Unix/Linux Go Back    


CentOS 7.0 - man page for troff (centos section 1)

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages
Man Page or Keyword Search:   man
Select Man Page Set:       apropos Keyword Search (sections above)


TROFF(1)										 TROFF(1)

NAME
       troff - the troff processor of the groff text formatting system

SYNOPSIS
       troff [-abcivzCERU] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir] [-m name] [-M dir] [-n num]
	     [-o list] [-r cn] [-T name] [-w name] [-W name] [file ...]

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page describes the GNU version of troff.  It is part  of  the  groff  document
       formatting  system.   It  is  functionally compatible with UNIX troff, but has many exten-
       sions, see groff_diff(7).  Usually it should be invoked using the groff(1)  command  which
       will  also  run	preprocessors  and  postprocessors  in the appropriate order and with the
       appropriate options.

OPTIONS
       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its parameter.

       -a	 Generate an ASCII approximation of the typeset output.

       -b	 Print a backtrace with each warning or error  message.   This	backtrace  should
		 help track down the cause of the error.  The line numbers given in the backtrace
		 may not always be correct, for troff's idea of line numbers gets confused by  as
		 or am requests.

       -c	 Disable color output (always disabled in compatibility mode).

       -C	 Enable compatibility mode.

       -dcs
       -dname=s  Define c or name to be a string s; c must be a one letter name.

       -E	 Inhibit  all  error  messages	of troff.  Note that this doesn't affect messages
		 output to standard error by macro packages using the tm or tm1 requests.

       -ffam	 Use fam as the default font family.

       -Fdir	 Search in directory (or directory path) dir for subdirectories devname (name  is
		 the  name  of	the  device)  and there for the DESC file and font files.  dir is
		 scanned before all other font directories.

       -i	 Read the standard input after all the named input files have been processed.

       -Idir	 This option may be used to add a directory to the search path	for  files  (both
		 those	on  the command line and those named in .psbb requests).  The search path
		 is initialized with the current directory.  This option may  be  specified  more
		 than  once; the directories are then searched in the order specified (but before
		 the current directory).  If you want to  make	the  current  directory  be  read
		 before other directories, add -I. at the appropriate place.

		 No directory search is performed for files with an absolute file name.

       -mname	 Read  in the file name.tmac.  If it isn't found, try tmac.name instead.  It will
		 be first searched for in directories given with the -M command line option, then
		 in  directories  given  in the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable, then in the
		 current directory (only if in unsafe mode), the home directory, /etc/groff/site-
		 tmac, /etc/groff/site-tmac, and /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/tmac.

       -Mdir	 Search  directory  (or  directory  path)  dir	for macro files.  This is scanned
		 before all other macro directories.

       -nnum	 Number the first page num.

       -olist	 Output only pages in list, which is a comma-separated list  of  page  ranges;	n
		 means	print  page n, m-n means print every page between m and n, -n means print
		 every page up to n, n- means print every page from n.	 troff	will  exit  after
		 printing the last page in the list.

       -rcn
       -rname=n  Set number register c or name to n; c must be a one character name; n can be any
		 troff numeric expression.

       -R	 Don't load troffrc and troffrc-end.

       -Tname	 Prepare output for device name, rather than the default ps; see groff(1)  for	a
		 more detailed description.

       -U	 Unsafe mode.  This will enable the following requests: open, opena, pso, sy, and
		 pi.  For security reasons, these potentially  dangerous  requests  are  disabled
		 otherwise.  It will also add the current directory to the macro search path.

       -v	 Print the version number.

       -wname	 Enable  warning  name.  Available warnings are described in the section WARNINGS
		 below.  For example, to enable all warnings, use -w all.   Multiple  -w  options
		 are allowed.

       -Wname	 Inhibit warning name.	Multiple -W options are allowed.

       -z	 Suppress formatted output.

WARNINGS
       The  warnings  that  can be given by troff are divided into the following categories.  The
       name associated with each warning is used by the -w and -W options; the number is used  by
       the  warn  request,  and by the .warn register; it is always a power of 2 to allow bitwise
       composition.

			  +---------------------+-----------------------------+
			  |Bit	 Code	Warning | Bit	 Code	    Warning   |
			  +---------------------+-----------------------------+
			  |  0	    1	char	|  10	   1024   reg	      |
			  |  1	    2	number	|  11	   2048   tab	      |
			  |  2	    4	break	|  12	   4096   right-brace |
			  |  3	    8	delim	|  13	   8192   missing     |
			  |  4	   16	el	|  14	  16384   input       |
			  |  5	   32	scale	|  15	  32768   escape      |
			  |  6	   64	range	|  16	  65536   space       |
			  |  7	  128	syntax	|  17	 131072   font	      |
			  |  8	  256	di	|  18	 262144   ig	      |
			  |  9	  512	mac	|  19	 524288   color       |
			  |			|  20	1048576   file	      |
			  +---------------------+-----------------------------+
       break	       4   In fill mode, lines which could not be broken so that their length was
			   less than the line length.  This is enabled by default.

       char	       1   Non-existent characters.  This is enabled by default.

       color	  524288   Color related warnings.

       delim	       8   Missing or mismatched closing delimiters.

       di	     256   Use	of  di	or da without an argument when there is no current diver-
			   sion.

       el	      16   Use of the el request with no matching ie request.

       escape	   32768   Unrecognized escape sequences.  When an unrecognized  escape  sequence
			   is encountered, the escape character is ignored.

       file	 1048576   Indicates a missing file for the mso request.  Enabled by default.

       font	  131072   Non-existent fonts.	This is enabled by default.

       ig	  262144   Invalid escapes in text ignored with the ig request.  These are condi-
			   tions that are errors when they do not occur in ignored text.

       input	   16384   Invalid input characters.

       mac	     512   Use of undefined strings, macros and diversions.   When  an	undefined
			   string,  macro  or  diversion  is  used,  that string is automatically
			   defined as empty.  So, in most cases, at  most  one	warning  will  be
			   given for each name.

       missing	    8192   Requests that are missing non-optional arguments.

       number	       2   Invalid numeric expressions.  This is enabled by default.

       range	      64   Out of range arguments.

       reg	    1024   Use	of undefined number registers.	When an undefined number register
			   is used, that register is automatically defined to have a value of  0.
			   So, in most cases, at most one warning will be given for use of a par-
			   ticular name.

       right-brace  4096   Use of \} where a number was expected.

       scale	      32   Meaningless scaling indicators.

       space	   65536   Missing space between a request or macro and its argument.  This warn-
			   ing will be given when an undefined name longer than two characters is
			   encountered, and the first two characters of the name make  a  defined
			   name.  The request or macro will not be invoked.  When this warning is
			   given, no macro is automatically defined.  This is enabled by default.
			   This warning will never occur in compatibility mode.

       syntax	     128   Dubious syntax in numeric expressions.

       tab	    2048   Inappropriate  use  of a tab character.  Either use of a tab character
			   where a number was expected, or use of tab character  in  an  unquoted
			   macro argument.

       There are also names that can be used to refer to groups of warnings:

       all    All warnings except di, mac, and reg.  It is intended that this covers all warnings
	      that are useful with traditional macro packages.

       w      All warnings.

ENVIRONMENT
       GROFF_TMAC_PATH
	      A colon separated list of directories in which to search for  macro  files.   troff
	      will scan directories given in the -M option before these, and in standard directo-
	      ries (current directory if in unsafe mode,  home	directory,  /etc/groff/site-tmac,
	      /etc/groff/site-tmac, /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/tmac) after these.

       GROFF_TYPESETTER
	      Default device.

       GROFF_FONT_PATH
	      A colon separated list of directories in which to search for the devname directory.
	      troff will scan directories given in the -F option before these,	and  in  standard
	      directories   (/etc/groff/site-font,  /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/font,  /usr/lib/font)
	      after these.

FILES
       /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/tmac/troffrc
	      Initialization file (called before any other macro package).

       /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/tmac/troffrc-end
	      Initialization file (called after any other macro package).

       /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/tmac/name.tmac
       /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/tmac/tmac.name
	      Macro files

       /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/font/devname/DESC
	      Device description file for device name.

       /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/font/devname/F
	      Font file for font F of device name.

       Note that troffrc and troffrc-end are neither searched in the  current  nor  in	the  home
       directory  by  default  for security reasons (even if the -U option is given).  Use the -M
       command line option or the GROFF_TMAC_PATH environment variable to add  these  directories
       to the search path if necessary.

AUTHOR
       Copyright (C) 1989, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This  document  is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Documentation License)
       version 1.3 or later.  You should have received a copy of the FDL on your  system,  it  is
       also  available	on-line  at the GNU copyleft site <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>.
       This document  was  written  by	James  Clark,  with  modifications  from  Werner  Lemberg
       <wl@gnu.org> and Bernd Warken <groff-bernd.warken-72@web.de>.

       This document is part of groff, the GNU roff distribution.

SEE ALSO
       groff(1)
	      The main program of the groff system, a wrapper around troff.

       groff(7)
	      A  description  of  the groff language, including a short but complete reference of
	      all predefined requests, registers, and escapes of plain groff.  From  the  command
	      line, this is called by

		     man 7 groff

       groff_diff(7)
	      The differences of the groff language and the classical troff language.  Currently,
	      this is the most actual document of the groff system.

       roff(7)
	      An overview over groff and  other  roff  systems,  including  pointers  to  further
	      related documentation.

       The  groff  info file, cf. info(1), presents all groff documentation within a single docu-
       ment.

Groff Version 1.22.2			 7 February 2013				 TROFF(1)
Unix & Linux Commands & Man Pages : ©2000 - 2018 Unix and Linux Forums


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 08:19 PM.