
	   }
	   close $SH;

	   ### Open a handle on a string, and slurp in all the lines:
	   $SH = new IO::Scalar \$data;
	   print "All lines:\n", <$SH>;

	   ### Get the current position (WARNING: requires 5.6):
	   $offset = tell $SH;

	   ### Set the current position (WARNING: requires 5.6):
	   seek $SH, $offset, 0;

	   ### Open an anonymous temporary scalar:
	   $SH = new IO::Scalar;
	   print $SH "Hi there!";
	   print "I printed: ", ${$SH->sref}, "\n";	 ### get at value

       And for you folks with 1.x code out there: the old tie() style still works, though this is
       unnecessary and deprecated:

	   use IO::Scalar;

	   ### Writing to a scalar...
	   my $s;
	   tie *OUT, 'IO::Scalar', \$s;
	   print OUT "line 1\nline 2\n", "line 3\n";
	   print "String is now: $s\n"

	   ### Reading and writing an anonymous scalar...
	   tie *OUT, 'IO::Scalar';
	   print OUT "line 1\nline 2\n", "line 3\n";
	   tied(OUT)->seek(0,0);
	   while (<OUT>) {
	       print "Got line: ", $_;
	   }

       Stringification works, too!

	   my $SH = new IO::Scalar \$data;
	   print $SH "Hello, ";
	   print $SH "world!";
	   print "I printed: $SH\n";

DESCRIPTION
       This class is part of the IO::Stringy distribution; see IO::Stringy for change log and
       general information.

       The IO::Scalar class implements objects which behave just like IO::Handle (or FileHandle)
       objects, except that you may use them to write to (or read from) scalars.  These handles
       are automatically tiehandle'd (though please see "WARNINGS" for information relevant to
       your Perl version).

       Basically, this:

	   my $s;
	   $SH = new IO::Scalar \$s;
	   $SH->print("Hel", "lo, ");	      ### OO style
	   $SH->print("world!\n");	      ### ditto

       Or this:

	   my $s;
	   $SH = tie *OUT, 'IO::Scalar', \$s;
	   print OUT "Hel", "lo, ";	      ### non-OO style
	   print OUT "world!\n";	      ### ditto

       Causes $s to be set to:

	   "Hello, world!\n"

PUBLIC INTERFACE
   Construction
       new [ARGS...]
	   Class method.  Return a new, unattached scalar handle.  If any arguments are given,
	   they're sent to open().

       open [SCALARREF]
	   Instance method.  Open the scalar handle on a new scalar, pointed to by SCALARREF.  If
	   no SCALARREF is given, a "private" scalar is created to hold the file data.

	   Returns the self object on success, undefined on error.

       opened
	   Instance method.  Is the scalar handle opened on something?

       close
	   Instance method.  Disassociate the scalar handle from its underlying scalar.  Done
	   automatically on destroy.

   Input and output
       flush
	   Instance method.  No-op, provided for OO compatibility.

       getc
	   Instance method.  Return the next character, or undef if none remain.

       getline
	   Instance method.  Return the next line, or undef on end of string.  Can safely be
	   called in an array context.	Currently, lines are delimited by "\n".

       getlines
	   Instance method.  Get all remaining lines.  It will croak() if accidentally called in
	   a scalar context.

       print ARGS...
	   Instance method.  Print ARGS to the underlying scalar.

	   Warning: this continues to always cause a seek to the end of the string, but if you
	   perform seek()s and tell()s, it is still safer to explicitly seek-to-end before
	   subsequent print()s.

       read BUF, NBYTES, [OFFSET]
	   Instance method.  Read some bytes from the scalar.  Returns the number of bytes
	   actually read, 0 on end-of-file, undef on error.

       write BUF, NBYTES, [OFFSET]
	   Instance method.  Write some bytes to the scalar.

       sysread BUF, LEN, [OFFSET]
	   Instance method.  Read some bytes from the scalar.  Returns the number of bytes
	   actually read, 0 on end-of-file, undef on error.

       syswrite BUF, NBYTES, [OFFSET]
	   Instance method.  Write some bytes to the scalar.

   Seeking/telling and other attributes
       autoflush
	   Instance method.  No-op, provided for OO compatibility.

       binmode
	   Instance method.  No-op, provided for OO compatibility.

       clearerr
	   Instance method.  Clear the error and EOF flags.  A no-op.

       eof Instance method.  Are we at end of file?

       seek OFFSET, WHENCE
	   Instance method.  Seek to a given position in the stream.

       sysseek OFFSET, WHENCE
	   Instance method. Identical to "seek OFFSET, WHENCE", q.v.

       tell
	   Instance method.  Return the current position in the stream, as a numeric offset.

       setpos POS
	   Instance method.  Set the current position, using the opaque value returned by
	   "getpos()".

       getpos
	   Instance method.  Return the current position in the string, as an opaque object.

       sref
	   Instance method.  Return a reference to the underlying scalar.

WARNINGS
       Perl's TIEHANDLE spec was incomplete prior to 5.005_57; it was missing support for
       "seek()", "tell()", and "eof()".  Attempting to use these functions with an IO::Scalar
       will not work prior to 5.005_57. IO::Scalar will not have the relevant methods invoked;
       and even worse, this kind of bug can lie dormant for a while.  If you turn warnings on
       (via $^W or "perl -w"), and you see something like this...

	   attempt to seek on unopened filehandle

       ...then you are probably trying to use one of these functions on an IO::Scalar with an old
       Perl.  The remedy is to simply use the OO version; e.g.:

	   $SH->seek(0,0);    ### GOOD: will work on any 5.005
	   seek($SH,0,0);     ### WARNING: will only work on 5.005_57 and beyond

VERSION
       $Id: Scalar.pm,v 1.6 2005/02/10 21:21:53 dfs Exp $

AUTHORS
   Primary Maintainer
       David F. Skoll (dfs@roaringpenguin.com).

   Principal author
       Eryq (eryq@zeegee.com).	President, ZeeGee Software Inc (http://www.zeegee.com).

   Other contributors
       The full set of contributors always includes the folks mentioned in "CHANGE LOG" in
       IO::Stringy.  But just the same, special thanks to the following individuals for their
       invaluable contributions (if I've forgotten or misspelled your name, please email me!):

       Andy Glew, for contributing "getc()".

       Brandon Browning, for suggesting "opened()".

       David Richter, for finding and fixing the bug in "PRINTF()".

       Eric L. Brine, for his offset-using read() and write() implementations.

       Richard Jones, for his patches to massively improve the performance of "getline()" and add
       "sysread" and "syswrite".

       B. K. Oxley (binkley), for stringification and inheritance improvements, and sundry good
       ideas.

       Doug Wilson, for the IO::Handle inheritance and automatic tie-ing.

SEE ALSO
       IO::String, which is quite similar but which was designed more-recently and with an
       IO::Handle-like interface in mind, so you could mix OO- and native-filehandle usage
       without using tied().

       Note: as of version 2.x, these classes all work like their IO::Handle counterparts, so we
       have comparable functionality to IO::String.

perl v5.16.3				    2005-02-10				    IO::Scalar(3)
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