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UCONV(1)				ICU 50.1.2 Manual				 UCONV(1)

NAME
       uconv - convert data from one encoding to another

SYNOPSIS
       uconv [ -h, -?, --help ] [ -V, --version ] [ -s, --silent ] [ -v, --verbose ] [ -l, --list
       | -l, --list-code code | --default-code | -L, --list-transliterators ] [ --canon  ]  [  -x
       transliteration	]  [  --to-callback  callback  | -c ] [ --from-callback callback | -i ] [
       --callback callback ] [ --fallback | --no-fallback ] [  -b,  --block-size  size	]  [  -f,
       --from-code encoding ] [ -t, --to-code encoding ] [ --add-signature ] [ --remove-signature
       ] [ -o, --output file ] [ file...  ]

DESCRIPTION
       uconv converts, or transcodes, each given file (or its standard input if no file is speci-
       fied)  from  one  encoding  to  another.  The transcoding is done using Unicode as a pivot
       encoding (i.e. the data are first transcoded from their original encoding to Unicode,  and
       then from Unicode to the destination encoding).

       If an encoding is not specified or is -, the default encoding is used. Thus, calling uconv
       with no encoding provides an easy way to validate and sanitize data files for further con-
       sumption by tools requiring data in the default encoding.

       When  calling  uconv,  it is possible to specify callbacks that are used to handle invalid
       characters in the input, or characters that cannot be transcoded to the destination encod-
       ing.  Some encodings, for example, offer a default substitution character that can be used
       to represent the occurence of such characters in the input. Other callbacks offer a useful
       visual representation of the invalid data.

       uconv  can  also  run  the specified transliteration on the transcoded data, in which case
       transliteration will happen as an intermediate step, after the data have  been  transcoded
       to  Unicode.  The transliteration can be either a list of semicolon-separated translitera-
       tor names, or an arbitrarily complex set of rules in the ICU transliteration rules format.

       For transcoding purposes, uconv options are compatible with those of iconv(1),  making  it
       easy  to replace it in scripts. It is not necessarily the case, however, that the encoding
       names used by uconv and ICU are the same as the ones used by iconv(1).  Also, options that
       provide	informational  data, such as the -l, --list one offered by some iconv(1) variants
       such as GNU's, produce data in a slightly different and easier to parse format.

OPTIONS
       -h, -?, --help
	      Print help about usage and exit.

       -V, --version
	      Print the version of uconv and exit.

       -s, --silent
	      Suppress messages during execution.

       -v, --verbose
	      Display extra informative messages during execution.

       -l, --list
	      List all the available encodings and exit.

       -l, --list-code code
	      List only the code encoding and exit. If code is not a proper encoding,  exit  with
	      an error.

       --default-code
	      List only the name of the default encoding and exit.

       -L, --list-transliterators
	      List all the available transliterators and exit.

       --canon
	      If  used	with -l, --list or --default-code, the list of encodings is produced in a
	      format compatible with convrtrs.txt(5).  If used with  -L,  --list-transliterators,
	      print only one transliterator name per line.

       -x transliteration
	      Run the given transliteration on the transcoded Unicode data, and use the translit-
	      erated data as input for the transcoding to the the destination encoding.

       --to-callback callback
	      Use callback to handle characters that cannot  be  transcoded  to  the  destination
	      encoding. See section CALLBACKS for details on valid callbacks.

       -c     Omit invalid characters from the output.	Same as --to-callback skip.

       --from-callback callback
	      Use  callback  to  handle  characters  that  cannot be transcoded from the original
	      encoding. See section CALLBACKS for details on valid callbacks.

       -i     Ignore invalid sequences in the input.  Same as --from-callback skip.

       --callback callback
	      Use callback to handle both characters that cannot be transcoded from the  original
	      encoding	and characters that cannot be transcoded to the destination encoding. See
	      section CALLBACKS for details on valid callbacks.

       --fallback
	      Use the fallback mapping when transcoding from Unicode to the destination encoding.

       --no-fallback
	      Do not use the fallback mapping when transcoding from Unicode  to  the  destination
	      encoding.  This is the default.

       -b, --block-size size
	      Read input in blocks of size bytes at a time. The default block size is 4096.

       -f, --from-code encoding
	      Set the original encoding of the data to encoding.

       -t, --to-code encoding
	      Transcode the data to encoding.

       --add-signature
	      Add  a  U+FEFF  Unicode signature character (BOM) if the output charset supports it
	      and does not add one anyway.

       --remove-signature
	      Remove a U+FEFF Unicode signature character (BOM).

       -o, --output file
	      Write the transcoded data to file.

CALLBACKS
       uconv supports specifying callbacks to handle invalid data. Callbacks can be set for  both
       directions of transcoding: from the original encoding to Unicode, with the --from-callback
       option, and from Unicode to the destination encoding, with the --to-callback option.

       The following is a list of valid callback names, along with a description of their  behav-
       ior. The list of callbacks actually supported by uconv is displayed when it is called with
       -h, --help.

       substitute	Write the the encoding's substitute sequence, or the Unicode  replacement
			character U+FFFD when transcoding to Unicode.

       skip		Ignore the invalid data.

       stop		Stop  with  an error when encountering invalid data.  This is the default
			callback.

       escape		Same as escape-icu.

       escape-icu	Replace the missing characters with a string of  the  format  %Uhhhh  for
			plane  0  characters, and %Uhhhh%Uhhhh for planes 1 and above characters,
			where hhhh is the hexadecimal value of one of the UTF-16 code units  rep-
			resenting  the	character. Characters from planes 1 and above are written
			as a pair of UTF-16 surrogate code units.

       escape-java	Replace the missing characters with a string of  the  format  \uhhhh  for
			plane  0  characters, and \uhhhh\uhhhh for planes 1 and above characters,
			where hhhh is the hexadecimal value of one of the UTF-16 code units  rep-
			resenting  the	character. Characters from planes 1 and above are written
			as a pair of UTF-16 surrogate code units.

       escape-c 	Replace the missing characters with a string of  the  format  \uhhhh  for
			plane  0  characters,  and  \Uhhhhhhhh for planes 1 and above characters,
			where hhhh and hhhhhhhh are the hexadecimal values of the  Unicode  code-
			point.

       escape-xml	Same as escape-xml-hex.

       escape-xml-hex	Replace  the  missing  characters  with  a string of the format &#xhhhh;,
			where hhhh is the hexadecimal value of the Unicode codepoint.

       escape-xml-dec	Replace the missing characters with a  string  of  the	format	&#xnnnn;,
			where nnnn is the decimal value of the Unicode codepoint.

       escape-unicode	Replace  the  missing  characters  with  a string of the format {U+hhhh},
			where hhhh is the hexadecimal value of the Unicode codepoint.  That hexa-
			decimal  string  is  of  variable  length and can use from 4 to 6 digits.
			This is the format universally used to denote a Unicode codepoint in  the
			litterature, delimited by curly braces for easy recognition of those sub-
			stitutions in the output.

EXAMPLES
       Convert data from a given encoding to the platform encoding:

	   $ uconv -f encoding

       Check if a file contains valid data for a given encoding:

	   $ uconv -f encoding -c file >/dev/null

       Convert a UTF-8 file to a given encoding and ensure that the resulting text  is	good  for
       any version of HTML:

	   $ uconv -f utf-8 -t encoding \
	       --callback escape-xml-dec file

       Display the names of the Unicode code points in a UTF-file:

	   $ uconv -f utf-8 -x any-name file

       Print the name of a Unicode code point whose value is known (U+30AB in this example):

	   $ echo '\u30ab' | uconv -x 'hex-any; any-name'; echo
	   {KATAKANA LETTER KA}{LINE FEED}
	   $

       (The  names  are delimited by curly braces.  Also, the name of the line terminator is also
       displayed.)

       Normalize UTF-8 data using Unicode NFKC, remove all control characters, and  map  Katakana
       to Hiragana:

	   $ uconv -f utf-8 -t utf-8 \
		 -x '::nfkc; [:Cc:] >; ::katakana-hiragana;'

CAVEATS AND BUGS
       uconv  does  report  errors as occuring at the first invalid byte encountered. This may be
       confusing to users of GNU iconv(1), which reports errors as occuring at the first byte  of
       an  invalid  sequence.  For  multi-byte character sets or encodings, this means that uconv
       error positions may be at a later offset in the input stream than would be the  case  with
       GNU iconv(1).

       The  reporting  of  error  positions  when  a  transliterator is used may be inaccurate or
       unavailable, in which case uconv will report the offset in the output stream at which  the
       error occured.

AUTHORS
       Jonas Utterstroem
       Yves Arrouye

VERSION
       50.1.2

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2000-2005 IBM, Inc. and others.

SEE ALSO
       iconv(1)

ICU MANPAGE				    2005-jul-1					 UCONV(1)
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