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DBD::mysql::INSTALL(3)	       User Contributed Perl Documentation	   DBD::mysql::INSTALL(3)

NAME
       INSTALL - How to install and configure DBD::mysql

SYNOPSIS
	 perl Makefile.PL [options]
	 make
	 make test
	 make install

DESCRIPTION
       This document describes the installation and configuration of DBD::mysql, the Perl DBI
       driver for the MySQL database. Before reading on, make sure that you have the
       prerequisites available: Perl, MySQL and DBI. For details see the separate section.
       "PREREQUISITES".

       Depending on your version of Perl, it might be possible to use a binary distribution of
       DBD::mysql. If possible, this is recommended. Otherwise you need to install from the
       sources.  If so, you will definitely need a C compiler. Installation from binaries and
       sources are both described in separate sections. "BINARY INSTALLATION". "SOURCE
       INSTALLATION".

       Finally, if you encounter any problems, do not forget to read the section on known
       problems. "KNOWN PROBLEMS". If that doesn't help, you should look into the archive of the
       mailing list perl@lists.mysql.com. See http://www.mysql.com for archive locations. And if
       that still doesn't help, please post a question on this mailing list.

PREREQUISITES
       Perl
	   Preferrably a version of Perl, that comes preconfigured with your system. For example,
	   all Linux and FreeBSD distributions come with Perl. For Windows, ActivePerl is
	   recommended, see http://www.activestate.com for details.

       MySQL
	   You need not install the actual MySQL database server, the client files and the
	   devlopment files are sufficient. For example, Fedora Core 4 Linux distribution comes
	   with RPM files (using YUM) mysql.i386 and mysql-server.i386 (use "yum search" to find
	   exact package names). These are sufficient, if the MySQL server is located on a
	   foreign machine.  You may also create client files by compiling from the MySQL source
	   distribution and using

	     configure --without-server

	   If you are using Windows and need to compile from sources (which is only the case if
	   you are not using ActivePerl), then you must ensure that the header and library files
	   are installed. This may require choosing a "Custom installation" and selecting the
	   appropriate option when running the MySQL setup program.

       DBI DBD::mysql is a DBI driver, hence you need DBI. It is available from the same source
	   where you got the DBD::mysql distribution from.

       C compiler
	   A C compiler is only required, if you install from source. In most cases there are
	   binary distributions of DBD::mysql available. However, if you need a C compiler, make
	   sure, that it is the same C compiler that was used for compiling Perl and MySQL!
	   Otherwise you will almost definitely encounter problems because of differences in the
	   underlying C runtime libraries.

	   In the worst case, this might mean to compile Perl and MySQL yourself. But believe me,
	   experience shows that a lot of problems are fixed this way.

       Gzip libraries
	   Late versions of MySQL come with support for compression. Thus it may be required that
	   you have install an RPM package like libz-devel, libgz-devel or something similar.

BINARY INSTALLATION
       Binary installation is possible in the most cases, depending on your system. I give some
       examples:

   Windows
       ActivePerl offers a PPM archive of DBD::mysql. All you need to do is typing

	 ppm
	 install DBI
	 install DBD-mysql

       This will fetch the modules via HTTP and install them. If you need to use a WWW proxy
       server, the environment variable HTTP_proxy must be set:

	 set HTTP_proxy=http://my.proxy.server:8000/
	 ppm
	 install DBI
	 install DBD-mysql

       Of course you need to replace the host name "my.proxy.server" and the port number 8000
       with your local values.

       If the above procedure doesn't work, please upgrade to the latest version of ActivePerl.
       Versions before build 623 are known to have problems.

       PPM 3 is said to miss DBD::mysql in the repository. Thus use of PPM 3 is discouraged, in
       favour of PPM 2. If you need to use PPM 3, try

	 ppm
	 rep add PPM2 http://ppm.activestate.com/PPMPackages/5.6plus/
	 rep 2
	 install DBI
	 install DBD-mysql

   Red Hat Linux
       As of version 7.1, Red Hat Linux comes with MySQL and DBD::mysql.  You need to ensure that
       the following RPM's are installed:

	 mysql
	 perl-DBI
	 perl-DBD-MySQL

       For installation from source the following RPM's are required

	 mysql-devel
	 libz-devel

       Optional are

	 mysql-server

   Fedora Core Linux
       As of version 3, Fedora Linux comes with MySQL and DBD::mysql.  You need to ensure that
       the following RPM's are installed:

	 mysql or mysql-server
	 perl-DBD-MySQL

       For installation from source the following RPM's are required

	 mysql-devel
	 libz-devel

       Please try

	 yum search mysql

       To see the exact names

       Note: (important) FC 3 comes with MySQL 3.x, and some people have upgraded using MySQL
       RPMs for newer versions. If you do this, you must re-compile you DBD::mysql because your
       existing DBD::mysql will be linked against the old version of MySQL's client libs. CPAN
       has no way to know or detect that you have upgraded MySQL.

   Other systems
       In the case of Linux or FreeBSD distributions it is very likely that all you need comes
       with your distribution, as in the case of Red Hat Linux. I just cannot give you names, as
       I am not using these systems.

       Please let me know if you find the files in your SuSE Linux, Debian Linux or FreeBSD
       distribution so that I can extend the above list.

SOURCE INSTALLATION
       So you need to install from sources. If you are lucky, the Perl module "CPAN" will do all
       for you, thanks to the excellent work of Andreas Koenig. Otherwise you will need to do a
       manual installation. Some of you, in particular system administrators of multiple sites,
       will choose automatic installation. All of these installation types have an own section.
       "CPAN installation".  "Manual installation". "Configuration".

       The DBD::mysql Makefile.PL needs to know where to find your MySQL installation. This may
       be achieved using command line switches (see "Configuration") or automatically using the
       mysql_config binary which comes with most MySQL distributions. If your MySQL distribution
       contains mysql_config the easiest method is to ensure this binary is on your path.

       e.g.

	 PATH=$PATH:/usr/local/mysql/bin
	 export PATH

   CPAN installation
       Installation of DBD::mysql can be incredibly easy:

	 cpan
	 install DBD::mysql

       If you are using the CPAN module for the first time, just answer the questions by
       accepting the defaults which are fine in most cases. If you are using an older version of
       Perl, you might instead need a

	 perl -MCPAN -e shell
	 install DBD::mysql

       If you cannot get the CPAN module working, you might try manual installation. If
       installation with CPAN fails because the your local settings have been guessed wrong, you
       need to ensure MySQL's mysql_config is on your path (see "SOURCE INSTALLATION") or
       alternatively create a script called "mysql_config". This is described in more details
       later. "Configuration".

   Manual installation
       For a manual installation you need to fetch the DBD::mysql source distribution. The latest
       version is always available from

	 http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/DBD/

       The name is typically something like

	 DBD-mysql-1.2216.tar.gz

       The archive needs to be extracted. On Windows you may use a tool like WinZip, on Unix you
       type

	 gzip -cd DBD-mysql-1.2216.tar.gz | tar xf -

       This will create a subdirectory DBD-mysql-1.2216. Enter this subdirectory and type

	 perl Makefile.PL
	 make
	 make test

       (On Windows you may need to replace "make" with "nmake" or "dmake".) If the tests seem to
       look fine, you may continue with

	 make install

       If the compilation (make) or tests fail, you might need to configure some settings.

       For example you might choose a different database, the C compiler or the linker might need
       some flags. "Configuration".  "Compiler flags". "Linker flags".

       For Windows/CygWin there is a special section below.  "CygWin" in Windows.

   Configuration
       The install script "Makefile.PL" can be configured via a lot of switches. All switches can
       be used on the command line. For example, the test database:

	 perl Makefile.PL --testdb=<db>

       If you do not like configuring these switches on the command line, you may alternatively
       create a script called "mysql_config".  This is described later on.

       Available switches are:

       testdb
	   Name of the test database, defaults to test.

       testuser
	   Name of the test user, defaults to empty. If the name is empty, then the currently
	   logged in users name will be used.

       testpassword
	   Password of the test user, defaults to empty.

       testhost
	   Host name or IP number of the test database; defaults to localhost.

       testport
	   Port number of the test database

       ps-protcol=1 or 0
	   Whether to run the test suite using server prepared statements or driver emulated
	   prepared statemetns. ps-protocol=1 means use server prepare, ps-protocol=0 means
	   driver emulated.

       cflags
	   This is a list of flags that you want to give to the C compiler.  The most important
	   flag is the location of the MySQL header files.  For example, on Red Hat Linux the
	   header files are in /usr/include/mysql and you might try

	     -I/usr/include/mysql

	   On Windows the header files may be in C:\mysql\include and you might try

	     -IC:\mysql\include

	   The default flags are determined by running

	     mysql_config --cflags

	   More details on the C compiler flags can be found in the following section. "Compiler
	   flags".

       libs
	   This is a list of flags that you want to give to the linker or loader. The most
	   important flags are the locations and names of additional libraries. For example, on
	   Red Hat Linux your MySQL client libraries are in /usr/lib/mysql and you might try

	     -L/usr/lib/mysql -lmysqlclient -lz

	   On Windows the libraries may be in C:\mysql\lib and

	     -LC:\mysql\lib -lmysqlclient

	   might be a good choice. The default flags are determined by running

	     mysql_config --libs

	   More details on the linker flags can be found in a separate section.  "Linker flags".

       If a switch is not present on the command line, then the script "mysql_config" will be
       executed. This script comes as part of the MySQL distribution. For example, to determine
       the C compiler flags, we are executing

	 mysql_config --cflags
	 mysql_config --libs

       If you want to configure your own settings for database name, database user and so on,
       then you have to create a script with the same name, that replies

   Compiler flags
       Note: the folling info about compiler and linker flags, you shouldn't have to use these
       options because Makefile.PL is pretty good at utilising mysql_config to get the flags that
       you need for a successful compile.

       It is typically not so difficult to determine the appropriate flags for the C compiler.
       The linker flags, which you find in the next section, are another story.

       The determination of the C compiler flags is usually left to a configuration script called
       mysql_config, which can be invoked with

	 mysql_config --cflags

       When doing so, it will emit a line with suggested C compiler flags, for example like this:

	 -L/usr/include/mysql

       The C compiler must find some header files. Header files have the extension ".h". MySQL
       header files are, for example, mysql.h and mysql_version.h. In most cases the header files
       are not installed by default. For example, on Windows it is an installation option of the
       MySQL setup program (Custom installation), whether the header files are installed or not.
       On Red Hat Linux, you need to install an RPM archive mysql-devel or MySQL-devel.

       If you know the location of the header files, then you will need to add an option

	 -L<header directory>

       to the C compiler flags, for example "-L/usr/include/mysql".

   Linker flags
       Appropriate linker flags are the most common source of problems while installing
       DBD::mysql. I will only give a rough overview, you'll find more details in the
       troubleshooting section.  "KNOWN PROBLEMS"

       The determination of the C compiler flags is usually left to a configuration script called
       mysql_config, which can be invoked with

	 mysql_config --libs

       When doing so, it will emit a line with suggested C compiler flags, for example like this:

	  -L'/usr/lib/mysql' -lmysqlclient -lnsl -lm   -lz -lcrypt

       The following items typically need to be configured for the linker:

       The mysqlclient library
	   The MySQL client library comes as part of the MySQL distribution.  Depending on your
	   system it may be a file called

	     F<libmysqlclient.a>   statically linked library, Unix
	     F<libmysqlclient.so>  dynamically linked library, Unix
	     F<mysqlclient.lib>    statically linked library, Windows
	     F<mysqlclient.dll>    dynamically linked library, Windows

	   or something similar.

	   As in the case of the header files, the client library is typically not installed by
	   default. On Windows you will need to select them while running the MySQL setup program
	   (Custom installation). On Red Hat Linux an RPM archive mysql-devel or MySQL-devel must
	   be installed.

	   The linker needs to know the location and name of the mysqlclient library. This can be
	   done by adding the flags

	     -L<lib directory> -lmysqlclient

	   or by adding the complete path name. Examples:

	     -L/usr/lib/mysql -lmysqlclient
	     -LC:\mysql\lib -lmysqlclient

	   If you would like to use the static libraries (and there are excellent reasons to do
	   so), you need to create a separate directory, copy the static libraries to that place
	   and use the -L switch above to point to your new directory. For example:

	     mkdir /tmp/mysql-static
	     cp /usr/lib/mysql/*.a /tmp/mysql-static
	     perl Makefile.PL --libs="-L/tmp/mysql-static -lmysqlclient"
	     make
	     make test
	     make install
	     rm -rf /tmp/mysql-static

       The gzip library
	   The MySQL client can use compression when talking to the MySQL server, a nice feature
	   when sending or receiving large texts over a slow network.

	   On Unix you typically find the appropriate file name by running

	     ldconfig -p | grep libz
	     ldconfig -p | grep libgz

	   Once you know the name (libz.a or libgz.a is best), just add it to the list of linker
	   flags. If this seems to be causing problem you may also try to link without gzip
	   libraries.

SPECIAL SYSTEMS
       Below you find information on particular systems:

   Windows/CygWin
       If you are a user of Cygwin (the Redhat distribution) you already know, it contains a
       nicely running perl 5.6.1, installation of additional modules usually works as a charme
       via the standard procedure of

	   perl makefile.PL
	   make
	   make test
	   make install

       The Windows binary distribution of MySQL runs smoothly under Cygwin.  You can start/stop
       the server and use all Windows clients without problem.	But to install DBD::mysql you
       have to take a little special action.

       Don't attempt to build DBD::mysql against either the MySQL Windows or Linux/Unix BINARY
       distributions: neither will work!

       You MUST compile the MySQL clients yourself under Cygwin, to get a 'libmysqlclient.a'
       compiled under Cygwin. Really! You'll only need that library and the header files, you
       don't need any other client parts.  Continue to use the Windows binaries. And don't
       attempt (currently) to build the MySQL Server part, it is unneccessary, as MySQL AB does
       an excellent job to deliver optimized binaries for the mainstream operating systems, and
       it is told, that the server compiled under Cygwin is unstable.

       Install MySQL (if you havn't already)

       -   download the MySQL Windows Binaries from http://www.mysql.com/downloads/index.html

       -   unzip mysql-<version>-win.zip into some temporary location

       -   start the setup.exe there and follow the instructions

       -   start the server

       -   alternatively download, install and start the server on a remote server, on what
	   supported OS ever

       Build MySQL clients under Cygwin:

       -   download the MySQL LINUX source from http://www.mysql.com/downloads/index.html

       -   unpack mysql-<version>.tar.gz into some tmp location

       -   cd into the unpacked dir mysql-<version>

	     ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql --without-server

	   This prepares the Makefile with the installed Cygwin features. It takes some time, but
	   should finish without error. The 'prefix', as given, installs the whole Cygwin/MySQL
	   thingy into a location not normally in your PATH, so that you continue to use already
	   installed Windows binaries. The --without-server parameter tells configure to only
	   build the clients.

       -
	     make

	   This builds all MySQL client parts ... be patient. It should finish finally without
	   any error.

       -
	     make install

	   This installs the compiled client files under /usr/local/mysql/.  Remember, you don't
	   need anything except the library under /usr/local/mysql/lib and the headers under
	   /usr/local/mysql/include!

	   Essentially you are now done with this part. If you want, you may try your compiled
	   binaries shortly; for that, do:

       -
	     cd /usr/local/mysql/bin
	     ./mysql -h 127.0.0.1

	   The host (-h) parameter 127.0.0.1 targets the local host, but forces the mysql client
	   to use a TCP/IP connection. The default would be a pipe/socket connection (even if you
	   say '-h localhost') and this doesn't work between Cygwin and Windows (as far as I
	   know).

	   If you have your MySQL server running on some other box, then please substitute
	   '127.0.0.1' with the name or IP-number of that box.

       Please note, in my environment the 'mysql' client did not accept a simple RETURN, I had to
       use CTRL-RETURN to send commands ... strange, but I didn't attempt to fix that, as we are
       only interested in the built lib and headers.

       At the 'mysql>' prompt do a quick check:

	 mysql> use mysql
	 mysql> show tables;
	 mysql> select * from db;
	 mysql> exit

       You are now ready to build DBD::mysql!

       Build DBD::mysql:

       -   download DBD-mysql-<version>.tar.gz from CPAN

       -   unpack DBD-mysql-<version>.tar.gz

       -   cd into unpacked dir DBD-mysql-<version> you probably did that already, if you are
	   reading this!

       -
	     cp /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_config .

	   This copies the executable script mentioned in the DBD::mysql docs from your just
	   built Cywin/MySQL client directory; it knows about your Cygwin installation,
	   especially about the right libraries to link with.

       -
	     perl Makefile.PL --testhost=127.0.0.1

	   The --testhost=127.0.0.1 parameter again forces a TCP/IP connection to the MySQL
	   server on the local host instead of a pipe/socket connection for the 'make test'
	   phase.

       -
	     make

	   This should run without error

       -
	     make test

	   with DBD-mysql-2.1022 or earlier you will see several errors in dbdadmin.t, mysql.t
	   and mysql2.t; with later versions you should not get errors (except possibly one,
	   indicating, that some tables could not be dropped. I'm hunting for a solution to that
	   problem, but have none yet).

       -
	     make install

	   This installs DBD::mysql into the Perl hierarchy.

       Notes:

       This was tested with MySQL version 3.23.54a and DBD::mysql version 2.1022. I patched the
       above mentioned test scripts and sent the patches to the author of DBD::mysql Jochen
       Wiedman.

       Georg Rehfeld	      15. Jan. 2003

KNOWN PROBLEMS
       1.) Some Linux distributions don't come with a gzip library by default.	Running "make"
	   terminates with an error message like

	     LD_RUN_PATH="/usr/lib/mysql:/lib:/usr/lib" gcc
	       -o blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so  -shared
	       -L/usr/local/lib dbdimp.o mysql.o -L/usr/lib/mysql
	       -lmysqlclient -lm -L/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i386-redhat-linux/2.96
	       -lgcc -lz
	     /usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lz
	     collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
	     make: *** [blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so] Error 1

	   If this is the case for you, install an RPM archive like libz-devel, libgz-devel,
	   zlib-devel or gzlib-devel or something similar.

       2.) If Perl was compiled with gcc or egcs, but MySQL was compiled with another compiler or
	   on another system, an error message like this is very likely when running "Make test":

	     t/00base............install_driver(mysql) failed: Can't load
	     '../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so' for module DBD::mysql:
	     ../blib/arch/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so: undefined symbol: _umoddi3
	     at /usr/local/perl-5.005/lib/5.005/i586-linux-thread/DynaLoader.pm
	     line 168.

	   This means, that your linker doesn't include libgcc.a. You have the following options:

	   The solution is telling the linker to use libgcc. Run

	     gcc --print-libgcc-file

	   to determine the exact location of libgcc.a or for older versions of gcc

	     gcc -v

	   to determine the directory. If you know the directory, add a

	     -L<directory> -lgcc

	   to the list of C compiler flags. "Configuration". "Linker flags".

       3.) There are known problems with shared versions of libmysqlclient, at least on some
	   Linux boxes. If you receive an error message similar to

	     install_driver(mysql) failed: Can't load
	     '/usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/i586-linux/auto/DBD/mysql/mysql.so'
	     for module DBD::mysql: File not found at
	     /usr/lib/perl5/i586-linux/5.00404/DynaLoader.pm line 166

	   then this error message can be misleading: It's not mysql.so that fails being loaded,
	   but libmysqlclient.so! The usual problem is that this file is located in a directory
	   like

	     /usr/lib/mysql

	   where the linker doesn't look for it.

	   The best workaround is using a statically linked mysqlclient library, for example

	     /usr/lib/mysql/libmysqlclient.a

	   The use of a statically linked library is described in the previous section on linker
	   flags. "Configuration".  "Linker flags".

       4.) Red Hat 8 & 9 set the Default locale to UTF which causes problems with MakeMaker.  To
	   build DBD::mysql on these systems, do a 'unset LANG' before runing 'perl Makefile.PL'

SUPPORT
       Finally, if everything else fails, you are not alone. First of all, for an immediate
       answer, you should look into the archives of the mailing list perl@lists.mysql.com. See
       http://www.mysql.com for archive locations.

       If you don't find an appropriate posting and reply in the mailing list, please post a
       question. Typically a reply will be seen within one or two days.

perl v5.16.3				    2012-08-28			   DBD::mysql::INSTALL(3)
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