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XMLWF(1)										 XMLWF(1)

NAME
       xmlwf - Determines if an XML document is well-formed

SYNOPSIS
       xmlwf [ -s]  [ -n]  [ -p]  [ -x]  [ -e encoding]  [ -w]	[ -d output-dir]  [ -c]  [ -m]	[
       -r]  [ -t]  [ -v]  [ file ...]

DESCRIPTION
       xmlwf uses the Expat library to determine if an XML document is well-formed.  It  is  non-
       validating.

       If  you	do  not  specify  any files on the command-line, and you have a recent version of
       xmlwf, the input file will be read from standard input.

WELL-FORMED DOCUMENTS
       A well-formed document must adhere to the following rules:

       o The file begins with an XML  declaration.   For  instance,  <?xml  version="1.0"  stand-
	 alone="yes"?>.  NOTE: xmlwf does not currently check for a valid XML declaration.

       o Every start tag is either empty (<tag/>) or has a corresponding end tag.

       o There	is exactly one root element.  This element must contain all other elements in the
	 document.  Only comments, white space, and processing instructions may  come  after  the
	 close of the root element.

       o All elements nest properly.

       o All attribute values are enclosed in quotes (either single or double).

       If  the	document  has a DTD, and it strictly complies with that DTD, then the document is
       also considered valid.  xmlwf is a non-validating parser -- it does  not  check	the  DTD.
       However, it does support external entities (see the -x option).

OPTIONS
       When  an  option includes an argument, you may specify the argument either separately ("-d
       output") or concatenated with the option ("-doutput").  xmlwf supports both.

       -c     If the input file is well-formed and xmlwf doesn't encounter any errors, the  input
	      file  is	simply	copied to the output directory unchanged.  This implies no names-
	      paces (turns off -n) and requires -d to specify an output file.

       -d output-dir
	      Specifies a directory to contain transformed representations of  the  input  files.
	      By  default,  -d	outputs  a  canonical  representation (described below).  You can
	      select different output formats using -c and -m.

	      The output filenames will be exactly the same as the input filenames or "STDIN"  if
	      the  input  is coming from standard input.  Therefore, you must be careful that the
	      output file does not go into the same directory  as  the	input  file.   Otherwise,
	      xmlwf  will  delete  the	input file before it generates the output file (just like
	      running cat < file > file in most shells).

	      Two structurally equivalent XML documents have a byte-for-byte identical	canonical
	      XML  representation.  Note that ignorable white space is considered significant and
	      is  treated  equivalently  to  data.   More  on  canonical  XML  can  be	found  at
	      http://www.jclark.com/xml/canonxml.html .

       -e encoding
	      Specifies the character encoding for the document, overriding any document encoding
	      declaration.  xmlwf supports four built-in encodings: US-ASCII, UTF-8, UTF-16,  and
	      ISO-8859-1.  Also see the -w option.

       -m     Outputs  some  strange  sort  of XML file that completely describes the input file,
	      including character positions.  Requires -d to specify an output file.

       -n     Turns on namespace processing.  (describe namespaces) -c disables namespaces.

       -p     Tells xmlwf to process external DTDs and parameter entities.

	      Normally xmlwf never parses parameter entities.  -p tells it to always parse  them.
	      -p implies -x.

       -r     Normally	xmlwf  memory-maps the XML file before parsing; this can result in faster
	      parsing on many platforms.  -r turns off memory-mapping and  uses  normal  file  IO
	      calls  instead.  Of course, memory-mapping is automatically turned off when reading
	      from standard input.

	      Use of memory-mapping can cause some platforms to report substantially higher  mem-
	      ory  usage  for  xmlwf,  but  this  appears  to be a matter of the operating system
	      reporting memory in a strange way; there is not a leak in xmlwf.

       -s     Prints an error if the document is not standalone.  A document is standalone if  it
	      has no external subset and no references to parameter entities.

       -t     Turns  on  timings.  This tells Expat to parse the entire file, but not perform any
	      processing.  This gives a fairly accurate idea of the raw  speed	of  Expat  itself
	      without  client  overhead.   -t  turns  off most of the output options (-d, -m, -c,
	      ...).

       -v     Prints the version of the Expat library being used, including some  information  on
	      the compile-time configuration of the library, and then exits.

       -w     Enables  support for Windows code pages.	Normally, xmlwf will throw an error if it
	      runs across an encoding that it is not equipped to handle itself.  With  -w,  xmlwf
	      will try to use a Windows code page.  See also -e.

       -x     Turns on parsing external entities.

	      Non-validating  parsers  are  not  required  to  resolve external entities, or even
	      expand entities at all.  Expat always expands internal entities (?),  but  external
	      entity parsing must be enabled explicitly.

	      External	entities  are simply entities that obtain their data from outside the XML
	      file currently being parsed.

	      This is an example of an internal entity:

	      <!ENTITY vers '1.0.2'>

	      And here are some examples of external entities:

	      <!ENTITY header SYSTEM "header-&vers;.xml">  (parsed)
	      <!ENTITY logo SYSTEM "logo.png" PNG>	   (unparsed)

       --     (Two hyphens.)  Terminates the list of options.  This is only needed if a  filename
	      starts with a hyphen.  For example:

	      xmlwf -- -myfile.xml

	      will run xmlwf on the file -myfile.xml.

       Older versions of xmlwf do not support reading from standard input.

OUTPUT
       If  an input file is not well-formed, xmlwf prints a single line describing the problem to
       standard output.  If a file is well formed, xmlwf outputs nothing.  Note that  the  result
       code is not set.

BUGS
       According  to  the W3C standard, an XML file without a declaration at the beginning is not
       considered well-formed.	However, xmlwf allows this to pass.

       xmlwf returns a 0 - noerr result, even if the file is not well-formed.  There is  no  good
       way  for  a program to use xmlwf to quickly check a file -- it must parse xmlwf's standard
       output.

       The errors should go to standard error, not standard output.

       There should be a way to get -d to send its output to standard output rather than  forcing
       the user to send it to a file.

       I  have no idea why anyone would want to use the -d, -c, and -m options.  If someone could
       explain it to me, I'd like to add this information to this manpage.

ALTERNATIVES
       Here are some XML validators on the web:

       http://www.hcrc.ed.ac.uk/~richard/xml-check.html
       http://www.stg.brown.edu/service/xmlvalid/
       http://www.scripting.com/frontier5/xml/code/xmlValidator.html
       http://www.xml.com/pub/a/tools/ruwf/check.html

SEE ALSO
       The Expat home page:	   http://www.libexpat.org/
       The W3 XML specification:   http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml

AUTHOR
       This manual page was  written  by  Scott  Bronson  <bronson@rinspin.com>  for  the  Debian
       GNU/Linux  system  (but may be used by others).	Permission is granted to copy, distribute
       and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version
       1.1.

					 24 January 2003				 XMLWF(1)
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