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CAP_FROM_TEXT(3)		    Linux Programmer's Manual			 CAP_FROM_TEXT(3)

NAME
       cap_from_text,  cap_to_text,  cap_to_name, cap_from_name - capability state textual repre-
       sentation translation

SYNOPSIS
       #include <sys/capability.h>

       cap_t cap_from_text(const char *buf_p);

       char *cap_to_text(cap_t caps, ssize_t *length_p);

       int cap_from_name(const char *name, cap_value_t *cap_p);

       char *cap_to_name(cap_value_t cap);

       Link with -lcap.

DESCRIPTION
       These functions translate a capability state between an internal representation and a tex-
       tual  one.   The internal representation is managed by the capability functions in working
       storage. The textual representation is a structured, human-readable  string  suitable  for
       display.

       cap_from_text()	allocates  and initializes a capability state in working storage. It then
       sets the contents of this newly created capability state to the	state  represented  by	a
       human-readable, nul-terminated character string pointed to by buf_p.  It returns a pointer
       to the newly created capability state.  When the capability state in working storage is no
       longer  required,  the caller should free any releasable memory by calling cap_free() with
       cap_t as an argument.  The function returns an error if it cannot parse	the  contents  of
       the string pointed to by buf_p or does not recognize any capability_name or flag character
       as valid.  The function also returns an error if any flag is both set and cleared within a
       single clause.

       cap_to_text()  converts the capability state in working storage identified by cap_p into a
       nul-terminated human-readable string.  This function allocates  any  memory  necessary  to
       contain	the  string,  and  returns  a pointer to the string.  If the pointer len_p is not
       NULL, the function shall also return the full length of the string (not including the  nul
       terminator) in the location pointed to by len_p.  The capability state in working storage,
       identified by cap_p, is completely represented in the character string.	When the capabil-
       ity  state in working storage is no longer required, the caller should free any releasable
       memory by calling cap_free() with the returned string pointer as an argument.

       cap_from_name() converts a text representation of a capability, such  as  "cap_chown",  to
       its  numerical  representation  (CAP_CHOWN=0),  writing the decoded value into *cap_p.  If
       cap_p is NULL no result is written, but the return code of the function indicates  whether
       or not the specified capability can be represented by the library.

       cap_to_name()  converts	a  capability  index  value,  cap,  to a libcap-allocated textual
       string. This string should be deallocated with cap_free().

TEXTUAL REPRESENTATION
       A textual representation of capability sets consists of one or  more  whitespace-separated
       clauses.   Each	clause	specifies some operations on a capability set; the set starts out
       with all capabilities lowered, and the meaning of the string is the state of the  capabil-
       ity set after all the clauses have been applied in order.

       Each  clause  consists  of a list of comma-separated capability names (or the word `all'),
       followed by an action-list.  An action-list consists of a sequence of operator flag pairs.
       Legal  operators are: `=', '+', and `-'.  Legal flags are: `e', `i', and `p'.  These flags
       are case-sensitive and specify the Effective, Inheritable and Permitted sets respectively.

       In the capability name lists, all names are  case-insensitive.	The  special  name  `all'
       specifies  all  capabilities; it is equivalent to a list naming every capability individu-
       ally.

       Unnamed capabilities can also be specified by number. This feature ensures that libcap can
       support	capabilities  that  were  not allocated at the time libcap was compiled. However,
       generally upgrading libcap will add names for recently allocated capabilities.

       The `=' operator indicates that the listed capabilities are first reset in all three capa-
       bility sets.  The subsequent flags (which are optional when associated with this operator)
       indicate that the listed capabilities for the corresponding set are  to	be  raised.   For
       example:  "all=p"  means  lower every capability in the Effective and Inheritable sets but
       raise all of the Permitted capabilities; or, "cap_fowner=ep" means raise the Effective and
       Permitted override-file-ownership capability, while lowering this Inheritable capability.

       In the case that the leading operator is `=', and no list of capabilities is provided, the
       action-list is assumed to refer to `all' capabilities.  For example, the  following  three
       clauses	are  equivalent  to  each other (and indicate a completely empty capability set):
       "all="; "="; "cap_chown,<every-other-capability>=".

       The operators, `+' and `-' both require an explicit preceding capability list and  one  or
       more  explicit trailing flags.  The `+' operator will raise all of the listed capabilities
       in the flagged capability sets.	The `-' operator will lower all of the	listed	capabili-
       ties in the flagged capability sets.  For example: "all+p" will raise all of the Permitted
       capabilities; "cap_fowner+p-i" will raise the override-file-ownership  capability  in  the
       Permitted  capability  set  and	lower  this Inheritable capability; "cap_fowner+pe-i" and
       "cap_fowner=+pe" are equivalent.

RETURN VALUE
       cap_from_text(), cap_to_text() and cap_to_name() return a non-NULL value on  success,  and
       NULL  on failure.  cap_from_name() returns 0 for success, and -1 on failure (unknown capa-
       bility).

       On failure, errno is set to EINVAL, or ENOMEM.

CONFORMING TO
       cap_from_text() and cap_to_text() are specified by the withdrawn POSIX.1e draft specifica-
       tion.  cap_from_name() and cap_to_name() are Linux extensions.

EXAMPLE
       The  example program below demonstrates the use of cap_from_text() and cap_to_text().  The
       following shell session shows a some example runs:

	   $ ./a.out "cap_chown=p cap_chown+e"
	   caps_to_text() returned "= cap_chown+ep"
	   $ ./a.out "all=pe cap_chown-e cap_kill-pe"
	   caps_to_text() returned "=ep cap_chown-e cap_kill-ep"

       The source code of the program is as follows:

       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <sys/capability.h>

       #define handle_error(msg) \
	   do { perror(msg); exit(EXIT_FAILURE); } while (0)

       int
       main(int argc, char *argv[])
       {
	   cap_t caps;
	   char *txt_caps;

	   if (argc != 2) {
	       fprintf(stderr, "%s <textual-cap-set>\n", argv[0]);
	       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
	   }

	   caps = cap_from_text(argv[1]);
	   if (caps == NULL)
	       handle_error("cap_from_text");

	   txt_caps = cap_to_text(caps, NULL);
	   if (txt_caps == NULL)
	       handle_error("cap_to_text");

	   printf("caps_to_text() returned \"%s\"\n", txt_caps);

	   if (cap_free(txt_caps) != 0 || cap_free(caps) != 0)
	       handle_error("cap_free");

	   exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
       }

SEE ALSO
       libcap(3),     cap_clear(3),	cap_compare(3),     cap_copy_ext(3),	 cap_get_file(3),
       cap_get_proc(3), cap_init(3), capabilities(7)

					    2008-05-10				 CAP_FROM_TEXT(3)
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