RRDGRAPH_GRAPH(1) rrdtool RRDGRAPH_GRAPH(1)
rrdgraph_graph - rrdtool graph command reference
These instructions allow you to generate your image or report. If you don't use any graph
elements, no graph is generated. Similarly, no report is generated if you don't use print
Depending on the context, either the value component or the time component of a VDEF is
printed using format. It is an error to specify a vname generated by a DEF or CDEF.
Any text in format is printed literally with one exception: The percent character
introduces a formatter string. This string can be:
For printing values:
%% just prints a literal '%' character
prints numbers like 1.2346e+04. The optional integers # denote field width and decimal
prints numbers like 12345.6789, with optional field width and precision.
%s place this after %le, %lf or %lg. This will be replaced by the appropriate SI
magnitude unit and the value will be scaled accordingly (123456 -> 123.456 k).
%S is similar to %s. It does, however, use a previously defined magnitude unit. If there
is no such unit yet, it tries to define one (just like %s) unless the value is zero,
in which case the magnitude unit stays undefined. Thus, formatter strings using %S and
no %s will all use the same magnitude unit except for zero values.
If you PRINT a VDEF value, you can also print the time associated with it by appending the
string :strftime to the format. Note that RRDtool uses the strftime function of your OSs C
library. This means that the conversion specifier may vary. Check the manual page if you
are uncertain. The following is a list of conversion specifiers usually supported across
%a The abbreviated weekday name according to the current locale.
%A The full weekday name according to the current locale.
%b The abbreviated month name according to the current locale.
%B The full month name according to the current locale.
%c The preferred date and time representation for the current locale.
%d The day of the month as a decimal number (range 01 to 31).
%H The hour as a decimal number using a 24-hour clock (range 00 to 23).
%I The hour as a decimal number using a 12-hour clock (range 01 to 12).
%j The day of the year as a decimal number (range 001 to 366).
%m The month as a decimal number (range 01 to 12).
%M The minute as a decimal number (range 00 to 59).
%p Either `AM' or `PM' according to the given time value, or the corresponding strings
for the current locale. Noon is treated as `pm' and midnight as `am'. Note that in
many locales and `pm' notation is unsupported and in such cases %p will return an
%s The second as a decimal number (range 00 to 61).
%S The seconds since the epoch (1.1.1970) (libc dependent non standard!)
%U The week number of the current year as a decimal number, range 00 to 53, starting
with the first Sunday as the first day of week 01. See also %V and %W.
%V The ISO 8601:1988 week number of the current year as a decimal number, range 01 to
53, where week 1 is the first week that has at least 4 days in the current year, and
with Monday as the first day of the week. See also %U and %W.
%w The day of the week as a decimal, range 0 to 6, Sunday being 0. See also %u.
%W The week number of the current year as a decimal number, range 00 to 53, starting
with the first Monday as the first day of week 01.
%x The preferred date representation for the current locale without the time.
%X The preferred time representation for the current locale without the date.
%y The year as a decimal number without a century (range 00 to 99).
%Y The year as a decimal number including the century.
%Z The time zone or name or abbreviation.
%% A literal `%' character.
Deprecated. Use the new form of this command in new scripts. The first form of this
command is to be used with CDEF vnames.
This is the same as "PRINT", but printed inside the graph.
Deprecated. Use the new form of this command in new scripts. This is the same as "PRINT",
but printed inside the graph.
Text is printed literally in the legend section of the graph. Note that in RRDtool 1.2 you
have to escape colons in COMMENT text in the same way you have to escape them in *PRINT
commands by writing '\:'.
Draw a vertical line at time. Its color is composed from three hexadecimal numbers
specifying the rgb color components (00 is off, FF is maximum) red, green and blue
followed by an optional alpha. Optionally, a legend box and string is printed in the
legend section. time may be a number or a variable from a VDEF. It is an error to use
vnames from DEF or CDEF here. Dashed lines can be drawn using the dashes modifier. See
LINE for more details.
Draw a horizontal line at value. HRULE acts much like LINE except that will have no
effect on the scale of the graph. If a HRULE is outside the graphing area it will just not
Draw a line of the specified width onto the graph. width can be a floating point number.
If the color is not specified, the drawing is done 'invisibly'. This is useful when
stacking something else on top of this line. Also optional is the legend box and string
which will be printed in the legend section if specified. The value can be generated by
DEF, VDEF, and CDEF. If the optional STACK modifier is used, this line is stacked on top
of the previous element which can be a LINE or an AREA.
Normally the graphing function makes sure that the entire LINE or AREA is visible in the
chart. The scaling of the chart will be modified accordingly if necessary. Any LINE or
AREA can be excluded from this process by adding the option skipscale.
The dashes modifier enables dashed line style. Without any further options a symmetric
dashed line with a segment length of 5 pixels will be drawn. The dash pattern can be
changed if the dashes= parameter is followed by either one value or an even number (1, 2,
4, 6, ...) of positive values. Each value provides the length of alternate on_s and off_s
portions of the stroke. The dash-offset parameter specifies an offset into the pattern at
which the stroke begins.
When you do not specify a color, you cannot specify a legend. Should you want to use
STACK, use the "LINEx:<value>::STACK" form.
See LINE, however the area between the x-axis and the line will be filled.
Plot a tick mark (a vertical line) for each value of vname that is non-zero and not
*UNKNOWN*. The fraction argument specifies the length of the tick mark as a fraction of
the y-axis; the default value is 0.1 (10% of the axis). Note that the color specification
is not optional. The TICK marks normally start at the lower edge of the graphing area. If
the fraction is negative they start at the upper border of the graphing area.
Using this command RRDtool will graph the following elements with the specified offset.
For instance, you can specify an offset of ( 7*24*60*60 = ) 604'800 seconds to "look back"
one week. Make sure to tell the viewer of your graph you did this ... As with the other
graphing elements, you can specify a number or a variable here.
Labels are placed below the graph. When they overflow to the left, they wrap to the next
line. By default, lines are justified left and right. The TEXTALIGN function lets you
change this default. This is a command and not an option, so that you can change the
default several times in your argument list.
Deprecated. Use the STACK modifiers on the other commands instead!
Some notes on stacking
When stacking, an element is not placed above the X-axis but rather on top of the previous
element. There must be something to stack upon.
You can use an invisible LINE or AREA to stacked upon.
An unknown value makes the entire stack unknown from that moment on. You don't know where
to begin (the unknown value) and therefore do not know where to end.
If you want to make sure you will be displaying a certain variable, make sure never to
stack upon the unknown value. Use a CDEF instruction with IF and UN to do so.
NOTES on legend arguments
Escaping the colon
A colon ':' in a legend argument will mark the end of the legend. To enter a ':' as part
of a legend, the colon must be escaped with a backslash '\:'. Beware that many
environments process backslashes themselves, so it may be necessary to write two
backslashes in order to one being passed onto rrd_graph.
The text printed below the actual graph can be formatted by appending special escape
characters at the end of a text. When ever such a character occurs, all pending text is
pushed onto the graph according to the character specified.
Valid markers are: \j for justified, \l for left aligned, \r for right aligned, and \c for
centered. In the next section there is an example showing how to use centered formatting.
\n is a valid alias for \l since incomplete parsing in earlier versions of RRDtool lead to
this behavior and a number of people has been using it.
Normally there are two space characters inserted between every two items printed into the
graph. The space following a string can be suppressed by putting a \g at the end of the
string. The \g also ignores any space inside the string if it is at the very end of the
string. This can be used in connection with %s to suppress empty unit strings.
A special case is COMMENT:\s which inserts some additional vertical space before placing
the next row of legends.
If you want to have left and right aligned legends on the same line use COMMENT:\u to go
one line back like this:
There is also a 'nop' control for situations where you want a string to actually end in a
backslash character sequence \.
When using a proportional font in your graph, the tab characters or the sequence \t will
line-up legend elements. Note that the tabs inserted are relative to the start of the
current legend element!
Since RRDtool 1.3 is using Pango for rending text, you can use Pango markup. Pango uses
the xml span tags for inline formatting instructions.:
A simple example of a marked-up string might be:
<span foreground="blue" size="x-large">Blue text</span> is <i>cool</i>!
The complete list of attributes for the span tag (taken from the pango documentation):
A font description string, such as "Sans Italic 12"; note that any other span
attributes will override this description. So if you have "Sans Italic" and also a
style="normal" attribute, you will get Sans normal, not italic.
A font family name
Synonym for font_family
Font size in 1024ths of a point, or one of the absolute sizes 'xx-small', 'x-small',
'small', 'medium', 'large', 'x-large', 'xx-large', or one of the relative sizes
'smaller' or 'larger'. If you want to specify a absolute size, it's usually easier to
take advantage of the ability to specify a partial font description using 'font_desc';
you can use font_desc='12.5' rather than size='12800'.
One of 'normal', 'oblique', 'italic'
One of 'ultralight', 'light', 'normal', 'bold', 'ultrabold', 'heavy', or a numeric
'normal' or 'smallcaps'
One of 'ultracondensed', 'extracondensed', 'condensed', 'semicondensed', 'normal',
'semiexpanded', 'expanded', 'extraexpanded', 'ultraexpanded'
An RGB color specification such as '#00FF00' or a color name such as 'red'
An RGB color specification such as '#00FF00' or a color name such as 'red'
One of 'none', 'single', 'double', 'low', 'error'
The color of underlines; an RGB color specification such as '#00FF00' or a color name
such as 'red'
Vertical displacement, in 10000ths of an em. Can be negative for subscript, positive
'true' or 'false' whether to strike through the text
The color of crossed out lines; an RGB color specification such as '#00FF00' or a
color name such as 'red'
'true' or 'false' whether to enable fallback. If disabled, then characters will only
be used from the closest matching font on the system. No fallback will be done to
other fonts on the system that might contain the characters in the text. Fallback is
enabled by default. Most applications should not disable fallback.
A language code, indicating the text language
Inter-letter spacing in 1024ths of a point.
One of 'south', 'east', 'north', 'west', 'auto'.
One of 'natural', 'strong', 'line'.
To save you some typing, there are also some shortcuts:
big Makes font relatively larger, equivalent to <span size="larger">
s Strike through
Makes font relatively smaller, equivalent to <span size="smaller">
tt Monospace font
rrdgraph gives an overview of how rrdtool graph works. rrdgraph_data describes DEF,CDEF
and VDEF in detail. rrdgraph_rpn describes the RPN language used in the ?DEF statements.
rrdgraph_graph page describes all of the graph and print functions.
Make sure to read rrdgraph_examples for tips&tricks.
Program by Tobias Oetiker <firstname.lastname@example.org>
This manual page by Alex van den Bogaerdt <email@example.com> with corrections and/or
additions by several people
1.4.8 2013-05-23 RRDGRAPH_GRAPH(1)