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CentOS 7.0 - man page for rrdcached (centos section 1)

RRDCACHED(1)				     rrdtool				     RRDCACHED(1)

       rrdcached - Data caching daemon for rrdtool

       rrdcached [-P permissions] [-l address] [-s group] [-w timeout] [-z delay] [-f timeout]
       [-p pid_file] [-t write_threads] [-j journal_dir] [-F] [-g] [-b base_dir [-B]]

       rrdcached is a daemon that receives updates to existing RRD files, accumulates them and,
       if enough have been received or a defined time has passed, writes the updates to the RRD
       file. A flush command may be used to force writing of values to disk, so that graphing
       facilities and similar can work with up-to-date data.

       The daemon was written with big setups in mind. Those setups usually run into IO related
       problems sooner or later for reasons that are beyond the scope of this document. Check the
       wiki at the RRDtool homepage for details. Also check "SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS" below
       before using this daemon! A detailed description of how the daemon operates can be found
       in the "HOW IT WORKS" section below.

       -l address
	   Tells the daemon to bind to address and accept incoming connections on that socket. If
	   address begins with "unix:", everything following that prefix is interpreted as the
	   path to a UNIX domain socket. Otherwise the address or node name are resolved using

	   For network sockets, a port may be specified by using the form "[address]:port". If
	   the address is an IPv4 address or a fully qualified domain name (i. e. the address
	   contains at least one dot (".")), the square brackets can be omitted, resulting in the
	   (simpler) "address:port" pattern. The default port is 42217/tcp. If you specify a
	   network socket, it is mandatory to read the "SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS" section.

	   The following formats are accepted. Please note that the address of the UNIX domain
	   socket must start with a slash in the second case!


	   If the -l option is not specified the default address, "unix:/tmp/rrdcached.sock",
	   will be used.

       -s group_name|gid
	   Set the group permissions of a UNIX domain socket. The option accepts either a numeric
	   group id or group name. That group will then have both read and write permissions (the
	   socket will have file permissions 0750) for the socket and, therefore, is able to send
	   commands to the daemon. This may be useful in cases where you cannot easily run all
	   RRD processes with the same user privileges (e.g. graph generating CGI scripts that
	   typically run in the permission context of the web server).

	   This option affects the following UNIX socket addresses (the following -l options) or
	   the default socket (if no -l options have been specified), i.e., you may specify
	   different settings for different sockets.

	   The default is not to change ownership or permissions of the socket and, thus, use the
	   system default.

       -m mode
	   Set the file permissions of a UNIX domain socket. The option accepts an octal number
	   representing the bit pattern for the mode (see chmod(1) for details).

	   Please note that not all systems honor this setting. On Linux, read/write permissions
	   are required to connect to a UNIX socket. However, many BSD-derived systems ignore
	   permissions for UNIX sockets. See unix(7) for details.

	   This option affects the following UNIX socket addresses (the following -l options) or
	   the default socket (if no -l options have been specified), i.e., you may specify
	   different settings for different sockets.

	   The default is not to change ownership or permissions of the socket and, thus, use the
	   system default.

       -P command[,command[,...]]
	   Specifies the commands accepted via a network socket. This allows administrators of
	   RRDCacheD to control the actions accepted from various sources.

	   The arguments given to the -P option is a comma separated list of commands.	For
	   example, to allow the "FLUSH" and "PENDING" commands one could specify:


	   The -P option affects the following socket addresses (the following -l options) or the
	   default socket (if no -l options have been specified). In the following example, only
	   the IPv4 network socket (address will be restricted to the "FLUSH" and
	   "PENDING" commands:

	     rrdcached -l unix:/some/path -P FLUSH,PENDING -l

	   A complete list of available commands can be found in the section "Valid Commands"
	   below. There are two minor special exceptions:

	   o   The "HELP" and "QUIT" commands are always allowed.

	   o   If the "BATCH" command is accepted, the . command will automatically be accepted,

	   Please also read "SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS" below.

       -w timeout
	   Data is written to disk every timeout seconds. If this option is not specified the
	   default interval of 300 seconds will be used.

       -z delay
	   If specified, rrdcached will delay writing of each RRD for a random number of seconds
	   in the range [0,delay).  This will avoid too many writes being queued simultaneously.
	   This value should be no greater than the value specified in -w.  By default, there is
	   no delay.

       -f timeout
	   Every timeout seconds the entire cache is searched for old values which are written to
	   disk. This only concerns files to which updates have stopped, so setting this to a
	   high value, such as 3600 seconds, is acceptable in most cases. This timeout defaults
	   to 3600 seconds.

       -p file
	   Sets the name and location of the PID-file. If not specified, the default,
	   "$localststedir/run/rrdcached.pid" will be used.

       -t write_threads
	   Specifies the number of threads used for writing RRD files.	The default is 4.
	   Increasing this number will allow rrdcached to have more simultaneous I/O requests
	   into the kernel.  This may allow the kernel to re-order disk writes, resulting in
	   better disk throughput.

       -j dir
	   Write updates to a journal in dir.  In the event of a program or system crash, this
	   will allow the daemon to write any updates that were pending at the time of the crash.

	   On startup, the daemon will check for journal files in this directory.  If found, all
	   updates therein will be read into memory before the daemon starts accepting new

	   The journal will be rotated with the same frequency as the flush timer given by -f.

	   When journaling is enabled, the daemon will use a fast shutdown procedure.  Rather
	   than flushing all files to disk, it will make sure the journal is properly written and
	   exit immediately.  Although the RRD data files are not fully up-to-date, no
	   information is lost; all pending updates will be replayed from the journal next time
	   the daemon starts up.

	   To disable fast shutdown, use the -F option.

       -F  ALWAYS flush all updates to the RRD data files when the daemon is shut down,
	   regardless of journal setting.

       -g  Run in the foreground.  The daemon will not fork().

       -b dir
	   The daemon will change into a specific directory at startup. All files passed to the
	   daemon, that are specified by a relative path, will be interpreted to be relative to
	   this directory. If not given the default, "/tmp", will be used.

	     ! Command line	      ! File updated	       !
	     ! foo.rrd		      ! /tmp/foo.rrd	       !
	     ! foo/bar.rrd	      ! /tmp/foo/bar.rrd       !
	     ! /var/lib/rrd/foo.rrd   ! /var/lib/rrd/foo.rrd   !
	     Paths given on the command  line and paths actually
	     updated by the daemon,  assuming the base directory

	   WARNING: The paths up to and including the base directory MUST NOT BE symbolic links.
	   In other words, if the base directory is specified as:

	       -b /base/dir/somewhere

	   ... then NONE of the following should be symbolic links:


       -B  Only permit writes into the base directory specified in -b (and any sub-directories).
	   This does NOT detect symbolic links.  Paths containing "../" will also be blocked.

       The following commands may be made aware of the rrdcached using the command line argument
       --daemon or the environment variable RRDCACHED_ADDRESS:

       o   dump

       o   fetch

       o   flush

       o   graph

       o   graphv

       o   info

       o   last

       o   lastupdate

       o   update

       o   xport

       The update command can send values to the daemon instead of writing them to the disk
       itself. All other commands can send a FLUSH command (see below) to the daemon before
       accessing the files, so they work with up-to-date data even if the cache timeout is large.

       The daemon reports errors in one of two ways: During startup, error messages are printed
       to "STDERR". One of the steps when starting up is to fork to the background and closing
       "STDERR" - after this writing directly to the user is no longer possible. Once this has
       happened, the daemon will send log messages to the system logging daemon using syslog(3).
       The facility used is "LOG_DAEMON".

       When receiving an update, rrdcached does not write to disk but looks for an entry for that
       file in its internal tree. If not found, an entry is created including the current time
       (called "First" in the diagram below). This time is not the time specified on the command
       line but the time the operating system considers to be "now". The value and time of the
       value (called "Time" in the diagram below) are appended to the tree node.

       When appending a value to a tree node, it is checked whether it's time to write the values
       to disk. Values are written to disk if "now() - First >= timeout", where "timeout" is the
       timeout specified using the -w option, see "OPTIONS". If the values are "old enough" they
       will be enqueued in the "update queue", i. e. they will be appended to the linked list
       shown below.  Because the tree nodes and the elements of the linked list are the same data
       structures in memory, any update to a file that has already been enqueued will be written
       with the next write to the RRD file, too.

       A separate "update thread" constantly dequeues the first element in the update queue and
       writes all its values to the appropriate file. So as long as the update queue is not empty
       files are written at the highest possible rate.

       Since the timeout of files is checked only when new values are added to the file, "dead"
       files, i. e. files that are not updated anymore, would never be written to disk.
       Therefore, every now and then, controlled by the -f option, the entire tree is walked and
       all "old" values are enqueued. Since this only affects "dead" files and walking the tree
       is relatively expensive, you should set the "flush interval" to a reasonably high value.
       The default is 3600 seconds (one hour).

       The downside of caching values is that they won't show up in graphs generated from the
       RRD files. To get around this, the daemon provides the "flush command" to flush specific
       files. This means that the file is inserted at the head of the update queue or moved there
       if it is already enqueued. The flush command will return only after the file's pending
       updates have been written to disk.

	+------+   +------+				  +------+
	! head !   ! root !				  ! tail !
	+---+--+   +---+--+				  +---+--+
	    !	      /\				      !
	    !	     /	\				      !
	    !	    /\	/\				      !
	    !	   /\/\ \ `----------------- ... --------,    !
	    V	  /	 `-------,			 !    V
	+---+----+---+	  +------+-----+	     +---+----+---+
	! File:  foo !	  ! File:  bar !	     ! File:  qux !
	! First: 101 !	  ! First: 119 !	     ! First: 180 !
	! Next:&bar -+--->! Next:&... -+---> ... --->! Next:NULL  !
	| Prev:NULL  !<---+-Prev:&foo  !<--- ... ----+-Prev: &... !
	+============+	  +============+	     +============+
	! Time:  100 !	  ! Time:  120 !	     ! Time:  180 !
	! Value:  10 !	  ! Value: 0.1 !	     ! Value: 2,2 !
	+------------+	  +------------+	     +------------+
	! Time:  110 !	  ! Time:  130 !	     ! Time:  190 !
	! Value:  26 !	  ! Value: 0.1 !	     ! Value: 7,3 !
	+------------+	  +------------+	     +------------+
	:	     :	  :	       :	     :		  :
	+------------+	  +------------+	     +------------+
	! Time:  230 !	  ! Time:  250 !	     ! Time:  310 !
	! Value:  42 !	  ! Value: 0.2 !	     ! Value: 1,2 !
	+------------+	  +------------+	     +------------+

       The above diagram demonstrates:

       o   Files/values are stored in a (balanced) tree.

       o   Tree nodes and entries in the update queue are the same data structure.

       o   The local time ("First") and the time specified in updates ("Time") may differ.

       o   Timed out values are inserted at the "tail".

       o   Explicitly flushed values are inserted at the "head".

       o   ASCII art rocks.

       If your rrdtool installation was built without libwrap there is no form of authentication
       for clients connecting to the rrdcache daemon!

       If your rrdtool installation was built with libwrap then you can use hosts_access to
       restrict client access to the rrdcache daemon (rrdcached).  For more information on how to
       use hosts_access to restrict access to the rrdcache daemon you should read the
       hosts_access(5) man pages.

       It is still highly recommended to install a packet filter or similar mechanism to prevent
       unauthorized connections. Unless you have a dedicated VLAN or VPN for this, using network
       sockets is probably a bad idea!

       There is minimal per-socket authorization.

       Authorization is currently done on a per-socket basis. That means each socket has a list
       of commands it will accept and it will accept. It will accept only those commands
       explicitly listed but it will (currently) accept these commands from anyone reaching the

       If the networking sockets are to be used, it is necessary to restrict the accepted
       commands to those needed by external clients. If, for example, external clients want to
       draw graphs of the cached data, they should only be allowed to use the "FLUSH" command.

       There is no encryption.

       Again, this may be added in the future, but for the time being it is your job to keep your
       private data private. Install a VPN or an encrypted tunnel if you statistics are

   Sanity checking
       There is no sanity checking.

       The daemon will blindly write to any file it gets told, so you really should create a
       separate user just for this daemon. Also it does not do any sanity checks, so if it gets
       told to write values for a time far in the future, your files will be messed up good!

       o   Security is the job of the administrator.

       o   We recommend to allow write access via UNIX domain sockets only.

       o   You have been warned.

       The daemon communicates with clients using a line based ASCII protocol which is easy to
       read and easy to type. This makes it easy for scripts to implement the protocol and
       possible for users to use telnet to connect to the daemon and test stuff "by hand".

       The protocol is line based, this means that each record consists of one or more lines. A
       line is terminated by the line feed character 0x0A, commonly written as "\n". In the
       examples below, this character will be written as "<LF>" ("line feed").

       After the connection has been established, the client is expected to send a "command". A
       command consists of the command keyword, possibly some arguments, and a terminating
       newline character. For a list of commands, see "Valid Commands" below.


	 FLUSH /tmp/foo.rrd<LF>

       The daemon answers with a line consisting of a status code and a short status message,
       separated by one or more space characters. A negative status code signals an error, a
       positive status code or zero signal success. If the status code is greater than zero, it
       indicates the number of lines that follow the status line.


	0 Success<LF>

	2 Two lines follow<LF>
	This is the first line<LF>
	And this is the second line<LF>

   Valid Commands
       The following commands are understood by the daemon:

       FLUSH filename
	   Causes the daemon to put filename to the head of the update queue (possibly moving it
	   there if the node is already enqueued). The answer will be sent after the node has
	   been dequeued.

	   Causes the daemon to start flushing ALL pending values to disk.  This returns
	   immediately, even though the writes may take a long time.

       PENDING filename
	   Shows any "pending" updates for a file, in order.  The updates shown have not yet been
	   written to the underlying RRD file.

       FORGET filename
	   Removes filename from the cache.  Any pending updates WILL BE LOST.

	   Shows the files that are on the output queue.  Returns zero or more lines in the
	   following format, where <num_vals> is the number of values to be written for the

	       <num_vals> <file>

       HELP [command]
	   Returns a short usage message. If no command is given, or command is HELP, a list of
	   commands supported by the daemon is returned. Otherwise a short description, possibly
	   containing a pointer to a manual page, is returned.	Obviously, this is meant for
	   interactive usage and the format in which the commands and usage summaries are
	   returned is not well defined.

	   Returns a list of metrics which can be used to measure the daemons performance and
	   check its status. For a description of the values returned, see "Performance Values"

	   The format in which the values are returned is similar to many other line based
	   protocols: Each value is printed on a separate line, each consisting of the name of
	   the value, a colon, one or more spaces and the actual value.


	    9 Statistics follow
	    QueueLength: 0
	    UpdatesReceived: 30
	    FlushesReceived: 2
	    UpdatesWritten: 13
	    DataSetsWritten: 390
	    TreeNodesNumber: 13
	    TreeDepth: 4
	    JournalBytes: 190
	    JournalRotate: 0

       UPDATE filename values [values ...]
	   Adds more data to a filename. This is the operation the daemon was designed for, so
	   describing the mechanism again is unnecessary. Read "HOW IT WORKS" above for a
	   detailed explanation.

	   Note that rrdcached only accepts absolute timestamps in the update values.  Updates
	   strings like "N:1:2:3" are automatically converted to absolute time by the RRD client
	   library before sending to rrdcached.

       WROTE filename
	   This command is written to the journal after a file is successfully written out to
	   disk.  It is used during journal replay to determine which updates have already been
	   applied.  It is only valid in the journal; it is not accepted from the other command

	   This command initiates the bulk load of multiple commands.  This is designed for
	   installations with extremely high update rates, since it permits more than one command
	   to be issued per read() and write().

	   All commands are executed just as they would be if given individually, except for
	   output to the user.	Messages indicating success are suppressed, and error messages
	   are delayed until the client is finished.

	   Command processing is finished when the client sends a dot (".") on its own line.
	   After the client has finished, the server responds with an error count and the list of
	   error messages (if any).  Each error messages indicates the number of the command to
	   which it corresponds, and the error message itself.	The first user command after
	   BATCH is command number one.

	       client:	BATCH
	       server:	0 Go ahead.  End with dot '.' on its own line.
	       client:	UPDATE x.rrd 1223661439:1:2:3		 <--- command #1
	       client:	UPDATE y.rrd 1223661440:3:4:5		 <--- command #2
	       client:	and so on...
	       client:	.
	       server:	2 Errors
	       server:	1 message for command 1
	       server:	12 message for command 12

	   Disconnect from rrdcached.

   Performance Values
       The following counters are returned by the STATS command:

       QueueLength (unsigned 64bit integer)
	   Number of nodes currently enqueued in the update queue.

       UpdatesReceived (unsigned 64bit integer)
	   Number of UPDATE commands received.

       FlushesReceived (unsigned 64bit integer)
	   Number of FLUSH commands received.

       UpdatesWritten (unsigned 64bit integer)
	   Total number of updates, i. e. calls to "rrd_update_r", since the daemon was started.

       DataSetsWritten (unsigned 64bit integer)
	   Total number of "data sets" written to disk since the daemon was started. A data set
	   is one or more values passed to the UPDATE command. For example: "1223661439:123:456"
	   is one data set with two values. The term "data set" is used to prevent confusion
	   whether individual values or groups of values are counted.

       TreeNodesNumber (unsigned 64bit integer)
	   Number of nodes in the cache.

       TreeDepth (unsigned 64bit integer)
	   Depth of the tree used for fast key lookup.

       JournalBytes (unsigned 64bit integer)
	   Total number of bytes written to the journal since startup.

       JournalRotate (unsigned 64bit integer)
	   Number of times the journal has been rotated since startup.

	   The daemon exits normally on receipt of either of these signals.  Pending updates are
	   handled in accordance with the -j and -F options.

	   The daemon exits AFTER flushing all updates out to disk.  This may take a while.

	   The daemon exits immediately, without flushing updates out to disk.	Pending updates
	   will be replayed from the journal when the daemon starts up again.  WARNING: if
	   journaling (-j) is NOT enabled, any pending updates WILL BE LOST.

       No known bugs at the moment.

       rrdtool, rrdgraph

       Florian Forster <octo at verplant.org>

       Both rrdcached and this manual page have been written by Florian.

       kevin brintnall <kbrint@rufus.net>

1.4.8					    2013-05-23				     RRDCACHED(1)

All times are GMT -4. The time now is 08:42 AM.

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