Date::Manip::Problems(3) User Contributed Perl Documentation Date::Manip::Problems(3)
Date::Manip::Problems - problems and bugs
The following are not bugs in Date::Manip, but they may give some people problems.
There is a known memory leak in perl related to named regexp captures that directly
affects Date::Manip . The leak is in all versions of perl up to the following
The bug has been fixed in:
If a maintenance release is done for any of the other releases (5.10, 5.12, 5.14),
that includes the patch, I'll update this section to include that information.
Date::Manip 5.xx is not susceptible, so using it may be a feasible workaround, but if
you need accurate timezone handling, this isn't possible.
Simple tests estimate the leak to be about 3 MB per 10,000 dates parsed, so unless
you're parsing hundreds of thousands, or millions of dates, the leak probably won't be
a problem on systems with moderate amounts of memory. And if you're parsing that many
dates, the relatively slow Date::Manip may not be the correct module for you to use
Unable to determine Time Zone
Please refer to the Date::Manip::TZ documentation for a discussion of this problem.
Dmake error on strawberry perl
Users of Strawberry perl on windows may encounter an error similar to the following:
dmake: makefile: line 3016: Error: -- Input line too long, increase MAXLINELENGTH
This is a known problem with some versions of strawberry perl, and I can't fix it in
Date::Manip. If you encounter this problem, you can install the package manually
using the commands:
cpan> look Date::Manip::Date
> perl Makefile.PL
> dmake MAXLINELENGTH=300000 make
> dmake MAXLINELENGTH=300000 make test
> dmake MAXLINELENGTH=300000 make install
You can find more details here:
Calculations appear to be off by an hour
Due to daylight saving time (specifically, the spring change where the time typically
moves forward from 02:00 to 03:00, any date calculation which would intuitively report
a time in that range will also move forward (or backward as the case may be).
*NOTE* This should be less of a problem since 6.30 with the addition of semi-exact
Missing date formats
Due to the large number of date formats that Date::Manip CAN process, people often
assume that other formats that they want to use should work as well, and when they
don't, it comes as a surprise.
With the much improved parsing of 6.00, many formats can be added easily, though
unless they are of general use, I'll probably suggest that you use parse_format
There is a class of formats that I do not plan to add however.
I have frequently been asked to add formats such as "the 15th of last month", or
"Monday of next week". I do not intend to add these date formats to Date::Manip, but
since I have received the request several times, I decided to include my reasoning
Date::Manip can parse pretty much any static date format that I could think of or find
reference to. Dates such as "today", "Jan 12", or "2001-01-01" are all understood.
These are fairly limited however. Many very common date formats are best thought of as
a date plus a modification. For example, "yesterday" is actually determined internally
as "today" plus a modification of "- 1 day". "2nd Sunday in June" is determined as
"June 1" modified to the 2nd Sunday.
As these types of formats were added over time, I quickly realized that the number of
possible date plus modification formats was huge. The number of combinations has
caused the parsing in Date::Manip to be quite complex, and adding new formats
occasionally causes unexpected conflicts with other formats.
The first time I received a request similar to "the 15th of last month", I intended to
add it, but as I analyzed it to see what changes needed to be made to support it, I
realized that this needed to be expressed as a date plus TWO modifications. In other
words, today modified to last month modified to the 15th day of the month.
As bad as date plus modification formats are, a date plus TWO modifications would be
exponentially worse. On realizing that, I decided that Date::Manip will not support
this type of format.
Although I apologize for the inconvenience, I do not intend to change my position on
Date::Manip is slow
NOTE: The following section applies primarily to 5.xx. I'm doing a lot of work to
optimize Date::Manip and I will rewrite this section to take this into account, and to
provide performance suggestions. It should be noted that initial tests show version
6.xx to be around twice as fast as 5.xx (though still considerably slower than some of
the other modules).
Date::Manip is probably one of the slower Date/Time modules due to the fact that it is
huge and written entirely in perl.
Some things that will definitely help:
ISO-8601 dates are parsed first and fastest. Use them whenever possible.
Avoid parsing dates that are referenced against the current time (in 2 days, today at
noon, etc.). These take a lot longer to parse.
Business date calculations are extremely slow. You should consider alternatives if
possible (i.e. doing the calculation in exact mode and then multiplying by 5/7). Who
needs a business date more accurate than "6 to 8 weeks" anyway, right :-)
Using functions/methods which are not supported
There have been a handful of incidents of people using a function from Date::Manip
which were not documented in the manual.
Date::Manip consists of a large number of user functions which are documented in the
manual. These are designed to be used by other programmers, and I will not make any
backwards incompatible changes in them unless there is a very compelling reason to do
so, and in that case, the change will be clearly documented in the
Date::Manip::Changes6 documentation for this module.
Date::Manip also includes a large number of functions which are NOT documented. These
are for internal use only. Please do not use them! I can (and do) change their use,
and even their name, without notice, and without apology! Some of these internal
functions even have test scripts, but that is not a guarantee that they will not
change, nor is any support implied. I simply like to run regression tests on as much
of Date::Manip as possible.
As of the most recent versions of Date::Manip, all internal functions have names that
begin with an underscore (_). If you choose to use them directly, it is quite possible
that new versions of Date::Manip will cause your programs to break due to a change in
how those functions work.
Any changes to internal functions will not be documented, and will not be regarded by
me as a backwards incompatibility. Nor will I (as was requested in one instance)
revert to a previous version of the internal function.
If you feel that an internal function is of more general use, feel free to contact me
with an argument of why it should be "promoted". I welcome suggestions and will
definitely consider any such request.
If you try to put Date::Manip under RCS control, you are going to have problems.
Apparently, RCS replaces strings of the form "$Date...$" with the current date. This
form occurs all over in Date::Manip. To prevent the RCS keyword expansion, checkout
Since very few people will ever have a desire to do this (and I don't use RCS), I have
not worried about it, and I do not intend to try to workaround this problem.
Date::Manip 6.xx has gotten some complaints (far more than 5.xx if the truth be told), so
I'd like to address a couple of them here. Perhaps an understanding of why some of the
changes were made will allay some of the complaints. If not, people are always welcome to
stick with the 5.xx release. I will continue to support the 5.xx releases for a couple
years (though I do NOT plan to add functionality to it).
These complaints come both from both the CPAN ratings site:
and from personal email.
Requires perl 5.10
The single most controversial change made in 6.00 is that it now required perl 5.10.0
or higher. Most of the negative feedback I've received is due to this.
In the past, I've avoided using new features of perl in order to allow Date::Manip to
run on older versions of perl. Prior to perl 5.10, none of the new features would
have had a major impact on how Date::Manip was written so this practice was justified.
That all changed with the release of perl 5.10.
One of the aspects of Date::Manip that has received the most positive response is the
ability to parse almost every conceivable date format. Unfortunately, as I've added
formats, the parsing routine became more and more complicated, and maintaining it was
one of the least enjoyable aspect in maintaining Date::Manip . In fact, for several
years I've been extremely reluctant to add new formats due to the fact that too often,
adding a new format broke other formats.
As I was rewriting Date::Manip, I was looking for ways to improve the parsing and to
make maintaining it easier. Perl 5.10 provides the feature "named capture buffers".
Named capture buffers not only improves the ease of maintaining the complex regular
expressions used by Date::Manip, it makes it dramatically easier to add additional
formats in a way that is much less likely to interfere with other formats. The parsing
in 6.00 is so much more robust, extensible, and flexible, that it will make parser
maintenance possible for many years to come at a fraction of the effort and risk.
It was too much to turn down. Hopefully, since 5.10 has been out for some time now,
this will not prohibit too many people from using the new version of Date::Manip. I
realize that there are many people out there using older versions of perl who do not
have the option of upgrading perl. The decision to use 5.10 wasn't made lightly...
but I don't regret making it. I apologize to users who, as a result, cannot use 6.00 .
Hopefully in the future you'll be able to benefit from the improvements in 6.00.
One complaint I've received is that this in some way makes Date::Manip backwards
incompatible, but this is not an accurate complaint. Version 6.xx DOES include some
backwards incompatibilities (and these are covered in the Date::Manip::Migration5to6
document), however in almost all cases, these incompatibilities are with infrequently
used features, or workarounds are in place to allow deprecated features to continue
functioning for some period of time.
Though I have no data to confirm this, I suspect that 90% or more of all scripts which
were written with Date::Manip 5.xx will continue to work unmodified with 6.xx (of
course, you should still refer to the migration document to see what features are
deprecated or changed to make sure that you don't need to modify your script so that
it will continue to work in the future). Even with scripts that need to be changed,
the changes should be trivial.
So, Date::Manip 6.xx is almost entirely backward compatible with 5.xx (to the extent
that you would expect any major version release to be compatible with a previous major
The change is only in the requirements necessary to get Date::Manip 6.xx to run.
Obviously, it's not reasonable to say that Date::Manip should never be allowed to
switch minimum perl versions. At some point, you have to let go of an old version if
you want to make use of the features of the newer version. The question is, did I jump
to 5.10 too fast?
The negative ratings I see in the CPAN ratings complain that I no longer support perl
5.6 and perl 5.8.
With respect to 5.6, perl 5.6 was released in March of 2000 (that's before Windows XP
which was released in 2001). To be honest, I don't really feel much sympathy for this
complaint. Software that is 9 years old is ANCIENT. People may choose to use it... but
please don't complain when new software comes out that doesn't support it.
The argument for perl 5.8 is much more compelling. Although 5.8 was released quite
some time ago (July of 2002), there were no major perl releases until 5.10 came out in
December of 2007, so 5.8 was state-of-the art as little as 2 years prior to the
release of Date::Manip 6.xx.
I agree completely with the argument that abandoning 5.8 only 2 years after it was the
current version is too soon. For that reason, I will continue to support the
Date::Manip 5.xx releases for some years to come. I don't know exactly how long I'll
continue to support them, but it'll be at least 2-3 years. Once perl 5.10 is 5 years
old, I'll be much more likely to drop support for the 5.xx releases, but I DO want to
make use of the features of 5.10 for future development. They make development so
much easier, and the parsing so much more robust (something I've wanted for years),
that I'm not willing to give up the advantages of 5.10.
But the next complaint is relevant.
Automatic installs break
A much more important problem is that versions 6.00 through 6.07 broke automatic
installs for older perl installations. If you try to install Date::Manip using the
automatic tools (cpan/cpanp), they will look for the most recent version. If you are
using a version of perl older than 5.10, this fails, and rather than looking for an
older version, the tool simply reports a failure in installing Date::Manip.
Technically, the problem is not due to Date::Manip itself, but is a result of how perl
modules are currently managed. However, since Date::Manip is managed by then, it's
important to avoid causing this type of problem (which I clearly failed to do).
As of Date::Manip 6.10, this problem should no longer occur. Starting with version
6.10, both the 5.xx and 6.xx versions of Date::Manip have been combined into a single
distribution (so Date-Manip-6.10 contained both Date::Manip 6.10 and Date::Manip
5.57). From Date::Manip 6.10 to 6.13, the perl version was determined at install time
and either the 5.xx or 6.xx version was installed. From Date::Manip 6.14 on, both
versions are installed, and at run time, the correct version will be chosen (and if
you're running a recent version of perl, you can select to run the old or new
All future version (for as long as 5.xx is supported) will include both the most
current 5.xx and 6.xx releases of Date::Manip. In this way, automatic install tools
will be able to install Date::Manip regardless of which version of perl you are
Too many modules
One minor complaint is that there are too many files. One person specifically objects
to the fact that there are over 470 modules covering non-minute offsets. This
complaint is (IMO) silly.
Date::Manip supports ALL historical time zones, including those with non-minute
offsets, and so there will be information for those time zones, even though they are
not currently in use.
I could of course store all of the information in one big module, but that means that
you have to load all of that data every time you use Date::Manip, and I find that to
be a very poor solution. Instead, storing the information in a per-time zone and per-
offset manner dramatically decreases the amount of data that has to be loaded.
While it is true that Date::Manip includes over 900 modules for all of the time zone
information, most implementations of time zone handling also choose to break up the
data into a large number of files.
My linux distribution (openSuSE 11.2 at the time of writing this) uses the standard
zoneinfo database, and at this point, there are over 1700 files included in
/usr/share/zoneinfo (though it does appear that there is some duplication of
information). Current versions of RedHat also use over 1700 files, so Date::Manip
isn't treating the time zone data in a new or unreasonable way.
Objects are large
One complaint that was put on the CPAN ratings site was that the OO interface is "a
dud" due to the size of it's objects. The complaint is that a Date::Manip::Date object
is 115K while it should (according to the complaint) only require that you need to
save the seconds from the epoch, zone, and a couple other pieces of information, all
of which could probably be stored in 100 bytes or less.
This complaint is not accurate, and comes from a misunderstanding of how Date::Manip
objects are created.
Date::Manip is very configurable, and contains a great deal of information which could
theoretically be calculated on the fly, but which would greatly reduce it's
performance. Instead, in the interest of improving performance, the data is cached,
and since the data is virtually all potentially object specific, it has to be somehow
linked to the object.
For example, Date::Manip allows you to parse dates in several languages. Each
language has a large number of regular expressions which are used to do the actual
parsing. Instead of recreating these regular expressions each time they are needed,
they are created once and stored in an object (specifically, a Date::Manip::Base
object). The size of the Date::Manip::Base object is almost 15K (due primarily to the
regular expressions used in parsing dates in the selected language).
Similarly, a description of the time zones are stored in a second object (a
Date::Manip::TZ object). The size of the Date::Manip::TZ object starts at 100K. That
may seem excessive, but you have to remember that there are almost 500 time zones, and
they have to be indexed by name, alias, abbreviation, and offset, and by the time you
do this, it does take a fair bit of space. It should also be noted that the full
description of each timezone is only stored in the object when the timezone is
actually used, so if you use a lot of timezones, this object will grow slowly as new
timezones are used.
The size of the actual Date::Manip::Date object is a little over 300 bytes. However,
each includes a pointer to a Date::Manip::Base and a Date::Manip::TZ object (and due
to how the object was being looked at in the complaint, they were reporting the size
of all three objects, NOT just the Date::Manip::Date object).
Both the Date::Manip::Base and Date::Manip::TZ objects are reused by any number of
Date::Manip::Date objects. They can almost be thought of as global data, except that
they are accessible in the standard OO manner, and you are allowed to modify them on a
per-object basis which WILL mean that you have to store more data. If you work with
multiple configurations (see Date::Manip::Config), you'll need multiple Base and TZ
objects. However, most of the time you will not need to do this.
The actual Date::Manip::Date object is a bit larger than suggested in the complaint,
but it should be noted that Date::Manip actually stores the dates in a number of
different formats (a string of the form YYYYMMDDHH:MN:SS and a list
[YYYY,MM,DD,HH,MN,SS] in the time zone it was parsed in, the local time zone (if
different) and GMT. By caching this information as it is used, it has a huge impact on
So, Date::Manip in typical usage consists of one 100K Date::Manip::TZ object, one 15K
Date::Manip::Base objects, and any number of small 300 byte Date::Manip::Date objects.
Date::Manip::Delta objects are even smaller. Date::Manip::Recur objects are also
small, but they contain any number of Date objects in them.
I am certainly open to suggestions as to how I can improve the OO interface... but I
don't believe it is a dud. While I'm not an expert at OO programming, I believe that I
followed pretty standard and accepted procedures for accessing the data.
Please refer to the Date::Manip::Objects document for more information.
Date::Manip has an inconsistent interface
I've gotten a few complaints that the interface to Date::Manip is inconsistent... and
I agree (at least when using the functional interfaces).
Date::Manip was originally written in an unplanned way... as a need/want came up, it
was extended. That's not the way to write a major package of course, but it wasn't
expected to be a major package at the start.
As it became more and more widely used, I too wished for a more consistent interface,
but I did not want to break backward compatibility for everyone using it.
When 6.xx was written, I spent a good deal of time trying to make a very standard OO
interface, so I do not believe that this complaint can be applied to the OO interface
(though I'm interested in suggestions for improving it of course).
As far as the functional interface goes, I'll continue to support it in a backward
compatible (and therefore inconsistent) form. I'd encourage the use of the OO
interface whenever possible.
BUGS AND QUESTIONS
If you find a bug in Date::Manip, please send it directly to me (see the AUTHOR section
below). Alternately, you can submit it on CPAN. This can be done at the following URL:
Please do not use other means to report bugs (such as Usenet newsgroups, or forums for a
specific OS or Linux distribution) as it is impossible for me to keep up with all of them.
When filing a bug report, please include the following information:
Please include the version of Date::Manip you are using. You can get this by using
$obj = new Date::Manip::Date;
Please include the output from "perl -V"
If you have a problem using Date::Manip that perhaps isn't a bug (can't figure out the
syntax, etc.), you're in the right place. Start by reading the main Date::Manip
documentation, and the other documents that apply to whatever you are trying to do. If
this still doesn't answer your question, mail me directly.
I would ask that you be reasonably familiar with the documentation BEFORE you choose to do
this. Date::Manip is a hobby, and I simply do not have time to respond to hundreds of
questions which are already answered in this manual.
If you find any problems with the documentation (errors, typos, or items that are not
clear), please send them to me. I welcome any suggestions that will allow me to improve
Date::Manip - main module documentation
This script is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
terms as Perl itself.
Sullivan Beck (email@example.com)
perl v5.16.3 2014-06-09 Date::Manip::Problems(3)