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PK12UTIL(1)				NSS Security Tools			      PK12UTIL(1)

NAME
       pk12util - Export and import keys and certificate to or from a PKCS #12 file and the NSS
       database

SYNOPSIS
       pk12util [-i p12File [-h tokenname] [-v] [common-options]]
		[-l p12File [-h tokenname] [-r] [common-options]]
		[-o p12File -n certname [-c keyCipher] [-C certCipher] [-m|--key_len keyLen] [-n|--cert_key_len certKeyLen] [common-options]]
		[common-options are: [-d [sql:]directory] [-P dbprefix] [-k slotPasswordFile|-K slotPassword] [-w p12filePasswordFile|-W p12filePassword]]

STATUS
       This documentation is still work in progress. Please contribute to the initial review in
       Mozilla NSS bug 836477[1]

DESCRIPTION
       The PKCS #12 utility, pk12util, enables sharing certificates among any server that
       supports PKCS#12. The tool can import certificates and keys from PKCS#12 files into
       security databases, export certificates, and list certificates and keys.

OPTIONS AND ARGUMENTS
       Options

       -i p12file
	   Import keys and certificates from a PKCS#12 file into a security database.

       -l p12file
	   List the keys and certificates in PKCS#12 file.

       -o p12file
	   Export keys and certificates from the security database to a PKCS#12 file.

       Arguments

       -n certname
	   Specify the nickname of the cert and private key to export.

       -d [sql:]directory
	   Specify the database directory into which to import to or export from certificates and
	   keys.

	   pk12util supports two types of databases: the legacy security databases (cert8.db,
	   key3.db, and secmod.db) and new SQLite databases (cert9.db, key4.db, and pkcs11.txt).
	   If the prefix sql: is not used, then the tool assumes that the given databases are in
	   the old format.

       -P prefix
	   Specify the prefix used on the certificate and key databases. This option is provided
	   as a special case. Changing the names of the certificate and key databases is not
	   recommended.

       -h tokenname
	   Specify the name of the token to import into or export from.

       -v
	   Enable debug logging when importing.

       -k slotPasswordFile
	   Specify the text file containing the slot's password.

       -K slotPassword
	   Specify the slot's password.

       -w p12filePasswordFile
	   Specify the text file containing the pkcs #12 file password.

       -W p12filePassword
	   Specify the pkcs #12 file password.

       -c keyCipher
	   Specify the key encryption algorithm.

       -C certCipher
	   Specify the key cert (overall package) encryption algorithm.

       -m | --key-len keyLength
	   Specify the desired length of the symmetric key to be used to encrypt the private key.

       -n | --cert-key-len certKeyLength
	   Specify the desired length of the symmetric key to be used to encrypt the certificates
	   and other meta-data.

       -r
	   Dumps all of the data in raw (binary) form. This must be saved as a DER file. The
	   default is to return information in a pretty-print ASCII format, which displays the
	   information about the certificates and public keys in the p12 file.

RETURN CODES
       o   0 - No error

       o   1 - User Cancelled

       o   2 - Usage error

       o   6 - NLS init error

       o   8 - Certificate DB open error

       o   9 - Key DB open error

       o   10 - File initialization error

       o   11 - Unicode conversion error

       o   12 - Temporary file creation error

       o   13 - PKCS11 get slot error

       o   14 - PKCS12 decoder start error

       o   15 - error read from import file

       o   16 - pkcs12 decode error

       o   17 - pkcs12 decoder verify error

       o   18 - pkcs12 decoder validate bags error

       o   19 - pkcs12 decoder import bags error

       o   20 - key db conversion version 3 to version 2 error

       o   21 - cert db conversion version 7 to version 5 error

       o   22 - cert and key dbs patch error

       o   23 - get default cert db error

       o   24 - find cert by nickname error

       o   25 - create export context error

       o   26 - PKCS12 add password itegrity error

       o   27 - cert and key Safes creation error

       o   28 - PKCS12 add cert and key error

       o   29 - PKCS12 encode error

EXAMPLES
       Importing Keys and Certificates

       The most basic usage of pk12util for importing a certificate or key is the PKCS#12 input
       file (-i) and some way to specify the security database being accessed (either -d for a
       directory or -h for a token).

	   pk12util -i p12File [-h tokenname] [-v] [-d [sql:]directory] [-P dbprefix] [-k slotPasswordFile|-K slotPassword] [-w p12filePasswordFile|-W p12filePassword]

       For example:

	   # pk12util -i /tmp/cert-files/users.p12 -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb

	   Enter a password which will be used to encrypt your keys.
	   The password should be at least 8 characters long,
	   and should contain at least one non-alphabetic character.

	   Enter new password:
	   Re-enter password:
	   Enter password for PKCS12 file:
	   pk12util: PKCS12 IMPORT SUCCESSFUL

       Exporting Keys and Certificates

       Using the pk12util command to export certificates and keys requires both the name of the
       certificate to extract from the database (-n) and the PKCS#12-formatted output file to
       write to. There are optional parameters that can be used to encrypt the file to protect
       the certificate material.

	   pk12util -o p12File -n certname [-c keyCipher] [-C certCipher] [-m|--key_len keyLen] [-n|--cert_key_len certKeyLen] [-d [sql:]directory] [-P dbprefix] [-k slotPasswordFile|-K slotPassword] [-w p12filePasswordFile|-W p12filePassword]

       For example:

	   # pk12util -o certs.p12 -n Server-Cert -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb
	   Enter password for PKCS12 file:
	   Re-enter password:

       Listing Keys and Certificates

       The information in a .p12 file are not human-readable. The certificates and keys in the
       file can be printed (listed) in a human-readable pretty-print format that shows
       information for every certificate and any public keys in the .p12 file.

	   pk12util -l p12File [-h tokenname] [-r] [-d [sql:]directory] [-P dbprefix] [-k slotPasswordFile|-K slotPassword] [-w p12filePasswordFile|-W p12filePassword]

       For example, this prints the default ASCII output:

	   # pk12util -l certs.p12

	   Enter password for PKCS12 file:
	   Key(shrouded):
	       Friendly Name: Thawte Freemail Member's Thawte Consulting (Pty) Ltd. ID

	       Encryption algorithm: PKCS #12 V2 PBE With SHA-1 And 3KEY Triple DES-CBC
		   Parameters:
		       Salt:
			   45:2e:6a:a0:03:4d:7b:a1:63:3c:15:ea:67:37:62:1f
		       Iteration Count: 1 (0x1)
	   Certificate:
	       Data:
		   Version: 3 (0x2)
		   Serial Number: 13 (0xd)
		   Signature Algorithm: PKCS #1 SHA-1 With RSA Encryption
		   Issuer: "E=personal-freemail@thawte.com,CN=Thawte Personal Freemail C
		       A,OU=Certification Services Division,O=Thawte Consulting,L=Cape T
		       own,ST=Western Cape,C=ZA"
	   ....

       Alternatively, the -r prints the certificates and then exports them into separate DER
       binary files. This allows the certificates to be fed to another application that supports
       .p12 files. Each certificate is written to a sequentially-number file, beginning with
       file0001.der and continuing through file000N.der, incrementing the number for every
       certificate:

	   # pk12util -l test.p12 -r
	   Enter password for PKCS12 file:
	   Key(shrouded):
	       Friendly Name: Thawte Freemail Member's Thawte Consulting (Pty) Ltd. ID

	       Encryption algorithm: PKCS #12 V2 PBE With SHA-1 And 3KEY Triple DES-CBC
		   Parameters:
		       Salt:
			   45:2e:6a:a0:03:4d:7b:a1:63:3c:15:ea:67:37:62:1f
		       Iteration Count: 1 (0x1)
	   Certificate	  Friendly Name: Thawte Personal Freemail Issuing CA - Thawte Consulting

	   Certificate	  Friendly Name: Thawte Freemail Member's Thawte Consulting (Pty) Ltd. ID

PASSWORD ENCRYPTION
       PKCS#12 provides for not only the protection of the private keys but also the certificate
       and meta-data associated with the keys. Password-based encryption is used to protect
       private keys on export to a PKCS#12 file and, optionally, the entire package. If no
       algorithm is specified, the tool defaults to using PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 3KEY Triple
       DES-cbc for private key encryption.  PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 40 Bit RC4 is the default
       for the overall package encryption when not in FIPS mode. When in FIPS mode, there is no
       package encryption.

       The private key is always protected with strong encryption by default.

       Several types of ciphers are supported.

       Symmetric CBC ciphers for PKCS#5 V2
	   DES_CBC

	   o   RC2-CBC

	   o   RC5-CBCPad

	   o   DES-EDE3-CBC (the default for key encryption)

	   o   AES-128-CBC

	   o   AES-192-CBC

	   o   AES-256-CBC

	   o   CAMELLIA-128-CBC

	   o   CAMELLIA-192-CBC

	   o   CAMELLIA-256-CBC

       PKCS#12 PBE ciphers
	   PKCS #12 PBE with Sha1 and 128 Bit RC4

	   o   PKCS #12 PBE with Sha1 and 40 Bit RC4

	   o   PKCS #12 PBE with Sha1 and Triple DES CBC

	   o   PKCS #12 PBE with Sha1 and 128 Bit RC2 CBC

	   o   PKCS #12 PBE with Sha1 and 40 Bit RC2 CBC

	   o   PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 128 Bit RC4

	   o   PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 40 Bit RC4 (the default for non-FIPS mode)

	   o   PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 3KEY Triple DES-cbc

	   o   PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 2KEY Triple DES-cbc

	   o   PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 128 Bit RC2 CBC

	   o   PKCS12 V2 PBE with SHA1 and 40 Bit RC2 CBC

       PKCS#5 PBE ciphers
	   PKCS #5 Password Based Encryption with MD2 and DES CBC

	   o   PKCS #5 Password Based Encryption with MD5 and DES CBC

	   o   PKCS #5 Password Based Encryption with SHA1 and DES CBC

       With PKCS#12, the crypto provider may be the soft token module or an external hardware
       module. If the cryptographic module does not support the requested algorithm, then the
       next best fit will be selected (usually the default). If no suitable replacement for the
       desired algorithm can be found, the tool returns the error no security module can perform
       the requested operation.

NSS DATABASE TYPES
       NSS originally used BerkeleyDB databases to store security information. The last versions
       of these legacy databases are:

       o   cert8.db for certificates

       o   key3.db for keys

       o   secmod.db for PKCS #11 module information

       BerkeleyDB has performance limitations, though, which prevent it from being easily used by
       multiple applications simultaneously. NSS has some flexibility that allows applications to
       use their own, independent database engine while keeping a shared database and working
       around the access issues. Still, NSS requires more flexibility to provide a truly shared
       security database.

       In 2009, NSS introduced a new set of databases that are SQLite databases rather than
       BerkleyDB. These new databases provide more accessibility and performance:

       o   cert9.db for certificates

       o   key4.db for keys

       o   pkcs11.txt, which is listing of all of the PKCS #11 modules contained in a new
	   subdirectory in the security databases directory

       Because the SQLite databases are designed to be shared, these are the shared database
       type. The shared database type is preferred; the legacy format is included for backward
       compatibility.

       By default, the tools (certutil, pk12util, modutil) assume that the given security
       databases follow the more common legacy type. Using the SQLite databases must be manually
       specified by using the sql: prefix with the given security directory. For example:

	   # pk12util -i /tmp/cert-files/users.p12 -d sql:/home/my/sharednssdb

       To set the shared database type as the default type for the tools, set the
       NSS_DEFAULT_DB_TYPE environment variable to sql:

	   export NSS_DEFAULT_DB_TYPE="sql"

       This line can be set added to the ~/.bashrc file to make the change permanent.

       Most applications do not use the shared database by default, but they can be configured to
       use them. For example, this how-to article covers how to configure Firefox and Thunderbird
       to use the new shared NSS databases:

       o   https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB_Howto

       For an engineering draft on the changes in the shared NSS databases, see the NSS project
       wiki:

       o   https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB

SEE ALSO
       certutil (1)

       modutil (1)

       The NSS wiki has information on the new database design and how to configure applications
       to use it.

       o   https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB_Howto

       o   https://wiki.mozilla.org/NSS_Shared_DB

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES
       For information about NSS and other tools related to NSS (like JSS), check out the NSS
       project wiki at http://www.mozilla.org/projects/security/pki/nss/. The NSS site relates
       directly to NSS code changes and releases.

       Mailing lists: https://lists.mozilla.org/listinfo/dev-tech-crypto

       IRC: Freenode at #dogtag-pki

AUTHORS
       The NSS tools were written and maintained by developers with Netscape, Red Hat, Sun,
       Oracle, Mozilla, and Google.

       Authors: Elio Maldonado <emaldona@redhat.com>, Deon Lackey <dlackey@redhat.com>.

LICENSE
       Licensed under the Mozilla Public License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not
       distributed with this file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/.

NOTES
	1. Mozilla NSS bug 836477
	   https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/show_bug.cgi?id=836477

nss-tools				 12 November 2013			      PK12UTIL(1)
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