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SYSTEMD-NSPAWN(1)			  systemd-nspawn			SYSTEMD-NSPAWN(1)

NAME
       systemd-nspawn - Spawn a namespace container for debugging, testing and building

SYNOPSIS
       systemd-nspawn [OPTIONS...] [COMMAND [ARGS...]]

       systemd-nspawn -b [OPTIONS...] [ARGS...]

DESCRIPTION
       systemd-nspawn may be used to run a command or OS in a light-weight namespace container.
       In many ways it is similar to chroot(1), but more powerful since it fully virtualizes the
       file system hierarchy, as well as the process tree, the various IPC subsystems and the
       host and domain name.

       systemd-nspawn limits access to various kernel interfaces in the container to read-only,
       such as /sys, /proc/sys or /sys/fs/selinux. Network interfaces and the system clock may
       not be changed from within the container. Device nodes may not be created. The host system
       cannot be rebooted and kernel modules may not be loaded from within the container.

       Note that even though these security precautions are taken systemd-nspawn is not suitable
       for secure container setups. Many of the security features may be circumvented and are
       hence primarily useful to avoid accidental changes to the host system from the container.
       The intended use of this program is debugging and testing as well as building of packages,
       distributions and software involved with boot and systems management.

       In contrast to chroot(1) systemd-nspawn may be used to boot full Linux-based operating
       systems in a container.

       Use a tool like yum(8), debootstrap(8), or pacman(8) to set up an OS directory tree
       suitable as file system hierarchy for systemd-nspawn containers.

       Note that systemd-nspawn will mount file systems private to the container to /dev, /run
       and similar. These will not be visible outside of the container, and their contents will
       be lost when the container exits.

       Note that running two systemd-nspawn containers from the same directory tree will not make
       processes in them see each other. The PID namespace separation of the two containers is
       complete and the containers will share very few runtime objects except for the underlying
       file system. It is however possible to enter an existing container, see Example 4 below.

       systemd-nspawn implements the Container Interface[1] specification.

       As a safety check systemd-nspawn will verify the existence of /etc/os-release in the
       container tree before starting the container (see os-release(5)). It might be necessary to
       add this file to the container tree manually if the OS of the container is too old to
       contain this file out-of-the-box.

INCOMPATIBILITY WITH AUDITING
       Note that the kernel auditing subsystem is currently broken when used together with
       containers. We hence recommend turning it off entirely by booting with "audit=0" on the
       kernel command line, or by turning it off at kernel build time. If auditing is enabled in
       the kernel, operating systems booted in an nspawn container might refuse log-in attempts.

OPTIONS
       If option -b is specified, the arguments are used as arguments for the init binary.
       Otherwise, COMMAND specifies the program to launch in the container, and the remaining
       arguments are used as arguments for this program. If -b is not used and no arguments are
       specifed, a shell is launched in the container.

       The following options are understood:

       -h, --help
	   Prints a short help text and exits.

       --version
	   Prints a version string and exits.

       -D, --directory=
	   Directory to use as file system root for the namespace container. If omitted, the
	   current directory will be used.

       -b, --boot
	   Automatically search for an init binary and invoke it instead of a shell or a user
	   supplied program. If this option is used, arguments specified on the command line are
	   used as arguments for the init binary.

       -u, --user=
	   Run the command under specified user, create home directory and cd into it. As rest of
	   systemd-nspawn, this is not the security feature and limits against accidental changes
	   only.

       -M, --machine=
	   Sets the machine name for this container. This name may be used to identify this
	   container on the host, and is used to initialize the container's hostname (which the
	   container can choose to override, however). If not specified, the last component of
	   the root directory of the container is used.

       --slice=
	   Make the container part of the specified slice, instead of the machine.slice.

       --uuid=
	   Set the specified UUID for the container. The init system will initialize
	   /etc/machine-id from this if this file is not set yet.

       --private-network
	   Turn off networking in the container. This makes all network interfaces unavailable in
	   the container, with the exception of the loopback device.

       --read-only
	   Mount the root file system read-only for the container.

       --capability=
	   List one or more additional capabilities to grant the container. Takes a
	   comma-separated list of capability names, see capabilities(7) for more information.
	   Note that the following capabilities will be granted in any way: CAP_CHOWN,
	   CAP_DAC_OVERRIDE, CAP_DAC_READ_SEARCH, CAP_FOWNER, CAP_FSETID, CAP_IPC_OWNER,
	   CAP_KILL, CAP_LEASE, CAP_LINUX_IMMUTABLE, CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE, CAP_NET_BROADCAST,
	   CAP_NET_RAW, CAP_SETGID, CAP_SETFCAP, CAP_SETPCAP, CAP_SETUID, CAP_SYS_ADMIN,
	   CAP_SYS_CHROOT, CAP_SYS_NICE, CAP_SYS_PTRACE, CAP_SYS_TTY_CONFIG, CAP_SYS_RESOURCE,
	   CAP_SYS_BOOT, CAP_AUDIT_WRITE, CAP_AUDIT_CONTROL.

       --link-journal=
	   Control whether the container's journal shall be made visible to the host system. If
	   enabled, allows viewing the container's journal files from the host (but not vice
	   versa). Takes one of "no", "host", "guest", "auto". If "no", the journal is not
	   linked. If "host", the journal files are stored on the host file system (beneath
	   /var/log/journal/machine-id) and the subdirectory is bind-mounted into the container
	   at the same location. If "guest", the journal files are stored on the guest file
	   system (beneath /var/log/journal/machine-id) and the subdirectory is symlinked into
	   the host at the same location. If "auto" (the default), and the right subdirectory of
	   /var/log/journal exists, it will be bind mounted into the container. If the
	   subdirectory does not exist, no linking is performed. Effectively, booting a container
	   once with "guest" or "host" will link the journal persistently if further on the
	   default of "auto" is used.

       -j
	   Equivalent to --link-journal=guest.

       --bind=, --bind-ro=
	   Bind mount a file or directory from the host into the container. Either takes a path
	   argument -- in which case the specified path will be mounted from the host to the same
	   path in the container --, or a colon-separated pair of paths -- in which case the
	   first specified path is the source in the host, and the second path is the destination
	   in the container. The --bind-ro= option creates read-only bind mount.

EXAMPLE 1
	   # yum -y --releasever=19 --nogpg --installroot=/srv/mycontainer --disablerepo='*' --enablerepo=fedora install systemd passwd yum fedora-release vim-minimal
	   # systemd-nspawn -bD /srv/mycontainer

       This installs a minimal Fedora distribution into the directory /srv/mycontainer/ and then
       boots an OS in a namespace container in it.

EXAMPLE 2
	   # debootstrap --arch=amd64 unstable ~/debian-tree/
	   # systemd-nspawn -D ~/debian-tree/

       This installs a minimal Debian unstable distribution into the directory ~/debian-tree/ and
       then spawns a shell in a namespace container in it.

EXAMPLE 3
	   # pacstrap -c -d ~/arch-tree/ base
	   # systemd-nspawn -bD ~/arch-tree/

       This installs a mimimal Arch Linux distribution into the directory ~/arch-tree/ and then
       boots an OS in a namespace container in it.

EXAMPLE 4
       To enter the container, PID of one of the processes sharing the new namespaces must be
       used.  systemd-nspawn prints the PID (as viewed from the outside) of the launched process,
       and it can be used to enter the container.

	   # nsenter -m -u -i -n -p -t $PID

       nsenter(1) is part of util-linux[2]. Kernel support for entering namespaces was added in
       Linux 3.8.

EXAMPLE 4
	   # mv ~/arch-tree /var/lib/container/arch
	   # systemctl enable systemd-nspawn@arch.service
	   # systemctl start systemd-nspawn@arch.service

       This makes the Arch Linux container part of the multi-user.target on the host.

EXIT STATUS
       The exit code of the program executed in the container is returned.

SEE ALSO
       systemd(1), chroot(1), unshare(1), yum(8), debootstrap(8), pacman(8), systemd.slice(5)

NOTES
	1. Container Interface
	   http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/systemd/ContainerInterface

	2. util-linux
	   https://github.com/karelzak/util-linux

systemd 208									SYSTEMD-NSPAWN(1)
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