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PG_UPGRADE(1)			  PostgreSQL 9.2.7 Documentation		    PG_UPGRADE(1)

NAME
       pg_upgrade - upgrade a PostgreSQL server instance

SYNOPSIS
       pg_upgrade -b oldbindir -B newbindir -d olddatadir -D newdatadir [option...]

DESCRIPTION
       pg_upgrade (formerly called pg_migrator) allows data stored in PostgreSQL data files to be
       upgraded to a later PostgreSQL major version without the data dump/reload typically
       required for major version upgrades, e.g. from 8.4.7 to the current major release of
       PostgreSQL. It is not required for minor version upgrades, e.g. from 9.0.1 to 9.0.4.

       Major PostgreSQL releases regularly add new features that often change the layout of the
       system tables, but the internal data storage format rarely changes.  pg_upgrade uses this
       fact to perform rapid upgrades by creating new system tables and simply reusing the old
       user data files. If a future major release ever changes the data storage format in a way
       that makes the old data format unreadable, pg_upgrade will not be usable for such
       upgrades. (The community will attempt to avoid such situations.)

       pg_upgrade does its best to make sure the old and new clusters are binary-compatible, e.g.
       by checking for compatible compile-time settings, including 32/64-bit binaries. It is
       important that any external modules are also binary compatible, though this cannot be
       checked by pg_upgrade.

       pg_upgrade supports upgrades from 8.3.X and later to the current major release of
       PostgreSQL, including snapshot and alpha releases.

OPTIONS
       pg_upgrade accepts the following command-line arguments:

       -b old_bindir, --old-bindir=old_bindir
	   the old cluster executable directory; environment variable PGBINOLD

       -B new_bindir, --new-bindir=new_bindir
	   the new cluster executable directory; environment variable PGBINNEW

       -c, --check
	   check clusters only, don't change any data

       -d old_datadir, --old-datadir=old_datadir
	   the old cluster data directory; environment variable PGDATAOLD

       -D new_datadir, --new-datadir=new_datadir
	   the new cluster data directory; environment variable PGDATANEW

       -k, --link
	   use hard links instead of copying files to the new cluster

       -o options, --old-options options
	   options to be passed directly to the old postgres command

       -O options, --new-options options
	   options to be passed directly to the new postgres command

       -p old_port_number, --old-port=old_portnum
	   the old cluster port number; environment variable PGPORTOLD

       -P new_port_number, --new-port=new_portnum
	   the new cluster port number; environment variable PGPORTNEW

       -r, --retain
	   retain SQL and log files even after successful completion

       -u user_name, --user=user_name
	   cluster's super user name; environment variable PGUSER

       -v, --verbose
	   enable verbose internal logging

       -V, --version
	   display version information, then exit

       -?, -h, --help
	   show help, then exit

USAGE
       These are the steps to perform an upgrade with pg_upgrade:

	1. Optionally move the old cluster: If you are using a version-specific installation
	   directory, e.g.  /opt/PostgreSQL/9.1, you do not need to move the old cluster. The
	   graphical installers all use version-specific installation directories.

	   If your installation directory is not version-specific, e.g.  /usr/local/pgsql, it is
	   necessary to move the current PostgreSQL install directory so it does not interfere
	   with the new PostgreSQL installation. Once the current PostgreSQL server is shut down,
	   it is safe to rename the PostgreSQL installation directory; assuming the old directory
	   is /usr/local/pgsql, you can do:

	       mv /usr/local/pgsql /usr/local/pgsql.old

	   to rename the directory.

	2. For source installs, build the new version: Build the new PostgreSQL source with
	   configure flags that are compatible with the old cluster.  pg_upgrade will check
	   pg_controldata to make sure all settings are compatible before starting the upgrade.

	3. Install the new PostgreSQL binaries: Install the new server's binaries and support
	   files.

	   For source installs, if you wish to install the new server in a custom location, use
	   the prefix variable:

	       gmake prefix=/usr/local/pgsql.new install

	4. Install pg_upgrade and pg_upgrade_support: Install the pg_upgrade binary and
	   pg_upgrade_support library in the new PostgreSQL cluster.

	5. Initialize the new PostgreSQL cluster: Initialize the new cluster using initdb. Again,
	   use compatible initdb flags that match the old cluster. Many prebuilt installers do
	   this step automatically. There is no need to start the new cluster.

	6. Install custom shared object files: Install any custom shared object files (or DLLs)
	   used by the old cluster into the new cluster, e.g.  pgcrypto.so, whether they are from
	   contrib or some other source. Do not install the schema definitions, e.g.
	   pgcrypto.sql, because these will be upgraded from the old cluster.

	7. Adjust authentication: pg_upgrade will connect to the old and new servers several
	   times, so you might want to set authentication to trust or peer in pg_hba.conf, or if
	   using md5 authentication, use a ~/.pgpass file (see Section 31.15, "The Password
	   File", in the documentation).

	8. Stop both servers: Make sure both database servers are stopped using, on Unix, e.g.:

	       pg_ctl -D /opt/PostgreSQL/8.4 stop
	       pg_ctl -D /opt/PostgreSQL/9.0 stop

	   or on Windows, using the proper service names:

	       NET STOP postgresql-8.4
	       NET STOP postgresql-9.0

	   or

	       NET STOP pgsql-8.3  (PostgreSQL 8.3 and older used a different service name)

	9. Run pg_upgrade: Always run the pg_upgrade binary of the new server, not the old one.
	   pg_upgrade requires the specification of the old and new cluster's data and executable
	   (bin) directories. You can also specify user and port values, and whether you want the
	   data linked instead of copied (the default).

	   If you use link mode, the upgrade will be much faster (no file copying), but you will
	   not be able to access your old cluster once you start the new cluster after the
	   upgrade. Link mode also requires that the old and new cluster data directories be in
	   the same file system. See pg_upgrade --help for a full list of options.

	   For Windows users, you must be logged into an administrative account, and then start a
	   shell as the postgres user and set the proper path:

	       RUNAS /USER:postgres "CMD.EXE"
	       SET PATH=%PATH%;C:\Program Files\PostgreSQL\9.0\bin;

	   and then run pg_upgrade with quoted directories, e.g.:

	       pg_upgrade.exe
		       --old-datadir "C:/Program Files/PostgreSQL/8.4/data"
		       --new-datadir "C:/Program Files/PostgreSQL/9.0/data"
		       --old-bindir "C:/Program Files/PostgreSQL/8.4/bin"
		       --new-bindir "C:/Program Files/PostgreSQL/9.0/bin"

	   Once started, pg_upgrade will verify the two clusters are compatible and then do the
	   upgrade. You can use pg_upgrade --check to perform only the checks, even if the old
	   server is still running.  pg_upgrade --check will also outline any manual adjustments
	   you will need to make after the upgrade. If you are going to be using link mode, you
	   should use the --link option with --check to enable link-mode-specific checks.
	   pg_upgrade requires write permission in the current directory.

	   Obviously, no one should be accessing the clusters during the upgrade.  pg_upgrade
	   defaults to running servers on port 50432 to avoid unintended client connections. You
	   can use the same port number for both clusters when doing an upgrade because the old
	   and new clusters will not be running at the same time. However, when checking an old
	   running server, the old and new port numbers must be different.

	   If an error occurs while restoring the database schema, pg_upgrade will exit and you
	   will have to revert to the old cluster as outlined in Step 14 below. To try pg_upgrade
	   again, you will need to modify the old cluster so the pg_upgrade schema restore
	   succeeds. If the problem is a contrib module, you might need to uninstall the contrib
	   module from the old cluster and install it in the new cluster after the upgrade,
	   assuming the module is not being used to store user data.

	10. Restore pg_hba.conf: If you modified pg_hba.conf to use trust, restore its original
	   authentication settings. It might also be necessary to adjust other configurations
	   files in the new cluster to match the old cluster, e.g.  postgresql.conf.

	11. Post-Upgrade processing: If any post-upgrade processing is required, pg_upgrade will
	   issue warnings as it completes. It will also generate script files that must be run by
	   the administrator. The script files will connect to each database that needs
	   post-upgrade processing. Each script should be run using:

	       psql --username postgres --file script.sql postgres

	   The scripts can be run in any order and can be deleted once they have been run.

	       Caution
	       In general it is unsafe to access tables referenced in rebuild scripts until the
	       rebuild scripts have run to completion; doing so could yield incorrect results or
	       poor performance. Tables not referenced in rebuild scripts can be accessed
	       immediately.

	12. Statistics: Because optimizer statistics are not transferred by pg_upgrade, you will
	   be instructed to run a command to regenerate that information at the end of the
	   upgrade.

	13. Delete old cluster: Once you are satisfied with the upgrade, you can delete the old
	   cluster's data directories by running the script mentioned when pg_upgrade completes.
	   You can also delete the old installation directories (e.g.  bin, share).

	14. Reverting to old cluster: If, after running pg_upgrade, you wish to revert to the old
	   cluster, there are several options:

	   o   If you ran pg_upgrade with --check, no modifications were made to the old cluster
	       and you can re-use it anytime.

	   o   If you ran pg_upgrade with --link, the data files are shared between the old and
	       new cluster. If you started the new cluster, the new server has written to those
	       shared files and it is unsafe to use the old cluster.

	   o   If you ran pg_upgrade without --link or did not start the new server, the old
	       cluster was not modified except that, if linking started, a .old suffix was
	       appended to $PGDATA/global/pg_control. To reuse the old cluster, possibly remove
	       the .old suffix from $PGDATA/global/pg_control; you can then restart the old
	       cluster.

NOTES
       pg_upgrade does not support upgrading of databases containing these reg* OID-referencing
       system data types: regproc, regprocedure, regoper, regoperator, regconfig, and
       regdictionary. (regtype can be upgraded.)

       All failure, rebuild, and reindex cases will be reported by pg_upgrade if they affect your
       installation; post-upgrade scripts to rebuild tables and indexes will be generated
       automatically.

       For deployment testing, create a schema-only copy of the old cluster, insert dummy data,
       and upgrade that.

       If you are upgrading a pre-PostgreSQL 9.2 cluster that uses a configuration-file-only
       directory, you must pass the real data directory location to pg_upgrade, and pass the
       configuration directory location to the server, e.g.  -d /real-data-directory -o '-D
       /configuration-directory'.

       If using a pre-9.1 old server that is using a non-default Unix-domain socket directory or
       a default that differs from the default of the new cluster, set PGHOST to point to the old
       server's socket location. (This is not relevant on Windows.)

       A Log-Shipping Standby Server (Section 25.2, "Log-Shipping Standby Servers", in the
       documentation) cannot be upgraded because the server must allow writes. The simplest way
       is to upgrade the primary and use rsync to rebuild the standbys. You can run rsync while
       the primary is down, or as part of a base backup (Section 24.3.2, "Making a Base Backup",
       in the documentation) which overwrites the old standby cluster.

       If you want to use link mode and you do not want your old cluster to be modified when the
       new cluster is started, make a copy of the old cluster and upgrade that in link mode. To
       make a valid copy of the old cluster, use rsync to create a dirty copy of the old cluster
       while the server is running, then shut down the old server and run rsync again to update
       the copy with any changes to make it consistent. You might want to exclude some files,
       e.g.  postmaster.pid, as documented in Section 24.3.3, "Making a Base Backup Using the Low
       Level API", in the documentation.

   Limitations in Upgrading from PostgreSQL 8.3
       Upgrading from PostgreSQL 8.3 has additional restrictions not present when upgrading from
       later PostgreSQL releases. For example, pg_upgrade will not work for upgrading from 8.3 if
       a user column is defined as:

       o   a tsquery data type

       o   data type name and is not the first column

       You must drop any such columns and upgrade them manually.

       pg_upgrade will not work if the ltree contrib module is installed in a database.

       pg_upgrade will require a table rebuild if:

       o   a user column is of data type tsvector

       pg_upgrade will require a reindex if:

       o   an index is of type hash or GIN

       o   an index uses bpchar_pattern_ops

       Also, the default datetime storage format changed to integer after PostgreSQL 8.3.
       pg_upgrade will check that the datetime storage format used by the old and new clusters
       match. Make sure your new cluster is built with the configure flag
       --disable-integer-datetimes.

       For Windows users, note that due to different integer datetimes settings used by the
       graphical installer and the MSI installer, it is only possible to upgrade from version 8.3
       of the installer distribution to version 8.4 or later of the installer distribution. It is
       not possible to upgrade from the MSI installer to the new graphical installer.

SEE ALSO
       initdb(1), pg_ctl(1), pg_dump(1), postgres(1)

PostgreSQL 9.2.7			    2014-02-17				    PG_UPGRADE(1)
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