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SAR(1)				       Linux User's Manual				   SAR(1)

NAME
       sar - Collect, report, or save system activity information.

SYNOPSIS
       sar  [ -A ] [ -B ] [ -b ] [ -C ] [ -d ] [ -H ] [ -h ] [ -p ] [ -q ] [ -R ] [ -r ] [ -S ] [
       -t ] [ -u [ ALL ] ] [ -V ] [ -v ] [ -W ] [ -w ] [ -y ] [ -I { int [,...] |  SUM	|  ALL	|
       XALL } ] [ -P { cpu [,...] | ALL } ] [ -m { keyword [,...] | ALL } ] [ -n { keyword [,...]
       | ALL } ] [ -j { ID | LABEL | PATH | UUID | ... } ] [ -f [ filename ] | -o [ filename ]	|
       -[0-9]+ ] [ -i interval ] [ -s [ hh:mm:ss ] ] [ -e [ hh:mm:ss ] ] [ interval [ count ] ]

DESCRIPTION
       The  sar  command  writes  to standard output the contents of selected cumulative activity
       counters in the operating system. The accounting system, based on the values in the  count
       and  interval  parameters,  writes information the specified number of times spaced at the
       specified intervals in seconds.	If the interval parameter is set to zero, the sar command
       displays the average statistics for the time since the system was started. If the interval
       parameter is specified without the count parameter, then reports  are  generated  continu-
       ously.	The  collected	data  can  also be saved in the file specified by the -o filename
       flag, in addition to being displayed onto the screen. If filename is omitted, sar uses the
       standard  system activity daily data file, the /var/log/sa/sadd file, where the dd parame-
       ter indicates the current day.  By default all the data	available  from  the  kernel  are
       saved in the data file.

       The sar command extracts and writes to standard output records previously saved in a file.
       This file can be either the one specified by the -f flag or, by default, the standard sys-
       tem  activity daily data file.  It is also possible to enter -1, -2 etc. as an argument to
       sar to display data of that days ago. For example, -1 will point at  the  standard  system
       activity file of yesterday.

       Without	the  -P  flag,	the sar command reports system-wide (global among all processors)
       statistics, which are calculated as averages for values expressed as percentages,  and  as
       sums otherwise. If the -P flag is given, the sar command reports activity which relates to
       the specified processor or processors. If -P ALL is given, the sar command reports statis-
       tics for each individual processor and global statistics among all processors.

       You  can  select  information about specific system activities using flags. Not specifying
       any flags selects only CPU activity.  Specifying the -A flag selects all possible  activi-
       ties.

       The  default version of the sar command (CPU utilization report) might be one of the first
       facilities the user runs to begin system activity investigation, because it monitors major
       system resources. If CPU utilization is near 100 percent (user + nice + system), the work-
       load sampled is CPU-bound.

       If multiple samples and multiple reports are desired, it is convenient to specify an  out-
       put file for the sar command.  Run the sar command as a background process. The syntax for
       this is:

       sar -o datafile interval count >/dev/null 2>&1 &

       All data are captured in binary form and saved to a file (datafile).  The data can then be
       selectively displayed with the sar command using the -f option. Set the interval and count
       parameters to select count records at interval second intervals. If the count parameter is
       not  set,  all the records saved in the file will be selected.  Collection of data in this
       manner is useful to characterize system usage over a period of  time  and  determine  peak
       usage hours.

       Note:	 The sar command only reports on local activities.

OPTIONS
       -A     This is equivalent to specifying -bBdHqrRSuvwWy -I SUM -I XALL -m ALL -n ALL -u ALL
	      -P ALL.

       -B     Report paging statistics.  The following values are displayed:

	      pgpgin/s
		     Total number of kilobytes the system paged in from disk per second.

	      pgpgout/s
		     Total number of kilobytes the system paged out to disk per second.

	      fault/s
		     Number of page faults (major + minor) made by the system per  second.   This
		     is  not  a  count of page faults that generate I/O, because some page faults
		     can be resolved without I/O.

	      majflt/s
		     Number of major faults the system has made  per  second,  those  which  have
		     required loading a memory page from disk.

	      pgfree/s
		     Number of pages placed on the free list by the system per second.

	      pgscank/s
		     Number of pages scanned by the kswapd daemon per second.

	      pgscand/s
		     Number of pages scanned directly per second.

	      pgsteal/s
		     Number  of  pages	the  system has reclaimed from cache (pagecache and swap-
		     cache) per second to satisfy its memory demands.

	      %vmeff
		     Calculated as pgsteal / pgscan, this is a metric of the efficiency  of  page
		     reclaim.  If  it  is near 100% then almost every page coming off the tail of
		     the inactive list is being reaped. If it gets too low (e.g. less  than  30%)
		     then  the virtual memory is having some difficulty.  This field is displayed
		     as zero if no pages have been scanned during the interval of time.

       -b     Report I/O and transfer rate statistics.	The following values are displayed:

	      tps
		     Total number of transfers per second that were issued to  physical  devices.
		     A transfer is an I/O request to a physical device. Multiple logical requests
		     can be combined into a single I/O request to the device.  A transfer  is  of
		     indeterminate size.

	      rtps
		     Total number of read requests per second issued to physical devices.

	      wtps
		     Total number of write requests per second issued to physical devices.

	      bread/s
		     Total amount of data read from the devices in blocks per second.  Blocks are
		     equivalent to sectors and therefore have a size of 512 bytes.

	      bwrtn/s
		     Total amount of data written to devices in blocks per second.

       -C     When reading data from a file, tell sar to display comments that have been inserted
	      by sadc.

       -d     Report  activity for each block device.  When data are displayed, the device speci-
	      fication dev m-n is generally used ( DEV column).  m is the  major  number  of  the
	      device  and  n its minor number.	Device names may also be pretty-printed if option
	      -p is used or persistent device names can be printed if  option  -j  is  used  (see
	      below).	Note  that disk activity depends on sadc options "-S DISK" and "-S XDISK"
	      to be collected. The following values are displayed:

	      tps
		     Indicate the number of transfers per second that were issued to the  device.
		     Multiple  logical	requests can be combined into a single I/O request to the
		     device. A transfer is of indeterminate size.

	      rd_sec/s
		     Number of sectors read from the device. The size of a sector is 512 bytes.

	      wr_sec/s
		     Number of sectors written to the device. The size of a sector is 512 bytes.

	      avgrq-sz
		     The average size (in sectors) of  the  requests  that  were  issued  to  the
		     device.

	      avgqu-sz
		     The average queue length of the requests that were issued to the device.

	      await
		     The  average time (in milliseconds) for I/O requests issued to the device to
		     be served. This includes the time spent by the requests  in  queue  and  the
		     time spent servicing them.

	      svctm
		     The average service time (in milliseconds) for I/O requests that were issued
		     to the device. Warning! Do not trust this field any more. This field will be
		     removed in a future sysstat version.

	      %util
		     Percentage  of  CPU time during which I/O requests were issued to the device
		     (bandwidth utilization for the device). Device saturation occurs  when  this
		     value is close to 100%.

       -e [ hh:mm:ss ]
	      Set  the ending time of the report. The default ending time is 18:00:00. Hours must
	      be given in 24-hour format.  This option can be used when data  are  read  from  or
	      written to a file (options -f or -o ).

       -f [ filename ]
	      Extract  records from filename (created by the -o filename flag). The default value
	      of the filename parameter is the current	daily  data  file,  the  /var/log/sa/sadd
	      file. The -f option is exclusive of the -o option.

       -H     Report hugepages utilization statistics.	The following values are displayed:

	      kbhugfree
		     Amount of hugepages memory in kilobytes that is not yet allocated.

	      kbhugused
		     Amount of hugepages memory in kilobytes that has been allocated.

	      %hugused
		     Percentage of total hugepages memory that has been allocated.

       -h     Display a short help message then exit.

       -I { int [,...] | SUM | ALL | XALL }
	      Report  statistics  for a given interrupt.  int is the interrupt number. Specifying
	      multiple -I int parameters on the command line will look	at  multiple  independent
	      interrupts.  The SUM keyword indicates that the total number of interrupts received
	      per second is to be displayed. The ALL keyword indicates that statistics	from  the
	      first  16  interrupts  are  to be reported, whereas the XALL keyword indicates that
	      statistics from all interrupts, including potential APIC interrupt sources, are  to
	      be  reported.   Note that interrupt statistics depend on sadc option "-S INT" to be
	      collected.

       -i interval
	      Select data records at seconds as close as possible to the number specified by  the
	      interval parameter.

       -j { ID | LABEL | PATH | UUID | ... }
	      Display  persistent  device  names.  Use this option in conjunction with option -d.
	      Options ID, LABEL, etc. specify the type of the persistent name. These options  are
	      not  limited, only prerequisite is that directory with required persistent names is
	      present in /dev/disk.  If persistent name is not found for the device,  the  device
	      name is pretty-printed (see option -p below).

       -m { keyword [,...] | ALL }
	      Report  power  management  statistics.   Note  that these statistics depend on sadc
	      option "-S POWER" to be collected.

	      Possible keywords are CPU, FAN, FREQ, IN, TEMP and USB.

	      With the CPU keyword, statistics about CPU are reported.	The  following	value  is
	      displayed:

	      MHz
		     Instantaneous CPU clock frequency in MHz.

	      With the FAN keyword, statistics about fans speed are reported.  The following val-
	      ues are displayed:

	      rpm
		     Fan speed expressed in revolutions per minute.

	      drpm
		     This field is calculated as the difference between current fan  speed  (rpm)
		     and its low limit (fan_min).

	      DEVICE
		     Sensor device name.

	      With the FREQ keyword, statistics about CPU clock frequency are reported.  The fol-
	      lowing value is displayed:

	      wghMHz
		     Weighted average CPU clock frequency in MHz.  Note  that  the  cpufreq-stats
		     driver must be compiled in the kernel for this option to work.

	      With  the  IN keyword, statistics about voltage inputs are reported.  The following
	      values are displayed:

	      inV
		     Voltage input expressed in Volts.

	      %in
		     Relative input value. A value of 100% means that voltage input  has  reached
		     its  high limit (in_max) whereas a value of 0% means that it has reached its
		     low limit (in_min).

	      DEVICE
		     Sensor device name.

	      With the TEMP keyword, statistics about devices temperature are reported.  The fol-
	      lowing values are displayed:

	      degC
		     Device temperature expressed in degrees Celsius.

	      %temp
		     Relative  device  temperature.  A	value  of 100% means that temperature has
		     reached its high limit (temp_max).

	      DEVICE
		     Sensor device name.

	      With the USB keyword, the sar command takes a snapshot of all the USB devices  cur-
	      rently  plugged  into the system. At the end of the report, sar will display a sum-
	      mary of all those USB devices.  The following values are displayed:

	      BUS
		     Root hub number of the USB device.

	      idvendor
		     Vendor ID number (assigned by USB organization).

	      idprod
		     Product ID number (assigned by Manufacturer).

	      maxpower
		     Maximum power consumption of the device (expressed in mA).

	      manufact
		     Manufacturer name.

	      product
		     Product name.

       -n { keyword [,...] | ALL }
	      Report network statistics.

	      Possible keywords are DEV, EDEV, NFS, NFSD, SOCK, IP, EIP, ICMP, EICMP, TCP,  ETCP,
	      UDP, SOCK6, IP6, EIP6, ICMP6, EICMP6 and UDP6.

	      With  the  DEV keyword, statistics from the network devices are reported.  The fol-
	      lowing values are displayed:

	      IFACE
		     Name of the network interface for which statistics are reported.

	      rxpck/s
		     Total number of packets received per second.

	      txpck/s
		     Total number of packets transmitted per second.

	      rxkB/s
		     Total number of kilobytes received per second.

	      txkB/s
		     Total number of kilobytes transmitted per second.

	      rxcmp/s
		     Number of compressed packets received per second (for cslip etc.).

	      txcmp/s
		     Number of compressed packets transmitted per second.

	      rxmcst/s
		     Number of multicast packets received per second.

	      With the EDEV keyword, statistics on failures (errors) from the network devices are
	      reported.  The following values are displayed:

	      IFACE
		     Name of the network interface for which statistics are reported.

	      rxerr/s
		     Total number of bad packets received per second.

	      txerr/s
		     Total number of errors that happened per second while transmitting packets.

	      coll/s
		     Number of collisions that happened per second while transmitting packets.

	      rxdrop/s
		     Number  of received packets dropped per second because of a lack of space in
		     linux buffers.

	      txdrop/s
		     Number of transmitted packets dropped per second because of a lack of  space
		     in linux buffers.

	      txcarr/s
		     Number  of  carrier-errors that happened per second while transmitting pack-
		     ets.

	      rxfram/s
		     Number of frame alignment errors that happened per second on received  pack-
		     ets.

	      rxfifo/s
		     Number of FIFO overrun errors that happened per second on received packets.

	      txfifo/s
		     Number  of FIFO overrun errors that happened per second on transmitted pack-
		     ets.

	      With the NFS keyword, statistics about NFS client activity are reported.	The  fol-
	      lowing values are displayed:

	      call/s
		     Number of RPC requests made per second.

	      retrans/s
		     Number  of  RPC  requests per second, those which needed to be retransmitted
		     (for example because of a server timeout).

	      read/s
		     Number of 'read' RPC calls made per second.

	      write/s
		     Number of 'write' RPC calls made per second.

	      access/s
		     Number of 'access' RPC calls made per second.

	      getatt/s
		     Number of 'getattr' RPC calls made per second.

	      With the NFSD keyword, statistics about NFS server activity are reported.  The fol-
	      lowing values are displayed:

	      scall/s
		     Number of RPC requests received per second.

	      badcall/s
		     Number  of bad RPC requests received per second, those whose processing gen-
		     erated an error.

	      packet/s
		     Number of network packets received per second.

	      udp/s
		     Number of UDP packets received per second.

	      tcp/s
		     Number of TCP packets received per second.

	      hit/s
		     Number of reply cache hits per second.

	      miss/s
		     Number of reply cache misses per second.

	      sread/s
		     Number of 'read' RPC calls received per second.

	      swrite/s
		     Number of 'write' RPC calls received per second.

	      saccess/s
		     Number of 'access' RPC calls received per second.

	      sgetatt/s
		     Number of 'getattr' RPC calls received per second.

	      With the SOCK keyword, statistics on sockets in use are reported (IPv4).	The  fol-
	      lowing values are displayed:

	      totsck
		     Total number of sockets used by the system.

	      tcpsck
		     Number of TCP sockets currently in use.

	      udpsck
		     Number of UDP sockets currently in use.

	      rawsck
		     Number of RAW sockets currently in use.

	      ip-frag
		     Number of IP fragments currently in queue.

	      tcp-tw
		     Number of TCP sockets in TIME_WAIT state.

	      With the IP keyword, statistics about IPv4 network traffic are reported.	Note that
	      IPv4 statistics depend on sadc option "-S SNMP" to  be  collected.   The	following
	      values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      irec/s
		     The  total  number  of  input datagrams received from interfaces per second,
		     including those received in error [ipInReceives].

	      fwddgm/s
		     The number of input datagrams per second, for  which  this  entity  was  not
		     their final IP destination, as a result of which an attempt was made to find
		     a route to forward them to that final destination [ipForwDatagrams].

	      idel/s
		     The total number of input datagrams successfully delivered per second to  IP
		     user-protocols (including ICMP) [ipInDelivers].

	      orq/s
		     The  total  number  of IP datagrams which local IP user-protocols (including
		     ICMP) supplied per second to  IP  in  requests  for  transmission	[ipOutRe-
		     quests].	Note  that this counter does not include any datagrams counted in
		     fwddgm/s.

	      asmrq/s
		     The number of IP fragments received per second which needed to  be  reassem-
		     bled at this entity [ipReasmReqds].

	      asmok/s
		     The   number   of	 IP   datagrams   successfully	re-assembled  per  second
		     [ipReasmOKs].

	      fragok/s
		     The number of IP datagrams that have been successfully  fragmented  at  this
		     entity per second [ipFragOKs].

	      fragcrt/s
		     The number of IP datagram fragments that have been generated per second as a
		     result of fragmentation at this entity [ipFragCreates].

	      With the EIP keyword, statistics about IPv4 network errors are reported.	Note that
	      IPv4  statistics	depend	on  sadc option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The following
	      values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      ihdrerr/s
		     The number of input datagrams discarded per second due to errors in their IP
		     headers,  including  bad  checksums,  version  number mismatch, other format
		     errors, time-to-live exceeded, errors  discovered	in  processing	their  IP
		     options, etc. [ipInHdrErrors]

	      iadrerr/s
		     The number of input datagrams discarded per second because the IP address in
		     their IP header's destination field was not a valid address to  be  received
		     at  this  entity.	This count includes invalid addresses (e.g., 0.0.0.0) and
		     addresses of unsupported Classes (e.g., Class E). For entities which are not
		     IP  routers  and  therefore  do not forward datagrams, this counter includes
		     datagrams discarded because the destination address was not a local  address
		     [ipInAddrErrors].

	      iukwnpr/s
		     The  number  of  locally-addressed  datagrams received successfully but dis-
		     carded per second because of an unknown  or  unsupported  protocol  [ipInUn-
		     knownProtos].

	      idisc/s
		     The  number  of  input  IP  datagrams  per second for which no problems were
		     encountered to prevent their continued processing, but which were	discarded
		     (e.g.,  for  lack	of  buffer space) [ipInDiscards].  Note that this counter
		     does not include any datagrams discarded while awaiting re-assembly.

	      odisc/s
		     The number of output IP datagrams	per  second  for  which  no  problem  was
		     encountered  to  prevent  their transmission to their destination, but which
		     were discarded (e.g., for lack of buffer space) [ipOutDiscards].  Note  that
		     this counter would include datagrams counted in fwddgm/s if any such packets
		     met this (discretionary) discard criterion.

	      onort/s
		     The number of IP datagrams discarded per second because no  route	could  be
		     found to transmit them to their destination [ipOutNoRoutes].  Note that this
		     counter includes any packets counted in fwddgm/s which meet this  'no-route'
		     criterion.   Note that this includes any datagrams which a host cannot route
		     because all of its default routers are down.

	      asmf/s
		     The number of failures detected per second by the IP  re-assembly	algorithm
		     (for  whatever  reason:  timed  out, errors, etc) [ipReasmFails].	Note that
		     this is not necessarily a count of discarded IP fragments since  some  algo-
		     rithms  can  lose track of the number of fragments by combining them as they
		     are received.

	      fragf/s
		     The number of IP datagrams that have been discarded per second because  they
		     needed to be fragmented at this entity but could not be, e.g., because their
		     Don't Fragment flag was set [ipFragFails].

	      With the ICMP keyword, statistics about ICMPv4 network traffic are reported.   Note
	      that  ICMPv4  statistics depend on sadc option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The fol-
	      lowing values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      imsg/s
		     The total number of ICMP messages	which  the  entity  received  per  second
		     [icmpInMsgs].  Note that this counter includes all those counted by ierr/s.

	      omsg/s
		     The  total  number  of ICMP messages which this entity attempted to send per
		     second [icmpOutMsgs].  Note that this counter includes all those counted  by
		     oerr/s.

	      iech/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP  Echo (request) messages received per second [icmpInE-
		     chos].

	      iechr/s
		     The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages received per second [icmpInEchoReps].

	      oech/s
		     The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages sent per second [icmpOutEchos].

	      oechr/s
		     The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages sent per second [icmpOutEchoReps].

	      itm/s
		     The number of ICMP Timestamp (request) messages received per second [icmpIn-
		     Timestamps].

	      itmr/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP  Timestamp Reply messages received per second [icmpIn-
		     TimestampReps].

	      otm/s
		     The number of ICMP Timestamp (request) messages sent  per	second	[icmpOut-
		     Timestamps].

	      otmr/s
		     The  number  of ICMP Timestamp Reply messages sent per second [icmpOutTimes-
		     tampReps].

	      iadrmk/s
		     The number of ICMP Address Mask Request messages received per second  [icmp-
		     InAddrMasks].

	      iadrmkr/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP Address Mask Reply messages received per second [icmp-
		     InAddrMaskReps].

	      oadrmk/s
		     The number of ICMP Address Mask Request messages sent per second [icmpOutAd-
		     drMasks].

	      oadrmkr/s
		     The number of ICMP Address Mask Reply messages sent per second [icmpOutAddr-
		     MaskReps].

	      With the EICMP keyword, statistics about ICMPv4 error messages are reported.   Note
	      that  ICMPv4  statistics depend on sadc option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The fol-
	      lowing values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      ierr/s
		     The number of ICMP messages per second which the entity received but  deter-
		     mined  as having ICMP-specific errors (bad ICMP checksums, bad length, etc.)
		     [icmpInErrors].

	      oerr/s
		     The number of ICMP messages per second which this entity did not send due to
		     problems discovered within ICMP such as a lack of buffers [icmpOutErrors].

	      idstunr/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP  Destination  Unreachable messages received per second
		     [icmpInDestUnreachs].

	      odstunr/s
		     The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages sent  per  second  [icm-
		     pOutDestUnreachs].

	      itmex/s
		     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages received per second [icmpInTimeEx-
		     cds].

	      otmex/s
		     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages sent  per  second  [icmpOutTimeEx-
		     cds].

	      iparmpb/s
		     The  number  of ICMP Parameter Problem messages received per second [icmpIn-
		     ParmProbs].

	      oparmpb/s
		     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages sent per second  [icmpOutParm-
		     Probs].

	      isrcq/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP Source Quench messages received per second [icmpInSrc-
		     Quenchs].

	      osrcq/s
		     The number of ICMP Source	Quench	messages  sent	per  second  [icmpOutSrc-
		     Quenchs].

	      iredir/s
		     The number of ICMP Redirect messages received per second [icmpInRedirects].

	      oredir/s
		     The number of ICMP Redirect messages sent per second [icmpOutRedirects].

	      With  the  TCP  keyword, statistics about TCPv4 network traffic are reported.  Note
	      that TCPv4 statistics depend on sadc option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The follow-
	      ing values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      active/s
		     The  number  of  times  TCP connections have made a direct transition to the
		     SYN-SENT state from the CLOSED state per second [tcpActiveOpens].

	      passive/s
		     The number of times TCP connections have made a  direct  transition  to  the
		     SYN-RCVD state from the LISTEN state per second [tcpPassiveOpens].

	      iseg/s
		     The  total  number of segments received per second, including those received
		     in error [tcpInSegs].  This count includes segments  received  on	currently
		     established connections.

	      oseg/s
		     The  total  number  of  segments sent per second, including those on current
		     connections  but  excluding  those  containing  only  retransmitted   octets
		     [tcpOutSegs].

	      With  the  ETCP  keyword, statistics about TCPv4 network errors are reported.  Note
	      that TCPv4 statistics depend on sadc option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The follow-
	      ing values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      atmptf/s
		     The number of times per second TCP connections have made a direct transition
		     to the CLOSED state from either the SYN-SENT state or  the  SYN-RCVD  state,
		     plus the number of times per second TCP connections have made a direct tran-
		     sition to the LISTEN state from the SYN-RCVD state [tcpAttemptFails].

	      estres/s
		     The number of times per second TCP connections have made a direct transition
		     to  the  CLOSED  state  from  either the ESTABLISHED state or the CLOSE-WAIT
		     state [tcpEstabResets].

	      retrans/s
		     The total number of segments retransmitted per second - that is, the  number
		     of  TCP  segments	transmitted containing one or more previously transmitted
		     octets [tcpRetransSegs].

	      isegerr/s
		     The total number of segments received in error (e.g., bad TCP checksums) per
		     second [tcpInErrs].

	      orsts/s
		     The  number  of  TCP  segments  sent  per	second	containing  the  RST flag
		     [tcpOutRsts].

	      With the UDP keyword, statistics about UDPv4 network traffic  are  reported.   Note
	      that UDPv4 statistics depend on sadc option "-S SNMP" to be collected.  The follow-
	      ing values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      idgm/s
		     The total number of UDP datagrams delivered per second to UDP users  [udpIn-
		     Datagrams].

	      odgm/s
		     The  total number of UDP datagrams sent per second from this entity [udpOut-
		     Datagrams].

	      noport/s
		     The total number of received UDP datagrams per second for which there was no
		     application at the destination port [udpNoPorts].

	      idgmerr/s
		     The  number of received UDP datagrams per second that could not be delivered
		     for reasons other than the lack of an application at  the	destination  port
		     [udpInErrors].

	      With  the  SOCK6	keyword,  statistics on sockets in use are reported (IPv6).  Note
	      that IPv6 statistics depend on sadc option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The  follow-
	      ing values are displayed:

	      tcp6sck
		     Number of TCPv6 sockets currently in use.

	      udp6sck
		     Number of UDPv6 sockets currently in use.

	      raw6sck
		     Number of RAWv6 sockets currently in use.

	      ip6-frag
		     Number of IPv6 fragments currently in use.

	      With  the  IP6  keyword,	statistics about IPv6 network traffic are reported.  Note
	      that IPv6 statistics depend on sadc option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The  follow-
	      ing values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      irec6/s
		     The  total  number  of  input datagrams received from interfaces per second,
		     including those received in error [ipv6IfStatsInReceives].

	      fwddgm6/s
		     The number of output datagrams per second which  this  entity  received  and
		     forwarded to their final destinations [ipv6IfStatsOutForwDatagrams].

	      idel6/s
		     The  total  number  of  datagrams	successfully delivered per second to IPv6
		     user-protocols (including ICMP) [ipv6IfStatsInDelivers].

	      orq6/s
		     The total number of IPv6 datagrams which local IPv6 user-protocols  (includ-
		     ing ICMP) supplied per second to IPv6 in requests for transmission [ipv6IfS-
		     tatsOutRequests].	Note that this counter does  not  include  any	datagrams
		     counted in fwddgm6/s.

	      asmrq6/s
		     The number of IPv6 fragments received per second which needed to be reassem-
		     bled at this interface [ipv6IfStatsReasmReqds].

	      asmok6/s
		     The number of IPv6 datagrams successfully reassembled per	second	[ipv6IfS-
		     tatsReasmOKs].

	      imcpck6/s
		     The  number  of  multicast  packets  received  per  second  by the interface
		     [ipv6IfStatsInMcastPkts].

	      omcpck6/s
		     The number of multicast packets transmitted  per  second  by  the	interface
		     [ipv6IfStatsOutMcastPkts].

	      fragok6/s
		     The  number of IPv6 datagrams that have been successfully fragmented at this
		     output interface per second [ipv6IfStatsOutFragOKs].

	      fragcr6/s
		     The number of output datagram fragments that have been generated per  second
		     as  a  result  of	fragmentation  at  this output interface [ipv6IfStatsOut-
		     FragCreates].

	      With the EIP6 keyword, statistics about IPv6 network  errors  are  reported.   Note
	      that  IPv6 statistics depend on sadc option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The follow-
	      ing values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      ihdrer6/s
		     The number of input datagrams discarded per second due to	errors	in  their
		     IPv6  headers,  including	version number mismatch, other format errors, hop
		     count exceeded, errors discovered in processing  their  IPv6  options,  etc.
		     [ipv6IfStatsInHdrErrors]

	      iadrer6/s
		     The  number of input datagrams discarded per second because the IPv6 address
		     in their IPv6 header's destination field was  not	a  valid  address  to  be
		     received  at  this entity. This count includes invalid addresses (e.g., ::0)
		     and unsupported addresses (e.g., addresses with unallocated  prefixes).  For
		     entities  which are not IPv6 routers and therefore do not forward datagrams,
		     this counter includes datagrams discarded because	the  destination  address
		     was not a local address [ipv6IfStatsInAddrErrors].

	      iukwnp6/s
		     The  number  of  locally-addressed  datagrams received successfully but dis-
		     carded per second because of an unknown or  unsupported  protocol	[ipv6IfS-
		     tatsInUnknownProtos].

	      i2big6/s
		     The number of input datagrams that could not be forwarded per second because
		     their size exceeded the  link  MTU  of  outgoing  interface  [ipv6IfStatsIn-
		     TooBigErrors].

	      idisc6/s
		     The  number  of  input  IPv6 datagrams per second for which no problems were
		     encountered to prevent their continued processing, but which were	discarded
		     (e.g.,  for  lack	of  buffer space) [ipv6IfStatsInDiscards]. Note that this
		     counter does not include any datagrams discarded while awaiting re-assembly.

	      odisc6/s
		     The number of output IPv6 datagrams per second  for  which  no  problem  was
		     encountered  to  prevent  their transmission to their destination, but which
		     were discarded (e.g., for lack of	buffer	space)	[ipv6IfStatsOutDiscards].
		     Note  that  this counter would include datagrams counted in fwddgm6/s if any
		     such packets met this (discretionary) discard criterion.

	      inort6/s
		     The number of input datagrams discarded per second because no route could be
		     found to transmit them to their destination [ipv6IfStatsInNoRoutes].

	      onort6/s
		     The number of locally generated IP datagrams discarded per second because no
		     route could be found to transmit them to their destination  [unknown  formal
		     SNMP name].

	      asmf6/s
		     The number of failures detected per second by the IPv6 re-assembly algorithm
		     (for whatever reason:  timed  out,  errors,  etc.)  [ipv6IfStatsReasmFails].
		     Note  that this is not necessarily a count of discarded IPv6 fragments since
		     some algorithms can lose track of the number of fragments by combining  them
		     as they are received.

	      fragf6/s
		     The  number  of  IPv6  datagrams that have been discarded per second because
		     they needed to be fragmented at this  output  interface  but  could  not  be
		     [ipv6IfStatsOutFragFails].

	      itrpck6/s
		     The  number  of  input datagrams discarded per second because datagram frame
		     didn't carry enough data [ipv6IfStatsInTruncatedPkts].

	      With the ICMP6 keyword, statistics about ICMPv6 network traffic are reported.  Note
	      that  ICMPv6  statistics depend on sadc option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The fol-
	      lowing values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      imsg6/s
		     The total number of ICMP messages received by the interface per second which
		     includes all those counted by ierr6/s [ipv6IfIcmpInMsgs].

	      omsg6/s
		     The total number of ICMP messages which this interface attempted to send per
		     second [ipv6IfIcmpOutMsgs].

	      iech6/s
		     The number of ICMP Echo (request) messages received  by  the  interface  per
		     second [ipv6IfIcmpInEchos].

	      iechr6/s
		     The  number of ICMP Echo Reply messages received by the interface per second
		     [ipv6IfIcmpInEchoReplies].

	      oechr6/s
		     The number of ICMP Echo Reply messages sent  by  the  interface  per  second
		     [ipv6IfIcmpOutEchoReplies].

	      igmbq6/s
		     The  number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Query messages received by the inter-
		     face per second [ipv6IfIcmpInGroupMembQueries].

	      igmbr6/s
		     The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership  Response  messages	received  by  the
		     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInGroupMembResponses].

	      ogmbr6/s
		     The  number  of  ICMPv6  Group  Membership Response messages sent per second
		     [ipv6IfIcmpOutGroupMembResponses].

	      igmbrd6/s
		     The number of ICMPv6 Group Membership Reduction  messages	received  by  the
		     interface per second [ipv6IfIcmpInGroupMembReductions].

	      ogmbrd6/s
		     The  number  of  ICMPv6  Group Membership Reduction messages sent per second
		     [ipv6IfIcmpOutGroupMembReductions].

	      irtsol6/s
		     The number of ICMP Router Solicit messages received  by  the  interface  per
		     second [ipv6IfIcmpInRouterSolicits].

	      ortsol6/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP Router Solicitation messages sent by the interface per
		     second [ipv6IfIcmpOutRouterSolicits].

	      irtad6/s
		     The number of ICMP Router Advertisement messages received by  the	interface
		     per second [ipv6IfIcmpInRouterAdvertisements].

	      inbsol6/s
		     The  number  of ICMP Neighbor Solicit messages received by the interface per
		     second [ipv6IfIcmpInNeighborSolicits].

	      onbsol6/s
		     The number of ICMP Neighbor Solicitation messages sent by the interface  per
		     second [ipv6IfIcmpOutNeighborSolicits].

	      inbad6/s
		     The number of ICMP Neighbor Advertisement messages received by the interface
		     per second [ipv6IfIcmpInNeighborAdvertisements].

	      onbad6/s
		     The number of ICMP Neighbor Advertisement messages sent by the interface per
		     second [ipv6IfIcmpOutNeighborAdvertisements].

	      With the EICMP6 keyword, statistics about ICMPv6 error messages are reported.  Note
	      that ICMPv6 statistics depend on sadc option "-S IPV6" to be collected.	The  fol-
	      lowing values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      ierr6/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP  messages  per second which the interface received but
		     determined as having ICMP-specific errors (bad ICMP checksums,  bad  length,
		     etc.)  [ipv6IfIcmpInErrors]

	      idtunr6/s
		     The  number  of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages received by the inter-
		     face per second [ipv6IfIcmpInDestUnreachs].

	      odtunr6/s
		     The number of ICMP Destination Unreachable messages sent  by  the	interface
		     per second [ipv6IfIcmpOutDestUnreachs].

	      itmex6/s
		     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages received by the interface per sec-
		     ond [ipv6IfIcmpInTimeExcds].

	      otmex6/s
		     The number of ICMP Time Exceeded messages sent by the interface  per  second
		     [ipv6IfIcmpOutTimeExcds].

	      iprmpb6/s
		     The  number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages received by the interface per
		     second [ipv6IfIcmpInParmProblems].

	      oprmpb6/s
		     The number of ICMP Parameter Problem messages sent by the interface per sec-
		     ond [ipv6IfIcmpOutParmProblems].

	      iredir6/s
		     The  number  of  Redirect	messages  received  by	the  interface per second
		     [ipv6IfIcmpInRedirects].

	      oredir6/s
		     The number of Redirect messages sent by the interface by second  [ipv6IfIcm-
		     pOutRedirects].

	      ipck2b6/s
		     The  number  of  ICMP  Packet Too Big messages received by the interface per
		     second [ipv6IfIcmpInPktTooBigs].

	      opck2b6/s
		     The number of ICMP Packet Too Big messages sent by the interface per  second
		     [ipv6IfIcmpOutPktTooBigs].

	      With  the  UDP6 keyword, statistics about UDPv6 network traffic are reported.  Note
	      that UDPv6 statistics depend on sadc option "-S IPV6" to be collected.  The follow-
	      ing values are displayed (formal SNMP names between square brackets):

	      idgm6/s
		     The  total number of UDP datagrams delivered per second to UDP users [udpIn-
		     Datagrams].

	      odgm6/s
		     The total number of UDP datagrams sent per second from this entity  [udpOut-
		     Datagrams].

	      noport6/s
		     The total number of received UDP datagrams per second for which there was no
		     application at the destination port [udpNoPorts].

	      idgmer6/s
		     The number of received UDP datagrams per second that could not be	delivered
		     for  reasons  other  than the lack of an application at the destination port
		     [udpInErrors].

	      The ALL keyword is equivalent to specifying all the keywords  above  and	therefore
	      all the network activities are reported.

       -o [ filename ]
	      Save the readings in the file in binary form. Each reading is in a separate record.
	      The default value of the filename parameter is the current  daily  data  file,  the
	      /var/log/sa/sadd	file.  The -o option is exclusive of the -f option.  All the data
	      available from the kernel are saved in the file (in fact, sar calls its  data  col-
	      lector sadc with the option "-S ALL". See sadc(8) manual page).

       -P { cpu [,...] | ALL }
	      Report  per-processor statistics for the specified processor or processors.  Speci-
	      fying the ALL keyword reports statistics for each individual processor,  and  glob-
	      ally for all processors.	Note that processor 0 is the first processor.

       -p     Pretty-print  device  names.  Use  this  option  in conjunction with option -d.  By
	      default names are printed as dev m-n where m and n are the major and minor  numbers
	      for  the	device.   Use  of  this  option displays the names of the devices as they
	      (should) appear in  /dev.  Name  mappings  are  controlled  by  /etc/sysconfig/sys-
	      stat.ioconf.

       -q     Report queue length and load averages. The following values are displayed:

	      runq-sz
		     Run queue length (number of tasks waiting for run time).

	      plist-sz
		     Number of tasks in the task list.

	      ldavg-1
		     System  load average for the last minute.	The load average is calculated as
		     the average number of runnable or running tasks (R state), and the number of
		     tasks in uninterruptible sleep (D state) over the specified interval.

	      ldavg-5
		     System load average for the past 5 minutes.

	      ldavg-15
		     System load average for the past 15 minutes.

	      blocked
		     Number of tasks currently blocked, waiting for I/O to complete.

       -R     Report memory statistics. The following values are displayed:

	      frmpg/s
		     Number  of  memory  pages	freed by the system per second.  A negative value
		     represents a number of pages allocated by the system.  Note that a page  has
		     a size of 4 kB or 8 kB according to the machine architecture.

	      bufpg/s
		     Number  of additional memory pages used as buffers by the system per second.
		     A negative value means fewer pages used as buffers by the system.

	      campg/s
		     Number of additional memory pages cached by the system per second.  A  nega-
		     tive value means fewer pages in the cache.

       -r     Report memory utilization statistics.  The following values are displayed:

	      kbmemfree
		     Amount of free memory available in kilobytes.

	      kbmemused
		     Amount  of  used memory in kilobytes. This does not take into account memory
		     used by the kernel itself.

	      %memused
		     Percentage of used memory.

	      kbbuffers
		     Amount of memory used as buffers by the kernel in kilobytes.

	      kbcached
		     Amount of memory used to cache data by the kernel in kilobytes.

	      kbcommit
		     Amount of memory in kilobytes needed for current workload. This is an  esti-
		     mate  of how much RAM/swap is needed to guarantee that there never is out of
		     memory.

	      %commit
		     Percentage of memory needed for current workload in relation  to  the  total
		     amount  of  memory (RAM+swap).  This number may be greater than 100% because
		     the kernel usually overcommits memory.

	      kbactive
		     Amount of active memory  in  kilobytes  (memory  that  has  been  used  more
		     recently and usually not reclaimed unless absolutely necessary).

	      kbinact
		     Amount  of inactive memory in kilobytes (memory which has been less recently
		     used. It is more eligible to be reclaimed for other purposes).

	      kbdirty
		     Amount of memory in kilobytes waiting to get written back to the disk.

       -S     Report swap space utilization statistics.  The following values are displayed:

	      kbswpfree
		     Amount of free swap space in kilobytes.

	      kbswpused
		     Amount of used swap space in kilobytes.

	      %swpused
		     Percentage of used swap space.

	      kbswpcad
		     Amount of cached swap memory in kilobytes.  This is  memory  that	once  was
		     swapped  out, is swapped back in but still also is in the swap area (if mem-
		     ory is needed it doesn't need to be swapped out again because it is  already
		     in the swap area. This saves I/O).

	      %swpcad
		     Percentage  of  cached  swap  memory  in relation to the amount of used swap
		     space.

       -s [ hh:mm:ss ]
	      Set the starting time of the data, causing the sar command to extract records time-
	      tagged at, or following, the time specified. The default starting time is 08:00:00.
	      Hours must be given in 24-hour format. This option can be used only when	data  are
	      read from a file (option -f ).

       -t     When  reading  data  from  a  daily data file, indicate that sar should display the
	      timestamps in the original local time  of  the  data  file  creator.  Without  this
	      option, the sar command displays the timestamps in the user's locale time.

       -u [ ALL ]
	      Report CPU utilization. The ALL keyword indicates that all the CPU fields should be
	      displayed.  The report may show the following fields:

	      %user
		     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred  while  executing  at	the  user
		     level  (application).  Note that this field includes time spent running vir-
		     tual processors.

	      %usr
		     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred  while  executing  at	the  user
		     level  (application).  Note that this field does NOT include time spent run-
		     ning virtual processors.

	      %nice
		     Percentage of CPU utilization that occurred  while  executing  at	the  user
		     level with nice priority.

	      %system
		     Percentage  of  CPU  utilization that occurred while executing at the system
		     level (kernel). Note that this field includes time spent servicing  hardware
		     and software interrupts.

	      %sys
		     Percentage  of  CPU  utilization that occurred while executing at the system
		     level (kernel). Note that this field does NOT include time  spent	servicing
		     hardware or software interrupts.

	      %iowait
		     Percentage  of  time  that the CPU or CPUs were idle during which the system
		     had an outstanding disk I/O request.

	      %steal
		     Percentage of time spent in involuntary wait by  the  virtual  CPU  or  CPUs
		     while the hypervisor was servicing another virtual processor.

	      %irq
		     Percentage of time spent by the CPU or CPUs to service hardware interrupts.

	      %soft
		     Percentage of time spent by the CPU or CPUs to service software interrupts.

	      %guest
		     Percentage of time spent by the CPU or CPUs to run a virtual processor.

	      %gnice
		     Percentage of time spent by the CPU or CPUs to run a niced guest.

	      %idle
		     Percentage  of  time  that  the CPU or CPUs were idle and the system did not
		     have an outstanding disk I/O request.

	      Note: On SMP machines a processor that does not have any activity at all (0.00  for
	      every field) is a disabled (offline) processor.

       -V     Print version number then exit.

       -v     Report  status  of  inode,  file and other kernel tables.  The following values are
	      displayed:

	      dentunusd
		     Number of unused cache entries in the directory cache.

	      file-nr
		     Number of file handles used by the system.

	      inode-nr
		     Number of inode handlers used by the system.

	      pty-nr
		     Number of pseudo-terminals used by the system.

       -W     Report swapping statistics. The following values are displayed:

	      pswpin/s
		     Total number of swap pages the system brought in per second.

	      pswpout/s
		     Total number of swap pages the system brought out per second.

       -w     Report task creation and system switching activity.

	      proc/s
		     Total number of tasks created per second.

	      cswch/s
		     Total number of context switches per second.

       -y     Report TTY device activity. The following values are displayed:

	      rcvin/s
		     Number of receive interrupts per second for current serial line. Serial line
		     number is given in the TTY column.

	      xmtin/s
		     Number of transmit interrupts per second for current serial line.

	      framerr/s
		     Number of frame errors per second for current serial line.

	      prtyerr/s
		     Number of parity errors per second for current serial line.

	      brk/s
		     Number of breaks per second for current serial line.

	      ovrun/s
		     Number of overrun errors per second for current serial line.

ENVIRONMENT
       The sar command takes into account the following environment variables:

       S_TIME_FORMAT
	      If  this	variable  exists  and  its  value  is ISO then the current locale will be
	      ignored when printing the date in the report header.  The sar command will use  the
	      ISO 8601 format (YYYY-MM-DD) instead.

       S_TIME_DEF_TIME
	      If  this	variable  exists  and its value is UTC then sar will save its data in UTC
	      time (data will still be displayed in local time).  sar  will  also  use	UTC  time
	      instead  of  local  time	to  determine  the current daily data file located in the
	      /var/log/sa directory. This variable may be useful for servers with  users  located
	      across several timezones.

EXAMPLES
       sar -u 2 5
	      Report CPU utilization for each 2 seconds. 5 lines are displayed.

       sar -I 14 -o int14.file 2 10
	      Report  statistics  on IRQ 14 for each 2 seconds. 10 lines are displayed.  Data are
	      stored in a file called int14.file.

       sar -r -n DEV -f /var/log/sa/sa16
	      Display memory and network statistics saved in daily data file 'sa16'.

       sar -A
	      Display all the statistics saved in current daily data file.

BUGS
       /proc filesystem must be mounted for the sar command to work.

       All the statistics are not necessarily available, depending on the  kernel  version  used.
       sar assumes that you are using at least a 2.6 kernel.

FILES
       /var/log/sa/sadd
	      Indicate	the  daily data file, where the dd parameter is a number representing the
	      day of the month.

       /proc contains various files with system statistics.

AUTHOR
       Sebastien Godard (sysstat <at> orange.fr)

SEE ALSO
       sadc(8), sa1(8), sa2(8), sadf(1), pidstat(1), mpstat(1), iostat(1), vmstat(8)

       http://pagesperso-orange.fr/sebastien.godard/

Linux					  SEPTEMBER 2012				   SAR(1)
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