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ExtUtils::MM_Any(3)	       User Contributed Perl Documentation	      ExtUtils::MM_Any(3)

NAME
       ExtUtils::MM_Any - Platform-agnostic MM methods

SYNOPSIS
	 FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY!

	 package ExtUtils::MM_SomeOS;

	 # Temporarily, you have to subclass both.  Put MM_Any first.
	 require ExtUtils::MM_Any;
	 require ExtUtils::MM_Unix;
	 @ISA = qw(ExtUtils::MM_Any ExtUtils::Unix);

DESCRIPTION
       FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY!

       ExtUtils::MM_Any is a superclass for the ExtUtils::MM_* set of modules.	It contains
       methods which are either inherently cross-platform or are written in a cross-platform
       manner.

       Subclass off of ExtUtils::MM_Any and ExtUtils::MM_Unix.	This is a temporary solution.

       THIS MAY BE TEMPORARY!

METHODS
       Any methods marked Abstract must be implemented by subclasses.

   Cross-platform helper methods
       These are methods which help writing cross-platform code.

       os_flavor  Abstract

	   my @os_flavor = $mm->os_flavor;

       @os_flavor is the style of operating system this is, usually corresponding to the MM_*.pm
       file we're using.

       The first element of @os_flavor is the major family (ie. Unix, Windows, VMS, OS/2, etc...)
       and the rest are sub families.

       Some examples:

	   Cygwin98	  ('Unix',  'Cygwin', 'Cygwin9x')
	   Windows	  ('Win32')
	   Win98	  ('Win32', 'Win9x')
	   Linux	  ('Unix',  'Linux')
	   MacOS X	  ('Unix',  'Darwin', 'MacOS', 'MacOS X')
	   OS/2 	  ('OS/2')

       This is used to write code for styles of operating system.  See os_flavor_is() for use.

       os_flavor_is

	   my $is_this_flavor = $mm->os_flavor_is($this_flavor);
	   my $is_this_flavor = $mm->os_flavor_is(@one_of_these_flavors);

       Checks to see if the current operating system is one of the given flavors.

       This is useful for code like:

	   if( $mm->os_flavor_is('Unix') ) {
	       $out = `foo 2>&1`;
	   }
	   else {
	       $out = `foo`;
	   }

       can_load_xs

	   my $can_load_xs = $self->can_load_xs;

       Returns true if we have the ability to load XS.

       This is important because miniperl, used to build XS modules in the core, can not load XS.

       split_command

	   my @cmds = $MM->split_command($cmd, @args);

       Most OS have a maximum command length they can execute at once.	Large modules can easily
       generate commands well past that limit.	Its necessary to split long commands up into a
       series of shorter commands.

       "split_command" will return a series of @cmds each processing part of the args.
       Collectively they will process all the arguments.  Each individual line in @cmds will not
       be longer than the $self->max_exec_len being careful to take into account macro expansion.

       $cmd should include any switches and repeated initial arguments.

       If no @args are given, no @cmds will be returned.

       Pairs of arguments will always be preserved in a single command, this is a heuristic for
       things like pm_to_blib and pod2man which work on pairs of arguments.  This makes things
       like this safe:

	   $self->split_command($cmd, %pod2man);

       echo

	   my @commands = $MM->echo($text);
	   my @commands = $MM->echo($text, $file);
	   my @commands = $MM->echo($text, $file, \%opts);

       Generates a set of @commands which print the $text to a $file.

       If $file is not given, output goes to STDOUT.

       If $opts{append} is true the $file will be appended to rather than overwritten.	Default
       is to overwrite.

       If $opts{allow_variables} is true, make variables of the form "$(...)" will not be
       escaped.  Other "$" will.  Default is to escape all "$".

       Example of use:

	   my $make = map "\t$_\n", $MM->echo($text, $file);

       wraplist

	 my $args = $mm->wraplist(@list);

       Takes an array of items and turns them into a well-formatted list of arguments.	In most
       cases this is simply something like:

	   FOO \
	   BAR \
	   BAZ

       maketext_filter

	   my $filter_make_text = $mm->maketext_filter($make_text);

       The text of the Makefile is run through this method before writing to disk.  It allows
       systems a chance to make portability fixes to the Makefile.

       By default it does nothing.

       This method is protected and not intended to be called outside of MakeMaker.

       cd  Abstract

	 my $subdir_cmd = $MM->cd($subdir, @cmds);

       This will generate a make fragment which runs the @cmds in the given $dir.  The rough
       equivalent to this, except cross platform.

	 cd $subdir && $cmd

       Currently $dir can only go down one level.  "foo" is fine.  "foo/bar" is not.  "../foo" is
       right out.

       The resulting $subdir_cmd has no leading tab nor trailing newline.  This makes it easier
       to embed in a make string.  For example.

	     my $make = sprintf <<'CODE', $subdir_cmd;
	 foo :
	     $(ECHO) what
	     %s
	     $(ECHO) mouche
	 CODE

       oneliner  Abstract

	 my $oneliner = $MM->oneliner($perl_code);
	 my $oneliner = $MM->oneliner($perl_code, \@switches);

       This will generate a perl one-liner safe for the particular platform you're on based on
       the given $perl_code and @switches (a -e is assumed) suitable for using in a make target.
       It will use the proper shell quoting and escapes.

       $(PERLRUN) will be used as perl.

       Any newlines in $perl_code will be escaped.  Leading and trailing newlines will be
       stripped.  Makes this idiom much easier:

	   my $code = $MM->oneliner(<<'CODE', [...switches...]);
       some code here
       another line here
       CODE

       Usage might be something like:

	   # an echo emulation
	   $oneliner = $MM->oneliner('print "Foo\n"');
	   $make = '$oneliner > somefile';

       All dollar signs must be doubled in the $perl_code if you expect them to be interpreted
       normally, otherwise it will be considered a make macro.	Also remember to quote make
       macros else it might be used as a bareword.  For example:

	   # Assign the value of the $(VERSION_FROM) make macro to $vf.
	   $oneliner = $MM->oneliner('$$vf = "$(VERSION_FROM)"');

       Its currently very simple and may be expanded sometime in the figure to include more
       flexible code and switches.

       quote_literal  Abstract

	   my $safe_text = $MM->quote_literal($text);
	   my $safe_text = $MM->quote_literal($text, \%options);

       This will quote $text so it is interpreted literally in the shell.

       For example, on Unix this would escape any single-quotes in $text and put single-quotes
       around the whole thing.

       If $options{allow_variables} is true it will leave '$(FOO)' make variables untouched.  If
       false they will be escaped like any other "$".  Defaults to true.

       escape_dollarsigns

	   my $escaped_text = $MM->escape_dollarsigns($text);

       Escapes stray "$" so they are not interpreted as make variables.

       It lets by "$(...)".

       escape_all_dollarsigns

	   my $escaped_text = $MM->escape_all_dollarsigns($text);

       Escapes all "$" so they are not interpreted as make variables.

       escape_newlines	Abstract

	   my $escaped_text = $MM->escape_newlines($text);

       Shell escapes newlines in $text.

       max_exec_len  Abstract

	   my $max_exec_len = $MM->max_exec_len;

       Calculates the maximum command size the OS can exec.  Effectively, this is the max size of
       a shell command line.

       make

	   my $make = $MM->make;

       Returns the make variant we're generating the Makefile for.  This attempts to do some
       normalization on the information from %Config or the user.

   Targets
       These are methods which produce make targets.

       all_target

       Generate the default target 'all'.

       blibdirs_target

	   my $make_frag = $mm->blibdirs_target;

       Creates the blibdirs target which creates all the directories we use in blib/.

       The blibdirs.ts target is deprecated.  Depend on blibdirs instead.

       clean (o)

       Defines the clean target.

       clean_subdirs_target

	 my $make_frag = $MM->clean_subdirs_target;

       Returns the clean_subdirs target.  This is used by the clean target to call clean on any
       subdirectories which contain Makefiles.

       dir_target

	   my $make_frag = $mm->dir_target(@directories);

       Generates targets to create the specified directories and set its permission to PERM_DIR.

       Because depending on a directory to just ensure it exists doesn't work too well (the
       modified time changes too often) dir_target() creates a .exists file in the created
       directory.  It is this you should depend on.  For portability purposes you should use the
       $(DIRFILESEP) macro rather than a '/' to separate the directory from the file.

	   yourdirectory$(DIRFILESEP).exists

       distdir

       Defines the scratch directory target that will hold the distribution before tar-ing (or
       shar-ing).

       dist_test

       Defines a target that produces the distribution in the scratch directory, and runs 'perl
       Makefile.PL; make ;make test' in that subdirectory.

       dynamic (o)

       Defines the dynamic target.

       makemakerdflt_target

	 my $make_frag = $mm->makemakerdflt_target

       Returns a make fragment with the makemakerdeflt_target specified.  This target is the
       first target in the Makefile, is the default target and simply points off to 'all' just in
       case any make variant gets confused or something gets snuck in before the real 'all'
       target.

       manifypods_target

	 my $manifypods_target = $self->manifypods_target;

       Generates the manifypods target.  This target generates man pages from all POD files in
       MAN1PODS and MAN3PODS.

       metafile_target

	   my $target = $mm->metafile_target;

       Generate the metafile target.

       Writes the file META.yml YAML encoded meta-data about the module in the distdir.  The
       format follows Module::Build's as closely as possible.

       metafile_data

	   my @metadata_pairs = $mm->metafile_data(\%meta_add, \%meta_merge);

       Returns the data which MakeMaker turns into the META.yml file.

       Values of %meta_add will overwrite any existing metadata in those keys.	%meta_merge will
       be merged with them.

       metafile_file

	   my $meta_yml = $mm->metafile_file(@metadata_pairs);

       Turns the @metadata_pairs into YAML.

       This method does not implement a complete YAML dumper, being limited to dump a hash with
       values which are strings, undef's or nested hashes and arrays of strings. No
       quoting/escaping is done.

       distmeta_target

	   my $make_frag = $mm->distmeta_target;

       Generates the distmeta target to add META.yml to the MANIFEST in the distdir.

       mymeta

	   my $mymeta = $mm->mymeta;

       Generate MYMETA information as a hash either from an existing META.yml or from internal
       data.

       write_mymeta

	   $self->write_mymeta( $mymeta );

       Write MYMETA information to MYMETA.yml.

       This will probably be refactored into a more generic YAML dumping method.

       realclean (o)

       Defines the realclean target.

       realclean_subdirs_target

	 my $make_frag = $MM->realclean_subdirs_target;

       Returns the realclean_subdirs target.  This is used by the realclean target to call
       realclean on any subdirectories which contain Makefiles.

       signature_target

	   my $target = $mm->signature_target;

       Generate the signature target.

       Writes the file SIGNATURE with "cpansign -s".

       distsignature_target

	   my $make_frag = $mm->distsignature_target;

       Generates the distsignature target to add SIGNATURE to the MANIFEST in the distdir.

       special_targets

	 my $make_frag = $mm->special_targets

       Returns a make fragment containing any targets which have special meaning to make.  For
       example, .SUFFIXES and .PHONY.

   Init methods
       Methods which help initialize the MakeMaker object and macros.

       init_ABSTRACT

	   $mm->init_ABSTRACT

       init_INST

	   $mm->init_INST;

       Called by init_main.  Sets up all INST_* variables except those related to XS code.  Those
       are handled in init_xs.

       init_INSTALL

	   $mm->init_INSTALL;

       Called by init_main.  Sets up all INSTALL_* variables (except INSTALLDIRS) and *PREFIX.

       init_INSTALL_from_PREFIX

	 $mm->init_INSTALL_from_PREFIX;

       init_from_INSTALL_BASE

	   $mm->init_from_INSTALL_BASE

       init_VERSION  Abstract

	   $mm->init_VERSION

       Initialize macros representing versions of MakeMaker and other tools

       MAKEMAKER: path to the MakeMaker module.

       MM_VERSION: ExtUtils::MakeMaker Version

       MM_REVISION: ExtUtils::MakeMaker version control revision (for backwards
		    compat)

       VERSION: version of your module

       VERSION_MACRO: which macro represents the version (usually 'VERSION')

       VERSION_SYM: like version but safe for use as an RCS revision number

       DEFINE_VERSION: -D line to set the module version when compiling

       XS_VERSION: version in your .xs file.  Defaults to $(VERSION)

       XS_VERSION_MACRO: which macro represents the XS version.

       XS_DEFINE_VERSION: -D line to set the xs version when compiling.

       Called by init_main.

       init_tools

	   $MM->init_tools();

       Initializes the simple macro definitions used by tools_other() and places them in the $MM
       object.	These use conservative cross platform versions and should be overridden with
       platform specific versions for performance.

       Defines at least these macros.

	 Macro		   Description

	 NOOP		   Do nothing
	 NOECHO 	   Tell make not to display the command itself

	 SHELL		   Program used to run shell commands

	 ECHO		   Print text adding a newline on the end
	 RM_F		   Remove a file
	 RM_RF		   Remove a directory
	 TOUCH		   Update a file's timestamp
	 TEST_F 	   Test for a file's existence
	 CP		   Copy a file
	 MV		   Move a file
	 CHMOD		   Change permissions on a file
	 FALSE		   Exit with non-zero
	 TRUE		   Exit with zero

	 UMASK_NULL	   Nullify umask
	 DEV_NULL	   Suppress all command output

       init_others

	   $MM->init_others();

       Initializes the macro definitions having to do with compiling and linking used by
       tools_other() and places them in the $MM object.

       If there is no description, its the same as the parameter to WriteMakefile() documented in
       ExtUtils::MakeMaker.

       tools_other

	   my $make_frag = $MM->tools_other;

       Returns a make fragment containing definitions for the macros init_others() initializes.

       init_DIRFILESEP	Abstract

	 $MM->init_DIRFILESEP;
	 my $dirfilesep = $MM->{DIRFILESEP};

       Initializes the DIRFILESEP macro which is the separator between the directory and filename
       in a filepath.  ie. / on Unix, \ on Win32 and nothing on VMS.

       For example:

	   # instead of $(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)/extralibs.ld
	   $(INST_ARCHAUTODIR)$(DIRFILESEP)extralibs.ld

       Something of a hack but it prevents a lot of code duplication between MM_* variants.

       Do not use this as a separator between directories.  Some operating systems use different
       separators between subdirectories as between directories and filenames (for example:
       VOLUME:[dir1.dir2]file on VMS).

       init_linker  Abstract

	   $mm->init_linker;

       Initialize macros which have to do with linking.

       PERL_ARCHIVE: path to libperl.a equivalent to be linked to dynamic extensions.

       PERL_ARCHIVE_AFTER: path to a library which should be put on the linker command line after
       the external libraries to be linked to dynamic extensions.  This may be needed if the
       linker is one-pass, and Perl includes some overrides for C RTL functions, such as
       malloc().

       EXPORT_LIST: name of a file that is passed to linker to define symbols to be exported.

       Some OSes do not need these in which case leave it blank.

       init_platform

	   $mm->init_platform

       Initialize any macros which are for platform specific use only.

       A typical one is the version number of your OS specific module.	(ie. MM_Unix_VERSION or
       MM_VMS_VERSION).

       init_MAKE

	   $mm->init_MAKE

       Initialize MAKE from either a MAKE environment variable or $Config{make}.

   Tools
       A grab bag of methods to generate specific macros and commands.

       manifypods

       Defines targets and routines to translate the pods into manpages and put them into the
       INST_* directories.

       POD2MAN_macro

	 my $pod2man_macro = $self->POD2MAN_macro

       Returns a definition for the POD2MAN macro.  This is a program which emulates the pod2man
       utility.  You can add more switches to the command by simply appending them on the macro.

       Typical usage:

	   $(POD2MAN) --section=3 --perm_rw=$(PERM_RW) podfile1 man_page1 ...

       test_via_harness

	 my $command = $mm->test_via_harness($perl, $tests);

       Returns a $command line which runs the given set of $tests with Test::Harness and the
       given $perl.

       Used on the t/*.t files.

       test_via_script

	 my $command = $mm->test_via_script($perl, $script);

       Returns a $command line which just runs a single test without Test::Harness.  No checks
       are done on the results, they're just printed.

       Used for test.pl, since they don't always follow Test::Harness formatting.

       tool_autosplit

       Defines a simple perl call that runs autosplit. May be deprecated by pm_to_blib soon.

       arch_check

	   my $arch_ok = $mm->arch_check(
	       $INC{"Config.pm"},
	       File::Spec->catfile($Config{archlibexp}, "Config.pm")
	   );

       A sanity check that what Perl thinks the architecture is and what Config thinks the
       architecture is are the same.  If they're not it will return false and show a diagnostic
       message.

       When building Perl it will always return true, as nothing is installed yet.

       The interface is a bit odd because this is the result of a quick refactoring.  Don't rely
       on it.

   File::Spec wrappers
       ExtUtils::MM_Any is a subclass of File::Spec.  The methods noted here override File::Spec.

       catfile

       File::Spec <= 0.83 has a bug where the file part of catfile is not canonicalized.  This
       override fixes that bug.

   Misc
       Methods I can't really figure out where they should go yet.

       find_tests

	 my $test = $mm->find_tests;

       Returns a string suitable for feeding to the shell to return all tests in t/*.t.

       extra_clean_files

	   my @files_to_clean = $MM->extra_clean_files;

       Returns a list of OS specific files to be removed in the clean target in addition to the
       usual set.

       installvars

	   my @installvars = $mm->installvars;

       A list of all the INSTALL* variables without the INSTALL prefix.  Useful for iteration or
       building related variable sets.

       libscan

	 my $wanted = $self->libscan($path);

       Takes a path to a file or dir and returns an empty string if we don't want to include this
       file in the library.  Otherwise it returns the the $path unchanged.

       Mainly used to exclude version control administrative directories from installation.

       platform_constants

	   my $make_frag = $mm->platform_constants

       Returns a make fragment defining all the macros initialized in init_platform() rather than
       put them in constants().

AUTHOR
       Michael G Schwern <schwern@pobox.com> and the denizens of makemaker@perl.org with code
       from ExtUtils::MM_Unix and ExtUtils::MM_Win32.

perl v5.16.3				    2013-06-14			      ExtUtils::MM_Any(3)
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