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The first routing protocol that was widely implemented, the Routing Information Protocol (RIP), calculated the shortest route based on geographic hops (the number of countries that an IP packet had to traverse to reach the destination host).
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xdg-open(1) [centos man page]

XDG-OPEN(1)							  xdg-open Manual						       XDG-OPEN(1)

NAME
xdg-open - opens a file or URL in the user's preferred application SYNOPSIS
xdg-open {file | URL} xdg-open {--help | --manual | --version} DESCRIPTION
xdg-open opens a file or URL in the user's preferred application. If a URL is provided the URL will be opened in the user's preferred web browser. If a file is provided the file will be opened in the preferred application for files of that type. xdg-open supports file, ftp, http and https URLs. xdg-open is for use inside a desktop session only. It is not recommended to use xdg-open as root. OPTIONS
--help Show command synopsis. --manual Show this manual page. --version Show the xdg-utils version information. EXIT CODES
An exit code of 0 indicates success while a non-zero exit code indicates failure. The following failure codes can be returned: 1 Error in command line syntax. 2 One of the files passed on the command line did not exist. 3 A required tool could not be found. 4 The action failed. EXAMPLES
xdg-open 'http://www.freedesktop.org/' Opens the freedesktop.org website in the user's default browser. xdg-open /tmp/foobar.png Opens the PNG image file /tmp/foobar.png in the user's default image viewing application. AUTHORS
Kevin Krammer Author. Jeremy White Author. COPYRIGHT
Copyright (C) 2006 xdg-utils 1.0 06/10/2014 XDG-OPEN(1)

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XDG-OPEN(1)															       XDG-OPEN(1)

NAME
xdg-open - opens a file or URL in the user's preferred application SYNOPSIS
xdg-open {file URL} xdg-open {--help --manual --version} DESCRIPTION
xdg-open opens a file or URL in the user's preferred application. If a URL is provided the URL will be opened in the user's preferred web browser. If a file is provided the file will be opened in the preferred application for files of that type. xdg-open supports file, ftp, http and https URLs. xdg-open is for use inside a desktop session only. It is not recommended to use xdg-open as root. OPTIONS
--help Show command synopsis. --manual Show this manualpage. --version Show the xdg-utils version information. EXIT CODES
An exit code of 0 indicates success while a non-zero exit code indicates failure. The following failure codes can be returned: 1 Error in command line syntax. 2 One of the files passed on the command line did not exist. 3 A required tool could not be found. 4 The action failed. EXAMPLES
xdg-open 'http://www.freedesktop.org/' Opens the Freedesktop.org website in the user's default browser xdg-open /tmp/foobar.png Opens the PNG image file /tmp/foobar.png in the user's default image viewing application. AUTHOR
Kevin Krammer, Jeremy White. <kevin.krammer@gmx.at> <jwhite@codeweavers.com> xdg-utils 1.0 06/24/2007 XDG-OPEN(1)

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