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CATOPEN(3)			    Linux Programmer's Manual			       CATOPEN(3)

NAME
       catopen, catclose - open/close a message catalog

SYNOPSIS
       #include <nl_types.h>

       nl_catd catopen(const char *name, int flag);

       int catclose(nl_catd catalog);

DESCRIPTION
       The  function  catopen()  opens	a  message catalog and returns a catalog descriptor.  The
       descriptor remains valid until catclose() or execve(2).	If a file descriptor is  used  to
       implement catalog descriptors then the FD_CLOEXEC flag will be set.

       The  argument name specifies the name of the message catalog to be opened.  If name speci-
       fies and absolute path (i.e., contains a '/'), then name specifies a pathname for the mes-
       sage  catalog.	Otherwise, the environment variable NLSPATH is used with name substituted
       for %N (see locale(7)).	It is unspecified whether NLSPATH will be used when  the  process
       has  root privileges.  If NLSPATH does not exist in the environment, or if a message cata-
       log cannot be opened in any of the paths specified by it, then an  implementation  defined
       path  is used.  This latter default path may depend on the LC_MESSAGES locale setting when
       the flag argument is NL_CAT_LOCALE and on the LANG  environment	variable  when	the  flag
       argument  is  0.   Changing the LC_MESSAGES part of the locale may invalidate open catalog
       descriptors.

       The flag argument to catopen() is used to indicate the source for the language to use.  If
       it  is  set  to NL_CAT_LOCALE then it will use the current locale setting for LC_MESSAGES.
       Otherwise it will use the LANG environment variable.

       The function catclose() closes the message catalog identified by catalog.  It  invalidates
       any subsequent references to the message catalog defined by catalog.

RETURN VALUE
       The  function  catopen()  returns a message catalog descriptor of type nl_catd on success.
       On failure, it returns (nl_catd) -1 and sets errno to indicate the  error.   The  possible
       error values include all possible values for the open(2) call.

       The function catclose() returns 0 on success, or -1 on failure.

ENVIRONMENT
       LC_MESSAGES
	      May  be  the  source of the LC_MESSAGES locale setting, and thus determine the lan-
	      guage to use if flag is set to NL_CAT_LOCALE.

       LANG   The language to use if flag is 0.

CONFORMING TO
       POSIX.1-2001.  It is unclear what the source was for the constants MCLoadBySet and MCLoad-
       All (see below).

NOTES
       The above is the POSIX.1-2001 description.  The glibc value for NL_CAT_LOCALE is 1.  (Com-
       pare MCLoadAll below.)  The default path varies, but usually looks at a number  of  places
       below /usr/share/locale.

   Linux notes
       These functions are available for Linux since libc 4.4.4c.  In the case of linux libc4 and
       libc5, the catalog descriptor nl_catd is a mmap(2)'ed  area  of	memory	and  not  a  file
       descriptor.  The flag argument to catopen() should be either MCLoadBySet (=0) or MCLoadAll
       (=1).  The former value indicates that a set from the catalog is to be loaded when needed,
       whereas	the  latter  causes the initial call to catopen() to load the entire catalog into
       memory.	The default search path varies, but usually looks at a	number	of  places  below
       /etc/locale and /usr/lib/locale.

SEE ALSO
       catgets(3), setlocale(3)

COLOPHON
       This  page  is  part of release 3.53 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of the
       project,    and	  information	 about	  reporting    bugs,	can    be    found     at
       http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

GNU					    2001-12-14				       CATOPEN(3)
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