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ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ(3)    User Contributed Perl Documentation    ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ(3)

NAME
       ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ - Frequently Asked Questions About MakeMaker

DESCRIPTION
       FAQs, tricks and tips for "ExtUtils::MakeMaker".

   Module Installation
       How do I install a module into my home directory?
	   If you're not the Perl administrator you probably don't have permission to install a
	   module to its default location.  Then you should install it for your own use into your
	   home directory like so:

	       # Non-unix folks, replace ~ with /path/to/your/home/dir
	       perl Makefile.PL INSTALL_BASE=~

	   This will put modules into ~/lib/perl5, man pages into ~/man and programs into ~/bin.

	   To ensure your Perl programs can see these newly installed modules, set your
	   "PERL5LIB" environment variable to ~/lib/perl5 or tell each of your programs to look
	   in that directory with the following:

	       use lib "$ENV{HOME}/lib/perl5";

	   or if $ENV{HOME} isn't set and you don't want to set it for some reason, do it the
	   long way.

	       use lib "/path/to/your/home/dir/lib/perl5";

       How do I get MakeMaker and Module::Build to install to the same place?
	   Module::Build, as of 0.28, supports two ways to install to the same location as
	   MakeMaker.

	   We highly recommend the install_base method, its the simplest and most closely
	   approximates the expected behavior of an installation prefix.

	   1) Use INSTALL_BASE / "--install_base"

	   MakeMaker (as of 6.31) and Module::Build (as of 0.28) both can install to the same
	   locations using the "install_base" concept.	See "INSTALL_BASE" in ExtUtils::MakeMaker
	   for details.  To get MM and MB to install to the same location simply set INSTALL_BASE
	   in MM and "--install_base" in MB to the same location.

	       perl Makefile.PL INSTALL_BASE=/whatever
	       perl Build.PL	--install_base /whatever

	   This works most like other language's behavior when you specify a prefix.  We
	   recommend this method.

	   2) Use PREFIX / "--prefix"

	   Module::Build 0.28 added support for "--prefix" which works like MakeMaker's PREFIX.

	       perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/whatever
	       perl Build.PL	--prefix /whatever

	   We highly discourage this method.  It should only be used if you know what you're
	   doing and specifically need the PREFIX behavior.  The PREFIX algorithm is complicated
	   and focused on matching the system installation.

       How do I keep from installing man pages?
	   Recent versions of MakeMaker will only install man pages on Unix-like operating
	   systems.

	   For an individual module:

		   perl Makefile.PL INSTALLMAN1DIR=none INSTALLMAN3DIR=none

	   If you want to suppress man page installation for all modules you have to reconfigure
	   Perl and tell it 'none' when it asks where to install man pages.

       How do I use a module without installing it?
	   Two ways.  One is to build the module normally...

		   perl Makefile.PL
		   make
		   make test

	   ...and then set the PERL5LIB environment variable to point at the blib/lib and
	   blib/arch directories.

	   The other is to install the module in a temporary location.

		   perl Makefile.PL INSTALL_BASE=~/tmp
		   make
		   make test
		   make install

	   And then set PERL5LIB to ~/tmp/lib/perl5.  This works well when you have multiple
	   modules to work with.  It also ensures that the module goes through its full
	   installation process which may modify it.

       PREFIX vs INSTALL_BASE from Module::Build::Cookbook
	   The behavior of PREFIX is complicated and depends closely on how your Perl is
	   configured. The resulting installation locations will vary from machine to machine and
	   even different installations of Perl on the same machine.  Because of this, its
	   difficult to document where prefix will place your modules.

	   In contrast, INSTALL_BASE has predictable, easy to explain installation locations.
	   Now that Module::Build and MakeMaker both have INSTALL_BASE there is little reason to
	   use PREFIX other than to preserve your existing installation locations. If you are
	   starting a fresh Perl installation we encourage you to use INSTALL_BASE. If you have
	   an existing installation installed via PREFIX, consider moving it to an installation
	   structure matching INSTALL_BASE and using that instead.

   Common errors and problems
       "No rule to make target `/usr/lib/perl5/CORE/config.h', needed by `Makefile'"
	   Just what it says, you're missing that file.  MakeMaker uses it to determine if perl
	   has been rebuilt since the Makefile was made.  It's a bit of a bug that it halts
	   installation.

	   Some operating systems don't ship the CORE directory with their base perl install.  To
	   solve the problem, you likely need to install a perl development package such as perl-
	   devel (CentOS, Fedora and other Redhat systems) or perl (Ubuntu and other Debian
	   systems).

   Philosophy and History
       Why not just use <insert other build config tool here>?
	   Why did MakeMaker reinvent the build configuration wheel?  Why not just use autoconf
	   or automake or ppm or Ant or ...

	   There are many reasons, but the major one is cross-platform compatibility.

	   Perl is one of the most ported pieces of software ever.  It works on operating systems
	   I've never even heard of (see perlport for details).  It needs a build tool that can
	   work on all those platforms and with any wacky C compilers and linkers they might
	   have.

	   No such build tool exists.  Even make itself has wildly different dialects.	So we
	   have to build our own.

       What is Module::Build and how does it relate to MakeMaker?
	   Module::Build is a project by Ken Williams to supplant MakeMaker.  Its primary
	   advantages are:

	   o	   pure perl.  no make, no shell commands

	   o	   easier to customize

	   o	   cleaner internals

	   o	   less cruft

	   Module::Build is the official heir apparent to MakeMaker and we encourage people to
	   work on M::B rather than spending time adding features to MakeMaker.

   Module Writing
       How do I keep my $VERSION up to date without resetting it manually?
	   Often you want to manually set the $VERSION in the main module distribution because
	   this is the version that everybody sees on CPAN and maybe you want to customize it a
	   bit.  But for all the other modules in your dist, $VERSION is really just bookkeeping
	   and all that's important is it goes up every time the module is changed.  Doing this
	   by hand is a pain and you often forget.

	   Simplest way to do it automatically is to use your version control system's revision
	   number (you are using version control, right?).

	   In CVS, RCS and SVN you use $Revision$ (see the documentation of your version control
	   system for details).  Every time the file is checked in the $Revision$ will be
	   updated, updating your $VERSION.

	   SVN uses a simple integer for $Revision$ so you can adapt it for your $VERSION like
	   so:

	       ($VERSION) = q$Revision$ =~ /(\d+)/;

	   In CVS and RCS version 1.9 is followed by 1.10.  Since CPAN compares version numbers
	   numerically we use a sprintf() to convert 1.9 to 1.009 and 1.10 to 1.010 which compare
	   properly.

	       $VERSION = sprintf "%d.%03d", q$Revision$ =~ /(\d+)\.(\d+)/g;

	   If branches are involved (ie. $Revision: 1.5.3.4$) it's a little more complicated.

	       # must be all on one line or MakeMaker will get confused.
	       $VERSION = do { my @r = (q$Revision$ =~ /\d+/g); sprintf "%d."."%03d" x $#r, @r };

	   In SVN, $Revision$ should be the same for every file in the project so they would all
	   have the same $VERSION.  CVS and RCS have a different $Revision$ per file so each file
	   will have a different $VERSION.  Distributed version control systems, such as SVK, may
	   have a different $Revision$ based on who checks out the file, leading to a different
	   $VERSION on each machine!  Finally, some distributed version control systems, such as
	   darcs, have no concept of revision number at all.

       What's this META.yml thing and how did it get in my MANIFEST?!
	   META.yml is a module meta-data file pioneered by Module::Build and automatically
	   generated as part of the 'distdir' target (and thus 'dist').  See "Module Meta-Data"
	   in ExtUtils::MakeMaker.

	   To shut off its generation, pass the "NO_META" flag to "WriteMakefile()".

       How do I delete everything not in my MANIFEST?
	   Some folks are surprised that "make distclean" does not delete everything not listed
	   in their MANIFEST (thus making a clean distribution) but only tells them what they
	   need to delete.  This is done because it is considered too dangerous.  While
	   developing your module you might write a new file, not add it to the MANIFEST, then
	   run a "distclean" and be sad because your new work was deleted.

	   If you really want to do this, you can use "ExtUtils::Manifest::manifind()" to read
	   the MANIFEST and File::Find to delete the files.  But you have to be careful.  Here's
	   a script to do that.  Use at your own risk.	Have fun blowing holes in your foot.

	       #!/usr/bin/perl -w

	       use strict;

	       use File::Spec;
	       use File::Find;
	       use ExtUtils::Manifest qw(maniread);

	       my %manifest = map  {( $_ => 1 )}
			      grep { File::Spec->canonpath($_) }
				   keys %{ maniread() };

	       if( !keys %manifest ) {
		   print "No files found in MANIFEST.  Stopping.\n";
		   exit;
	       }

	       find({
		     wanted   => sub {
			 my $path = File::Spec->canonpath($_);

			 return unless -f $path;
			 return if exists $manifest{ $path };

			 print "unlink $path\n";
			 unlink $path;
		     },
		     no_chdir => 1
		    },
		    "."
	       );

       Which tar should I use on Windows?
	   We recommend ptar from Archive::Tar not older than 1.66 with '-C' option.

       Which zip should I use on Windows for '[nd]make zipdist'?
	   We recommend InfoZIP: <http://www.info-zip.org/Zip.html>

   XS
       How do I prevent "object version X.XX does not match bootstrap parameter Y.YY" errors?
	   XS code is very sensitive to the module version number and will complain if the
	   version number in your Perl module doesn't match.  If you change your module's version
	   # without rerunning Makefile.PL the old version number will remain in the Makefile,
	   causing the XS code to be built with the wrong number.

	   To avoid this, you can force the Makefile to be rebuilt whenever you change the module
	   containing the version number by adding this to your WriteMakefile() arguments.

	       depend => { '$(FIRST_MAKEFILE)' => '$(VERSION_FROM)' }

       How do I make two or more XS files coexist in the same directory?
	   Sometimes you need to have two and more XS files in the same package.  One way to go
	   is to put them into separate directories, but sometimes this is not the most suitable
	   solution. The following technique allows you to put two (and more) XS files in the
	   same directory.

	   Let's assume that we have a package "Cool::Foo", which includes "Cool::Foo" and
	   "Cool::Bar" modules each having a separate XS file. First we use the following
	   Makefile.PL:

	     use ExtUtils::MakeMaker;

	     WriteMakefile(
		 NAME		   => 'Cool::Foo',
		 VERSION_FROM	   => 'Foo.pm',
		 OBJECT 	     => q/$(O_FILES)/,
		 # ... other attrs ...
	     );

	   Notice the "OBJECT" attribute. MakeMaker generates the following variables in
	   Makefile:

	     # Handy lists of source code files:
	     XS_FILES= Bar.xs \
		   Foo.xs
	     C_FILES = Bar.c \
		   Foo.c
	     O_FILES = Bar.o \
		   Foo.o

	   Therefore we can use the "O_FILES" variable to tell MakeMaker to use these objects
	   into the shared library.

	   That's pretty much it. Now write Foo.pm and Foo.xs, Bar.pm and Bar.xs, where Foo.pm
	   bootstraps the shared library and Bar.pm simply loading Foo.pm.

	   The only issue left is to how to bootstrap Bar.xs. This is done from Foo.xs:

	     MODULE = Cool::Foo PACKAGE = Cool::Foo

	     BOOT:
	     # boot the second XS file
	     boot_Cool__Bar(aTHX_ cv);

	   If you have more than two files, this is the place where you should boot extra XS
	   files from.

	   The following four files sum up all the details discussed so far.

	     Foo.pm:
	     -------
	     package Cool::Foo;

	     require DynaLoader;

	     our @ISA = qw(DynaLoader);
	     our $VERSION = '0.01';
	     bootstrap Cool::Foo $VERSION;

	     1;

	     Bar.pm:
	     -------
	     package Cool::Bar;

	     use Cool::Foo; # bootstraps Bar.xs

	     1;

	     Foo.xs:
	     -------
	     #include "EXTERN.h"
	     #include "perl.h"
	     #include "XSUB.h"

	     MODULE = Cool::Foo  PACKAGE = Cool::Foo

	     BOOT:
	     # boot the second XS file
	     boot_Cool__Bar(aTHX_ cv);

	     MODULE = Cool::Foo  PACKAGE = Cool::Foo  PREFIX = cool_foo_

	     void
	     cool_foo_perl_rules()

		 CODE:
		 fprintf(stderr, "Cool::Foo says: Perl Rules\n");

	     Bar.xs:
	     -------
	     #include "EXTERN.h"
	     #include "perl.h"
	     #include "XSUB.h"

	     MODULE = Cool::Bar  PACKAGE = Cool::Bar PREFIX = cool_bar_

	     void
	     cool_bar_perl_rules()

		 CODE:
		 fprintf(stderr, "Cool::Bar says: Perl Rules\n");

	   And of course a very basic test:

	     t/cool.t:
	     --------
	     use Test;
	     BEGIN { plan tests => 1 };
	     use Cool::Foo;
	     use Cool::Bar;
	     Cool::Foo::perl_rules();
	     Cool::Bar::perl_rules();
	     ok 1;

	   This tip has been brought to you by Nick Ing-Simmons and Stas Bekman.

PATCHING
       If you have a question you'd like to see added to the FAQ (whether or not you have the
       answer) please send it to makemaker@perl.org.

AUTHOR
       The denizens of makemaker@perl.org.

SEE ALSO
       ExtUtils::MakeMaker

perl v5.16.3				    2013-06-14		      ExtUtils::MakeMaker::FAQ(3)
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