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DBI::DBD::SqlEngine(3)	       User Contributed Perl Documentation	   DBI::DBD::SqlEngine(3)

NAME
       DBI::DBD::SqlEngine - Base class for DBI drivers without their own SQL engine

SYNOPSIS
	   package DBD::myDriver;

	   use base qw(DBI::DBD::SqlEngine);

	   sub driver
	   {
	       ...
	       my $drh = $proto->SUPER::driver($attr);
	       ...
	       return $drh->{class};
	       }

	   package DBD::myDriver::dr;

	   @ISA = qw(DBI::DBD::SqlEngine::dr);

	   sub data_sources { ... }
	   ...

	   package DBD::myDriver::db;

	   @ISA = qw(DBI::DBD::SqlEngine::db);

	   sub init_valid_attributes { ... }
	   sub init_default_attributes { ... }
	   sub set_versions { ... }
	   sub validate_STORE_attr { my ($dbh, $attrib, $value) = @_; ... }
	   sub validate_FETCH_attr { my ($dbh, $attrib) = @_; ... }
	   sub get_myd_versions { ... }
	   sub get_avail_tables { ... }

	   package DBD::myDriver::st;

	   @ISA = qw(DBI::DBD::SqlEngine::st);

	   sub FETCH { ... }
	   sub STORE { ... }

	   package DBD::myDriver::Statement;

	   @ISA = qw(DBI::DBD::SqlEngine::Statement);

	   sub open_table { ... }

	   package DBD::myDriver::Table;

	   @ISA = qw(DBI::DBD::SqlEngine::Table);

	   sub new { ... }

DESCRIPTION
       DBI::DBD::SqlEngine abstracts the usage of SQL engines from the DBD. DBD authors can
       concentrate on the data retrieval they want to provide.

       It is strongly recommended that you read DBD::File::Developers and DBD::File::Roadmap,
       because many of the DBD::File API is provided by DBI::DBD::SqlEngine.

       Currently the API of DBI::DBD::SqlEngine is experimental and will likely change in the
       near future to provide the table meta data basics like DBD::File.

   Metadata
       The following attributes are handled by DBI itself and not by DBI::DBD::SqlEngine, thus
       they all work as expected:

	   Active
	   ActiveKids
	   CachedKids
	   CompatMode		  (Not used)
	   InactiveDestroy
	   AutoInactiveDestroy
	   Kids
	   PrintError
	   RaiseError
	   Warn 		  (Not used)

       The following DBI attributes are handled by DBI::DBD::SqlEngine:

       AutoCommit

       Always on.

       ChopBlanks

       Works.

       NUM_OF_FIELDS

       Valid after "$sth->execute".

       NUM_OF_PARAMS

       Valid after "$sth->prepare".

       NAME

       Valid after "$sth->execute"; probably undef for Non-Select statements.

       NULLABLE

       Not really working, always returns an array ref of ones, as DBD::CSV does not verify input
       data. Valid after "$sth->execute"; undef for non-select statements.

       The following DBI attributes and methods are not supported:

       bind_param_inout
       CursorName
       LongReadLen
       LongTruncOk

       DBI::DBD::SqlEngine specific attributes

       In addition to the DBI attributes, you can use the following dbh attributes:

       sql_engine_version

       Contains the module version of this driver (readonly)

       sql_nano_version

       Contains the module version of DBI::SQL::Nano (readonly)

       sql_statement_version

       Contains the module version of SQL::Statement, if available (readonly)

       sql_handler

       Contains the SQL Statement engine, either DBI::SQL::Nano or SQL::Statement (readonly).

       sql_parser_object

       Contains an instantiated instance of SQL::Parser (readonly).  This is filled when used
       first time (only when used with SQL::Statement).

       sql_sponge_driver

       Contains an internally used DBD::Sponge handle (readonly).

       sql_valid_attrs

       Contains the list of valid attributes for each DBI::DBD::SqlEngine based driver
       (readonly).

       sql_readonly_attrs

       Contains the list of those attributes which are readonly (readonly).

       sql_identifier_case

       Contains how DBI::DBD::SqlEngine deals with non-quoted SQL identifiers:

	 * SQL_IC_UPPER (1) means all identifiers are internally converted
	   into upper-cased pendants
	 * SQL_IC_LOWER (2) means all identifiers are internally converted
	   into lower-cased pendants
	 * SQL_IC_MIXED (4) means all identifiers are taken as they are

       These conversions happen if (and only if) no existing identifier matches.  Once existing
       identifier is used as known.

       The SQL statement execution classes doesn't have to care, so don't expect
       "sql_identifier_case" affects column names in statements like

	 SELECT * FROM foo

       sql_quoted_identifier_case

       Contains how DBI::DBD::SqlEngine deals with quoted SQL identifiers (readonly). It's
       fixated to SQL_IC_SENSITIVE \fIs0(3), which is interpreted as SQL_IC_MIXED.

       sql_flags

       Contains additional flags to instantiate an SQL::Parser. Because an SQL::Parser is
       instantiated only once, it's recommended to set this flag before any statement is
       executed.

       sql_dialect

       Controls the dialect understood by SQL::Parser. Possible values (delivery state of
       SQL::Statement):

	 * ANSI
	 * CSV
	 * AnyData

       Defaults to "CSV".  Because an SQL::Parser is instantiated only once and SQL::Parser
       doesn't allow to modify the dialect once instantiated, it's strongly recommended to set
       this flag before any statement is executed (best place is connect attribute hash).

       sql_engine_in_gofer

       This value has a true value in case of this driver is operated via DBD::Gofer. The impact
       of being operated via Gofer is a read-only driver (not read-only databases!), so you
       cannot modify any attributes later - neither any table settings. But you won't get an
       error in cases you modify table attributes, so please carefully watch
       "sql_engine_in_gofer".

       sql_meta

       Private data area which contains information about the tables this module handles. Table
       meta data might not be available until the table has been accessed for the first time
       e.g., by issuing a select on it however it is possible to pre-initialize attributes for
       each table you use.

       DBI::DBD::SqlEngine recognizes the (public) attributes "col_names", "table_name",
       "readonly", "sql_data_source" and "sql_identifier_case".  Be very careful when modifying
       attributes you do not know, the consequence might be a destroyed or corrupted table.

       While "sql_meta" is a private and readonly attribute (which means, you cannot modify it's
       values), derived drivers might provide restricted write access through another attribute.
       Well known accessors are "csv_tables" for DBD::CSV, "ad_tables" for DBD::AnyData and
       "dbm_tables" for DBD::DBM.

       sql_table_source

       Controls the class which will be used for fetching available tables.

       See "DBI::DBD::SqlEngine::TableSource" for details.

       sql_data_source

       Contains the class name to be used for opening tables.

       See "DBI::DBD::SqlEngine::DataSource" for details.

   Driver private methods
       Default DBI methods

       data_sources

       The "data_sources" method returns a list of subdirectories of the current directory in the
       form "dbi:CSV:f_dir=$dirname".

       If you want to read the subdirectories of another directory, use

	   my ($drh)  = DBI->install_driver ("CSV");
	   my (@list) = $drh->data_sources (f_dir => "/usr/local/csv_data");

       list_tables

       This method returns a list of file names inside $dbh->{f_dir}.  Example:

	   my ($dbh)  = DBI->connect ("dbi:CSV:f_dir=/usr/local/csv_data");
	   my (@list) = $dbh->func ("list_tables");

       Note that the list includes all files contained in the directory, even those that have
       non-valid table names, from the view of SQL.

       Additional methods

       The following methods are only available via their documented name when
       DBI::DBD::SQlEngine is used directly. Because this is only reasonable for testing
       purposes, the real names must be used instead. Those names can be computed by replacing
       the "sql_" in the method name with the driver prefix.

       sql_versions

       Signature:

	 sub sql_versions (;$) {
	   my ($table_name) = @_;
	   $table_name ||= ".";
	   ...
	   }

       Returns the versions of the driver, including the DBI version, the Perl version,
       DBI::PurePerl version (if DBI::PurePerl is active) and the version of the SQL engine in
       use.

	   my $dbh = DBI->connect ("dbi:File:");
	   my $sql_versions = $dbh->func( "sql_versions" );
	   print "$sql_versions\n";
	   __END__
	   # DBI::DBD::SqlEngine  0.05 using SQL::Statement 1.402
	   # DBI		  1.623
	   # OS 		  netbsd (6.99.12)
	   # Perl		  5.016002 (x86_64-netbsd-thread-multi)

       Called in list context, sql_versions will return an array containing each line as single
       entry.

       Some drivers might use the optional (table name) argument and modify version information
       related to the table (e.g. DBD::DBM provides storage backend information for the requested
       table, when it has a table name).

       sql_get_meta

       Signature:

	   sub sql_get_meta ($$)
	   {
	       my ($table_name, $attrib) = @_;
	       ...
	   }

       Returns the value of a meta attribute set for a specific table, if any.	See sql_meta for
       the possible attributes.

       A table name of "." (single dot) is interpreted as the default table.  This will retrieve
       the appropriate attribute globally from the dbh.  This has the same restrictions as
       "$dbh->{$attrib}".

       sql_set_meta

       Signature:

	   sub sql_set_meta ($$$)
	   {
	       my ($table_name, $attrib, $value) = @_;
	       ...
	   }

       Sets the value of a meta attribute set for a specific table.  See sql_meta for the
       possible attributes.

       A table name of "." (single dot) is interpreted as the default table which will set the
       specified attribute globally for the dbh.  This has the same restrictions as
       "$dbh->{$attrib} = $value".

       sql_clear_meta

       Signature:

	   sub sql_clear_meta ($)
	   {
	       my ($table_name) = @_;
	       ...
	   }

       Clears the table specific meta information in the private storage of the dbh.

   Extensibility
       DBI::DBD::SqlEngine::TableSource

       Provides data sources and table information on database driver and database handle level.

	 package DBI::DBD::SqlEngine::TableSource;

	 sub data_sources ($;$)
	 {
	   my ( $class, $drh, $attrs ) = @_;
	   ...
	 }

	 sub avail_tables
	 {
	   my ( $class, $drh ) = @_;
	   ...
	 }

       The "data_sources" method is called when the user invokes any of the following:

	 @ary = DBI->data_sources($driver);
	 @ary = DBI->data_sources($driver, \%attr);

	 @ary = $dbh->data_sources();
	 @ary = $dbh->data_sources(\%attr);

       The "avail_tables" method is called when the user invokes any of the following:

	 @names = $dbh->tables( $catalog, $schema, $table, $type );

	 $sth = $dbh->table_info( $catalog, $schema, $table, $type );
	 $sth = $dbh->table_info( $catalog, $schema, $table, $type, \%attr );

	 $dbh->func( "list_tables" );

       Everytime where an "\%attr" argument can be specified, this "\%attr" object's
       "sql_table_source" attribute is preferred over the $dbh attribute or the driver default,
       eg.

	 @ary = DBI->data_sources("dbi:CSV:", {
	   f_dir => "/your/csv/tables",
	   # note: this class doesn't comes with DBI
	   sql_table_source => "DBD::File::Archive::Tar::TableSource",
	   # scan tarballs instead of directories
	 });

       When you're going to implement such a DBD::File::Archive::Tar::TableSource class, remember
       to add correct attributes (including "sql_table_source" and "sql_data_source") to the
       returned DSN's.

       DBI::DBD::SqlEngine::DataSource

       Provides base functionality for dealing with tables. It is primarily designed for allowing
       transparent access to files on disk or already opened (file-)streams (eg. for DBD::CSV).

       Derived classes shall be restricted to similar functionality, too (eg.  opening streams
       from an archive, transparently compress/uncompress log files before parsing them,

	 package DBI::DBD::SqlEngine::DataSource;

	 sub complete_table_name ($$;$)
	 {
	   my ( $self, $meta, $table, $respect_case ) = @_;
	   ...
	 }

       The method "complete_table_name" is called when first setting up the meta information for
       a table:

	 "SELECT user.id, user.name, user.shell FROM user WHERE ..."

       results in opening the table "user". First step of the table open process is completing
       the name. Let's imagine you're having a DBD::CSV handle with following settings:

	 $dbh->{sql_identifier_case} = SQL_IC_LOWER;
	 $dbh->{f_ext} = '.lst';
	 $dbh->{f_dir} = '/data/web/adrmgr';

       Those settings will result in looking for files matching "[Uu][Ss][Ee][Rr](\.lst)?$" in
       "/data/web/adrmgr/". The scanning of the directory "/data/web/adrmgr/" and the pattern
       match check will be done in "DBD::File::DataSource::File" by the "complete_table_name"
       method.

       If you intend to provide other sources of data streams than files, in addition to provide
       an appropriate "complete_table_name" method, a method to open the resource is required:

	 package DBI::DBD::SqlEngine::DataSource;

	 sub open_data ($)
	 {
	   my ( $self, $meta, $attrs, $flags ) = @_;
	   ...
	 }

       After the method "open_data" has been run successfully, the table's meta information are
       in a state which allowes the table's data accessor methods will be able to fetch/store row
       information. Implementation details heavily depends on the table implementation, whereby
       the most famous is surely DBD::File::Table.

SQL ENGINES
       DBI::DBD::SqlEngine currently supports two SQL engines: SQL::Statement and
       DBI::SQL::Nano::Statement_. DBI::SQL::Nano supports a very limited subset of SQL
       statements, but it might be faster for some very simple tasks. SQL::Statement in contrast
       supports a much larger subset of ANSI SQL.

       To use SQL::Statement, you need at least version 1.401 of SQL::Statement and the
       environment variable "DBI_SQL_NANO" must not be set to a true value.

SUPPORT
       You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.

	   perldoc DBI::DBD::SqlEngine

       You can also look for information at:

       o   RT: CPAN's request tracker

	   <http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/Bugs.html?Dist=DBI>
	   <http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/Bugs.html?Dist=SQL-Statement>

       o   AnnoCPAN: Annotated CPAN documentation

	   <http://annocpan.org/dist/DBI> <http://annocpan.org/dist/SQL-Statement>

       o   CPAN Ratings

	   <http://cpanratings.perl.org/d/DBI>

       o   Search CPAN

	   <http://search.cpan.org/dist/DBI/>

   Where can I go for more help?
       For questions about installation or usage, please ask on the dbi-dev@perl.org mailing
       list.

       If you have a bug report, patch or suggestion, please open a new report ticket on CPAN, if
       there is not already one for the issue you want to report. Of course, you can mail any of
       the module maintainers, but it is less likely to be missed if it is reported on RT.

       Report tickets should contain a detailed description of the bug or enhancement request you
       want to report and at least an easy way to verify/reproduce the issue and any supplied
       fix. Patches are always welcome, too.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       Thanks to Tim Bunce, Martin Evans and H.Merijn Brand for their continued support while
       developing DBD::File, DBD::DBM and DBD::AnyData.  Their support, hints and feedback helped
       to design and implement this module.

AUTHOR
       This module is currently maintained by

       H.Merijn Brand < h.m.brand at xs4all.nl > and Jens Rehsack  < rehsack at googlemail.com >

       The original authors are Jochen Wiedmann and Jeff Zucker.

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
	Copyright (C) 2009-2013 by H.Merijn Brand & Jens Rehsack
	Copyright (C) 2004-2009 by Jeff Zucker
	Copyright (C) 1998-2004 by Jochen Wiedmann

       All rights reserved.

       You may freely distribute and/or modify this module under the terms of either the GNU
       General Public License (GPL) or the Artistic License, as specified in the Perl README
       file.

SEE ALSO
       DBI, DBD::File, DBD::AnyData and DBD::Sys.

perl v5.16.3				    2013-05-15			   DBI::DBD::SqlEngine(3)
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