
cgbrfsx.f(3) LAPACK cgbrfsx.f(3)
NAME
cgbrfsx.f 
SYNOPSIS
Functions/Subroutines
subroutine cgbrfsx (TRANS, EQUED, N, KL, KU, NRHS, AB, LDAB, AFB, LDAFB, IPIV, R, C, B,
LDB, X, LDX, RCOND, BERR, N_ERR_BNDS, ERR_BNDS_NORM, ERR_BNDS_COMP, NPARAMS, PARAMS,
WORK, RWORK, INFO)
CGBRFSX
Function/Subroutine Documentation
subroutine cgbrfsx (characterTRANS, characterEQUED, integerN, integerKL, integerKU,
integerNRHS, complex, dimension( ldab, * )AB, integerLDAB, complex, dimension( ldafb, *
)AFB, integerLDAFB, integer, dimension( * )IPIV, real, dimension( * )R, real, dimension( *
)C, complex, dimension( ldb, * )B, integerLDB, complex, dimension( ldx , * )X, integerLDX,
realRCOND, real, dimension( * )BERR, integerN_ERR_BNDS, real, dimension( nrhs, *
)ERR_BNDS_NORM, real, dimension( nrhs, * )ERR_BNDS_COMP, integerNPARAMS, real, dimension(
* )PARAMS, complex, dimension( * )WORK, real, dimension( * )RWORK, integerINFO)
CGBRFSX
Purpose:
CGBRFSX improves the computed solution to a system of linear
equations and provides error bounds and backward error estimates
for the solution. In addition to normwise error bound, the code
provides maximum componentwise error bound if possible. See
comments for ERR_BNDS_NORM and ERR_BNDS_COMP for details of the
error bounds.
The original system of linear equations may have been equilibrated
before calling this routine, as described by arguments EQUED, R
and C below. In this case, the solution and error bounds returned
are for the original unequilibrated system.
Some optional parameters are bundled in the PARAMS array. These
settings determine how refinement is performed, but often the
defaults are acceptable. If the defaults are acceptable, users
can pass NPARAMS = 0 which prevents the source code from accessing
the PARAMS argument.
Parameters:
TRANS
TRANS is CHARACTER*1
Specifies the form of the system of equations:
= 'N': A * X = B (No transpose)
= 'T': A**T * X = B (Transpose)
= 'C': A**H * X = B (Conjugate transpose = Transpose)
EQUED
EQUED is CHARACTER*1
Specifies the form of equilibration that was done to A
before calling this routine. This is needed to compute
the solution and error bounds correctly.
= 'N': No equilibration
= 'R': Row equilibration, i.e., A has been premultiplied by
diag(R).
= 'C': Column equilibration, i.e., A has been postmultiplied
by diag(C).
= 'B': Both row and column equilibration, i.e., A has been
replaced by diag(R) * A * diag(C).
The right hand side B has been changed accordingly.
N
N is INTEGER
The order of the matrix A. N >= 0.
KL
KL is INTEGER
The number of subdiagonals within the band of A. KL >= 0.
KU
KU is INTEGER
The number of superdiagonals within the band of A. KU >= 0.
NRHS
NRHS is INTEGER
The number of right hand sides, i.e., the number of columns
of the matrices B and X. NRHS >= 0.
AB
AB is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDAB,N)
The original band matrix A, stored in rows 1 to KL+KU+1.
The jth column of A is stored in the jth column of the
array AB as follows:
AB(ku+1+ij,j) = A(i,j) for max(1,jku)<=i<=min(n,j+kl).
LDAB
LDAB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AB. LDAB >= KL+KU+1.
AFB
AFB is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDAFB,N)
Details of the LU factorization of the band matrix A, as
computed by DGBTRF. U is stored as an upper triangular band
matrix with KL+KU superdiagonals in rows 1 to KL+KU+1, and
the multipliers used during the factorization are stored in
rows KL+KU+2 to 2*KL+KU+1.
LDAFB
LDAFB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array AFB. LDAFB >= 2*KL*KU+1.
IPIV
IPIV is INTEGER array, dimension (N)
The pivot indices from SGETRF; for 1<=i<=N, row i of the
matrix was interchanged with row IPIV(i).
R
R is REAL array, dimension (N)
The row scale factors for A. If EQUED = 'R' or 'B', A is
multiplied on the left by diag(R); if EQUED = 'N' or 'C', R
is not accessed. R is an input argument if FACT = 'F';
otherwise, R is an output argument. If FACT = 'F' and
EQUED = 'R' or 'B', each element of R must be positive.
If R is output, each element of R is a power of the radix.
If R is input, each element of R should be a power of the radix
to ensure a reliable solution and error estimates. Scaling by
powers of the radix does not cause rounding errors unless the
result underflows or overflows. Rounding errors during scaling
lead to refining with a matrix that is not equivalent to the
input matrix, producing error estimates that may not be
reliable.
C
C is REAL array, dimension (N)
The column scale factors for A. If EQUED = 'C' or 'B', A is
multiplied on the right by diag(C); if EQUED = 'N' or 'R', C
is not accessed. C is an input argument if FACT = 'F';
otherwise, C is an output argument. If FACT = 'F' and
EQUED = 'C' or 'B', each element of C must be positive.
If C is output, each element of C is a power of the radix.
If C is input, each element of C should be a power of the radix
to ensure a reliable solution and error estimates. Scaling by
powers of the radix does not cause rounding errors unless the
result underflows or overflows. Rounding errors during scaling
lead to refining with a matrix that is not equivalent to the
input matrix, producing error estimates that may not be
reliable.
B
B is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDB,NRHS)
The right hand side matrix B.
LDB
LDB is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array B. LDB >= max(1,N).
X
X is COMPLEX array, dimension (LDX,NRHS)
On entry, the solution matrix X, as computed by SGETRS.
On exit, the improved solution matrix X.
LDX
LDX is INTEGER
The leading dimension of the array X. LDX >= max(1,N).
RCOND
RCOND is REAL
Reciprocal scaled condition number. This is an estimate of the
reciprocal Skeel condition number of the matrix A after
equilibration (if done). If this is less than the machine
precision (in particular, if it is zero), the matrix is singular
to working precision. Note that the error may still be small even
if this number is very small and the matrix appears ill
conditioned.
BERR
BERR is REAL array, dimension (NRHS)
Componentwise relative backward error. This is the
componentwise relative backward error of each solution vector X(j)
(i.e., the smallest relative change in any element of A or B that
makes X(j) an exact solution).
N_ERR_BNDS
N_ERR_BNDS is INTEGER
Number of error bounds to return for each right hand side
and each type (normwise or componentwise). See ERR_BNDS_NORM and
ERR_BNDS_COMP below.
ERR_BNDS_NORM
ERR_BNDS_NORM is REAL array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)
For each righthand side, this array contains information about
various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the
normwise relative error, which is defined as follows:
Normwise relative error in the ith solution vector:
max_j (abs(XTRUE(j,i)  X(j,i)))

max_j abs(X(j,i))
The array is indexed by the type of error information as described
below. There currently are up to three pieces of information
returned.
The first index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(i,:) corresponds to the ith
righthand side.
The second index in ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,err) contains the following
three fields:
err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the
reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon').
err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,
almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error
so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only
be trusted if the previous boolean is true.
err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated normwise
reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error
estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition
numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some
appropriately scaled matrix Z.
Let Z = S*A, where S scales each row by a power of the
radix so all absolute row sums of Z are approximately 1.
See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra
cautions.
ERR_BNDS_COMP
ERR_BNDS_COMP is REAL array, dimension (NRHS, N_ERR_BNDS)
For each righthand side, this array contains information about
various error bounds and condition numbers corresponding to the
componentwise relative error, which is defined as follows:
Componentwise relative error in the ith solution vector:
abs(XTRUE(j,i)  X(j,i))
max_j 
abs(X(j,i))
The array is indexed by the righthand side i (on which the
componentwise relative error depends), and the type of error
information as described below. There currently are up to three
pieces of information returned for each righthand side. If
componentwise accuracy is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0), then
ERR_BNDS_COMP is not accessed. If N_ERR_BNDS .LT. 3, then at most
the first (:,N_ERR_BNDS) entries are returned.
The first index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(i,:) corresponds to the ith
righthand side.
The second index in ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,err) contains the following
three fields:
err = 1 "Trust/don't trust" boolean. Trust the answer if the
reciprocal condition number is less than the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon').
err = 2 "Guaranteed" error bound: The estimated forward error,
almost certainly within a factor of 10 of the true error
so long as the next entry is greater than the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon'). This error bound should only
be trusted if the previous boolean is true.
err = 3 Reciprocal condition number: Estimated componentwise
reciprocal condition number. Compared with the threshold
sqrt(n) * slamch('Epsilon') to determine if the error
estimate is "guaranteed". These reciprocal condition
numbers are 1 / (norm(Z^{1},inf) * norm(Z,inf)) for some
appropriately scaled matrix Z.
Let Z = S*(A*diag(x)), where x is the solution for the
current righthand side and S scales each row of
A*diag(x) by a power of the radix so all absolute row
sums of Z are approximately 1.
See Lapack Working Note 165 for further details and extra
cautions.
NPARAMS
NPARAMS is INTEGER
Specifies the number of parameters set in PARAMS. If .LE. 0, the
PARAMS array is never referenced and default values are used.
PARAMS
PARAMS is REAL array, dimension NPARAMS
Specifies algorithm parameters. If an entry is .LT. 0.0, then
that entry will be filled with default value used for that
parameter. Only positions up to NPARAMS are accessed; defaults
are used for highernumbered parameters.
PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITREF_I = 1) : Whether to perform iterative
refinement or not.
Default: 1.0
= 0.0 : No refinement is performed, and no error bounds are
computed.
= 1.0 : Use the doubleprecision refinement algorithm,
possibly with doubledsingle computations if the
compilation environment does not support DOUBLE
PRECISION.
(other values are reserved for future use)
PARAMS(LA_LINRX_ITHRESH_I = 2) : Maximum number of residual
computations allowed for refinement.
Default: 10
Aggressive: Set to 100 to permit convergence using approximate
factorizations or factorizations other than LU. If
the factorization uses a technique other than
Gaussian elimination, the guarantees in
err_bnds_norm and err_bnds_comp may no longer be
trustworthy.
PARAMS(LA_LINRX_CWISE_I = 3) : Flag determining if the code
will attempt to find a solution with small componentwise
relative error in the doubleprecision algorithm. Positive
is true, 0.0 is false.
Default: 1.0 (attempt componentwise convergence)
WORK
WORK is COMPLEX array, dimension (2*N)
RWORK
RWORK is REAL array, dimension (2*N)
INFO
INFO is INTEGER
= 0: Successful exit. The solution to every righthand side is
guaranteed.
< 0: If INFO = i, the ith argument had an illegal value
> 0 and <= N: U(INFO,INFO) is exactly zero. The factorization
has been completed, but the factor U is exactly singular, so
the solution and error bounds could not be computed. RCOND = 0
is returned.
= N+J: The solution corresponding to the Jth righthand side is
not guaranteed. The solutions corresponding to other right
hand sides K with K > J may not be guaranteed as well, but
only the first such righthand side is reported. If a small
componentwise error is not requested (PARAMS(3) = 0.0) then
the Jth righthand side is the first with a normwise error
bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest J such
that ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0). By default (PARAMS(3) = 1.0)
the Jth righthand side is the first with either a normwise or
componentwise error bound that is not guaranteed (the smallest
J such that either ERR_BNDS_NORM(J,1) = 0.0 or
ERR_BNDS_COMP(J,1) = 0.0). See the definition of
ERR_BNDS_NORM(:,1) and ERR_BNDS_COMP(:,1). To get information
about all of the righthand sides check ERR_BNDS_NORM or
ERR_BNDS_COMP.
Author:
Univ. of Tennessee
Univ. of California Berkeley
Univ. of Colorado Denver
NAG Ltd.
Date:
April 2012
Definition at line 437 of file cgbrfsx.f.
Author
Generated automatically by Doxygen for LAPACK from the source code.
Version 3.4.2 Tue Sep 25 2012 cgbrfsx.f(3) 
