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PERLRUN(1)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		       PERLRUN(1)

       perlrun - how to execute the Perl interpreter

       perl [ -sTtuUWX ]      [ -hv ] [ -V[:configvar] ]
	    [ -cw ] [ -d[t][:debugger] ] [ -D[number/list] ]
	    [ -pna ] [ -Fpattern ] [ -l[octal] ] [ -0[octal/hexadecimal] ]
	    [ -Idir ] [ -m[-]module ] [ -M[-]'module...' ] [ -f ]      [ -C [number/list] ]
	    [ -S ]	[ -x[dir] ]	 [ -i[extension] ]
	    [ [-e|-E] 'command' ] [ -- ] [ programfile ] [ argument ]...

       The normal way to run a Perl program is by making it directly executable, or else by
       passing the name of the source file as an argument on the command line.	(An interactive
       Perl environment is also possible--see perldebug for details on how to do that.)  Upon
       startup, Perl looks for your program in one of the following places:

       1.  Specified line by line via -e or -E switches on the command line.

       2.  Contained in the file specified by the first filename on the command line.  (Note that
	   systems supporting the "#!" notation invoke interpreters this way. See "Location of

       3.  Passed in implicitly via standard input.  This works only if there are no filename
	   arguments--to pass arguments to a STDIN-read program you must explicitly specify a "-"
	   for the program name.

       With methods 2 and 3, Perl starts parsing the input file from the beginning, unless you've
       specified a -x switch, in which case it scans for the first line starting with "#!" and
       containing the word "perl", and starts there instead.  This is useful for running a
       program embedded in a larger message.  (In this case you would indicate the end of the
       program using the "__END__" token.)

       The "#!" line is always examined for switches as the line is being parsed.  Thus, if
       you're on a machine that allows only one argument with the "#!" line, or worse, doesn't
       even recognize the "#!" line, you still can get consistent switch behaviour regardless of
       how Perl was invoked, even if -x was used to find the beginning of the program.

       Because historically some operating systems silently chopped off kernel interpretation of
       the "#!" line after 32 characters, some switches may be passed in on the command line, and
       some may not; you could even get a "-" without its letter, if you're not careful.  You
       probably want to make sure that all your switches fall either before or after that
       32-character boundary.  Most switches don't actually care if they're processed
       redundantly, but getting a "-" instead of a complete switch could cause Perl to try to
       execute standard input instead of your program.	And a partial -I switch could also cause
       odd results.

       Some switches do care if they are processed twice, for instance combinations of -l and -0.
       Either put all the switches after the 32-character boundary (if applicable), or replace
       the use of -0digits by "BEGIN{ $/ = "\0digits"; }".

       Parsing of the "#!" switches starts wherever "perl" is mentioned in the line.  The
       sequences "-*" and "- " are specifically ignored so that you could, if you were so
       inclined, say

	   #! -*-perl-*-
	   eval 'exec perl -x -wS $0 ${1+"$@"}'
	       if 0;

       to let Perl see the -p switch.

       A similar trick involves the env program, if you have it.

	   #!/usr/bin/env perl

       The examples above use a relative path to the perl interpreter, getting whatever version
       is first in the user's path.  If you want a specific version of Perl, say, perl5.005_57,
       you should place that directly in the "#!" line's path.

       If the "#!" line does not contain the word "perl" nor the word "indir" the program named
       after the "#!" is executed instead of the Perl interpreter.  This is slightly bizarre, but
       it helps people on machines that don't do "#!", because they can tell a program that their
       SHELL is /usr/bin/perl, and Perl will then dispatch the program to the correct interpreter
       for them.

       After locating your program, Perl compiles the entire program to an internal form.  If
       there are any compilation errors, execution of the program is not attempted.  (This is
       unlike the typical shell script, which might run part-way through before finding a syntax

       If the program is syntactically correct, it is executed.  If the program runs off the end
       without hitting an exit() or die() operator, an implicit exit(0) is provided to indicate
       successful completion.

   #! and quoting on non-Unix systems
       Unix's "#!" technique can be simulated on other systems:


	       extproc perl -S -your_switches

	   as the first line in "*.cmd" file (-S due to a bug in cmd.exe's `extproc' handling).

	   Create a batch file to run your program, and codify it in "ALTERNATE_SHEBANG" (see the
	   dosish.h file in the source distribution for more information).

	   The Win95/NT installation, when using the ActiveState installer for Perl, will modify
	   the Registry to associate the .pl extension with the perl interpreter.  If you install
	   Perl by other means (including building from the sources), you may have to modify the
	   Registry yourself.  Note that this means you can no longer tell the difference between
	   an executable Perl program and a Perl library file.

       VMS Put

	    $ perl -mysw 'f$env("procedure")' 'p1' 'p2' 'p3' 'p4' 'p5' 'p6' 'p7' 'p8' !
	    $ exit++ + ++$status != 0 and $exit = $status = undef;

	   at the top of your program, where -mysw are any command line switches you want to pass
	   to Perl.  You can now invoke the program directly, by saying "perl program", or as a
	   DCL procedure, by saying @program (or implicitly via DCL$PATH by just using the name
	   of the program).

	   This incantation is a bit much to remember, but Perl will display it for you if you
	   say "perl "-V:startperl"".

       Command-interpreters on non-Unix systems have rather different ideas on quoting than Unix
       shells.	You'll need to learn the special characters in your command-interpreter ("*", "\"
       and """ are common) and how to protect whitespace and these characters to run one-liners
       (see -e below).

       On some systems, you may have to change single-quotes to double ones, which you must not
       do on Unix or Plan 9 systems.  You might also have to change a single % to a %%.

       For example:

	   # Unix
	   perl -e 'print "Hello world\n"'

	   # MS-DOS, etc.
	   perl -e "print \"Hello world\n\""

	   # VMS
	   perl -e "print ""Hello world\n"""

       The problem is that none of this is reliable: it depends on the command and it is entirely
       possible neither works.	If 4DOS were the command shell, this would probably work better:

	   perl -e "print <Ctrl-x>"Hello world\n<Ctrl-x>""

       CMD.EXE in Windows NT slipped a lot of standard Unix functionality in when nobody was
       looking, but just try to find documentation for its quoting rules.

       There is no general solution to all of this.  It's just a mess.

   Location of Perl
       It may seem obvious to say, but Perl is useful only when users can easily find it.  When
       possible, it's good for both /usr/bin/perl and /usr/local/bin/perl to be symlinks to the
       actual binary.  If that can't be done, system administrators are strongly encouraged to
       put (symlinks to) perl and its accompanying utilities into a directory typically found
       along a user's PATH, or in some other obvious and convenient place.

       In this documentation, "#!/usr/bin/perl" on the first line of the program will stand in
       for whatever method works on your system.  You are advised to use a specific path if you
       care about a specific version.


       or if you just want to be running at least version, place a statement like this at the top
       of your program:

	   use 5.005_54;

   Command Switches
       As with all standard commands, a single-character switch may be clustered with the
       following switch, if any.

	   #!/usr/bin/perl -spi.orig   # same as -s -p -i.orig

       Switches include:

	    specifies the input record separator ($/) as an octal or hexadecimal number.  If
	    there are no digits, the null character is the separator.  Other switches may precede
	    or follow the digits.  For example, if you have a version of find which can print
	    filenames terminated by the null character, you can say this:

		find . -name '*.orig' -print0 | perl -n0e unlink

	    The special value 00 will cause Perl to slurp files in paragraph mode.  Any value
	    0400 or above will cause Perl to slurp files whole, but by convention the value 0777
	    is the one normally used for this purpose.

	    You can also specify the separator character using hexadecimal notation: -0xHHH...,
	    where the "H" are valid hexadecimal digits.  Unlike the octal form, this one may be
	    used to specify any Unicode character, even those beyond 0xFF.  So if you really want
	    a record separator of 0777, specify it as -0x1FF.  (This means that you cannot use
	    the -x option with a directory name that consists of hexadecimal digits, or else Perl
	    will think you have specified a hex number to -0.)

       -a   turns on autosplit mode when used with a -n or -p.	An implicit split command to the
	    @F array is done as the first thing inside the implicit while loop produced by the -n
	    or -p.

		perl -ane 'print pop(@F), "\n";'

	    is equivalent to

		while (<>) {
		    @F = split(' ');
		    print pop(@F), "\n";

	    An alternate delimiter may be specified using -F.

       -C [number/list]
	    The -C flag controls some of the Perl Unicode features.

	    As of 5.8.1, the -C can be followed either by a number or a list of option letters.
	    The letters, their numeric values, and effects are as follows; listing the letters is
	    equal to summing the numbers.

		I     1   STDIN is assumed to be in UTF-8
		O     2   STDOUT will be in UTF-8
		E     4   STDERR will be in UTF-8
		S     7   I + O + E
		i     8   UTF-8 is the default PerlIO layer for input streams
		o    16   UTF-8 is the default PerlIO layer for output streams
		D    24   i + o
		A    32   the @ARGV elements are expected to be strings encoded
			  in UTF-8
		L    64   normally the "IOEioA" are unconditional, the L makes
			  them conditional on the locale environment variables
			  (the LC_ALL, LC_TYPE, and LANG, in the order of
			  decreasing precedence) -- if the variables indicate
			  UTF-8, then the selected "IOEioA" are in effect
		a   256   Set ${^UTF8CACHE} to -1, to run the UTF-8 caching
			  code in debugging mode.

	    For example, -COE and -C6 will both turn on UTF-8-ness on both STDOUT and STDERR.
	    Repeating letters is just redundant, not cumulative nor toggling.

	    The "io" options mean that any subsequent open() (or similar I/O operations) in the
	    current file scope will have the ":utf8" PerlIO layer implicitly applied to them, in
	    other words, UTF-8 is expected from any input stream, and UTF-8 is produced to any
	    output stream.  This is just the default, with explicit layers in open() and with
	    binmode() one can manipulate streams as usual.

	    -C on its own (not followed by any number or option list), or the empty string "" for
	    the "PERL_UNICODE" environment variable, has the same effect as -CSDL.  In other
	    words, the standard I/O handles and the default "open()" layer are UTF-8-fied but
	    only if the locale environment variables indicate a UTF-8 locale.  This behaviour
	    follows the implicit (and problematic) UTF-8 behaviour of Perl 5.8.0.  (See "UTF-8 no
	    longer default under UTF-8 locales" in perl581delta.)

	    You can use -C0 (or "0" for "PERL_UNICODE") to explicitly disable all the above
	    Unicode features.

	    The read-only magic variable "${^UNICODE}" reflects the numeric value of this
	    setting.  This variable is set during Perl startup and is thereafter read-only.  If
	    you want runtime effects, use the three-arg open() (see "open" in perlfunc), the two-
	    arg binmode() (see "binmode" in perlfunc), and the "open" pragma (see open).

	    (In Perls earlier than 5.8.1 the -C switch was a Win32-only switch that enabled the
	    use of Unicode-aware "wide system call" Win32 APIs.  This feature was practically
	    unused, however, and the command line switch was therefore "recycled".)

	    Note: Since perl 5.10.1, if the -C option is used on the "#!" line, it must be
	    specified on the command line as well, since the standard streams are already set up
	    at this point in the execution of the perl interpreter.  You can also use binmode()
	    to set the encoding of an I/O stream.

       -c   causes Perl to check the syntax of the program and then exit without executing it.
	    Actually, it will execute and "BEGIN", "UNITCHECK", or "CHECK" blocks and any "use"
	    statements: these are considered as occurring outside the execution of your program.
	    "INIT" and "END" blocks, however, will be skipped.

       -dt  runs the program under the Perl debugger.  See perldebug.  If t is specified, it
	    indicates to the debugger that threads will be used in the code being debugged.

	    runs the program under the control of a debugging, profiling, or tracing module
	    installed as "Devel::MOD". E.g., -d:DProf executes the program using the
	    "Devel::DProf" profiler.  As with the -M flag, options may be passed to the
	    "Devel::MOD" package where they will be received and interpreted by the
	    "Devel::MOD::import" routine.  Again, like -M, use --d:-MOD to call
	    "Devel::MOD::unimport" instead of import.  The comma-separated list of options must
	    follow a "=" character.  If t is specified, it indicates to the debugger that threads
	    will be used in the code being debugged.  See perldebug.

	    sets debugging flags.  To watch how it executes your program, use -Dtls.  (This works
	    only if debugging is compiled into your Perl.)  Another nice value is -Dx, which
	    lists your compiled syntax tree.  And -Dr displays compiled regular expressions; the
	    format of the output is explained in perldebguts.

	    As an alternative, specify a number instead of list of letters (e.g., -D14 is
	    equivalent to -Dtls):

		    1  p  Tokenizing and parsing (with v, displays parse stack)
		    2  s  Stack snapshots (with v, displays all stacks)
		    4  l  Context (loop) stack processing
		    8  t  Trace execution
		   16  o  Method and overloading resolution
		   32  c  String/numeric conversions
		   64  P  Print profiling info, source file input state
		  128  m  Memory and SV allocation
		  256  f  Format processing
		  512  r  Regular expression parsing and execution
		 1024  x  Syntax tree dump
		 2048  u  Tainting checks
		 4096  U  Unofficial, User hacking (reserved for private,
			  unreleased use)
		 8192  H  Hash dump -- usurps values()
		16384  X  Scratchpad allocation
		32768  D  Cleaning up
	       131072  T  Tokenizing
	       262144  R  Include reference counts of dumped variables (eg when
			  using -Ds)
	       524288  J  show s,t,P-debug (don't Jump over) on opcodes within
			  package DB
	      1048576  v  Verbose: use in conjunction with other flags
	      2097152  C  Copy On Write
	      4194304  A  Consistency checks on internal structures
	      8388608  q  quiet - currently only suppresses the "EXECUTING"
	     16777216  M  trace smart match resolution
	     33554432  B  dump suBroutine definitions, including special Blocks
			  like BEGIN

	    All these flags require -DDEBUGGING when you compile the Perl executable (but see
	    ":opd" in Devel::Peek or "'debug' mode" in re which may change this).  See the
	    INSTALL file in the Perl source distribution for how to do this.  This flag is
	    automatically set if you include -g option when "Configure" asks you about
	    optimizer/debugger flags.

	    If you're just trying to get a print out of each line of Perl code as it executes,
	    the way that "sh -x" provides for shell scripts, you can't use Perl's -D switch.
	    Instead do this

	      # If you have "env" utility
	      env PERLDB_OPTS="NonStop=1 AutoTrace=1 frame=2" perl -dS program

	      # Bourne shell syntax
	      $ PERLDB_OPTS="NonStop=1 AutoTrace=1 frame=2" perl -dS program

	      # csh syntax
	      % (setenv PERLDB_OPTS "NonStop=1 AutoTrace=1 frame=2"; perl -dS program)

	    See perldebug for details and variations.

       -e commandline
	    may be used to enter one line of program.  If -e is given, Perl will not look for a
	    filename in the argument list.  Multiple -e commands may be given to build up a
	    multi-line script.	Make sure to use semicolons where you would in a normal program.

       -E commandline
	    behaves just like -e, except that it implicitly enables all optional features (in the
	    main compilation unit). See feature.

       -f   Disable executing $Config{sitelib}/sitecustomize.pl at startup.

	    Perl can be built so that it by default will try to execute
	    $Config{sitelib}/sitecustomize.pl at startup (in a BEGIN block).  This is a hook that
	    allows the sysadmin to customize how Perl behaves.	It can for instance be used to
	    add entries to the @INC array to make Perl find modules in non-standard locations.

	    Perl actually inserts the following code:

		    do { local $!; -f "$Config{sitelib}/sitecustomize.pl"; }
			&& do "$Config{sitelib}/sitecustomize.pl";

	    Since it is an actual "do" (not a "require"), sitecustomize.pl doesn't need to return
	    a true value. The code is run in package "main", in its own lexical scope. However,
	    if the script dies, $@ will not be set.

	    The value of $Config{sitelib} is also determined in C code and not read from
	    "Config.pm", which is not loaded.

	    The code is executed very early. For example, any changes made to @INC will show up
	    in the output of `perl -V`. Of course, "END" blocks will be likewise executed very

	    To determine at runtime if this capability has been compiled in your perl, you can
	    check the value of $Config{usesitecustomize}.

	    specifies the pattern to split on if -a is also in effect.	The pattern may be
	    surrounded by "//", "", or '', otherwise it will be put in single quotes. You can't
	    use literal whitespace in the pattern.

       -h   prints a summary of the options.

	    specifies that files processed by the "<>" construct are to be edited in-place.  It
	    does this by renaming the input file, opening the output file by the original name,
	    and selecting that output file as the default for print() statements.  The extension,
	    if supplied, is used to modify the name of the old file to make a backup copy,
	    following these rules:

	    If no extension is supplied, no backup is made and the current file is overwritten.

	    If the extension doesn't contain a "*", then it is appended to the end of the current
	    filename as a suffix.  If the extension does contain one or more "*" characters, then
	    each "*" is replaced with the current filename.  In Perl terms, you could think of
	    this as:

		($backup = $extension) =~ s/\*/$file_name/g;

	    This allows you to add a prefix to the backup file, instead of (or in addition to) a

	     $ perl -pi'orig_*' -e 's/bar/baz/' fileA  # backup to
						       # 'orig_fileA'

	    Or even to place backup copies of the original files into another directory (provided
	    the directory already exists):

	     $ perl -pi'old/*.orig' -e 's/bar/baz/' fileA  # backup to
							   # 'old/fileA.orig'

	    These sets of one-liners are equivalent:

	     $ perl -pi -e 's/bar/baz/' fileA	       # overwrite current file
	     $ perl -pi'*' -e 's/bar/baz/' fileA       # overwrite current file

	     $ perl -pi'.orig' -e 's/bar/baz/' fileA   # backup to 'fileA.orig'
	     $ perl -pi'*.orig' -e 's/bar/baz/' fileA  # backup to 'fileA.orig'

	    From the shell, saying

		$ perl -p -i.orig -e "s/foo/bar/; ... "

	    is the same as using the program:

		#!/usr/bin/perl -pi.orig

	    which is equivalent to

		$extension = '.orig';
		LINE: while (<>) {
		    if ($ARGV ne $oldargv) {
			if ($extension !~ /\*/) {
			    $backup = $ARGV . $extension;
			else {
			    ($backup = $extension) =~ s/\*/$ARGV/g;
			rename($ARGV, $backup);
			open(ARGVOUT, ">$ARGV");
			$oldargv = $ARGV;
		continue {
		    print;  # this prints to original filename

	    except that the -i form doesn't need to compare $ARGV to $oldargv to know when the
	    filename has changed.  It does, however, use ARGVOUT for the selected filehandle.
	    Note that STDOUT is restored as the default output filehandle after the loop.

	    As shown above, Perl creates the backup file whether or not any output is actually
	    changed.  So this is just a fancy way to copy files:

		$ perl -p -i'/some/file/path/*' -e 1 file1 file2 file3...
		$ perl -p -i'.orig' -e 1 file1 file2 file3...

	    You can use "eof" without parentheses to locate the end of each input file, in case
	    you want to append to each file, or reset line numbering (see example in "eof" in

	    If, for a given file, Perl is unable to create the backup file as specified in the
	    extension then it will skip that file and continue on with the next one (if it

	    For a discussion of issues surrounding file permissions and -i, see "Why does Perl
	    let me delete read-only files?  Why does -i clobber protected files?  Isn't this a
	    bug in Perl?" in perlfaq5.

	    You cannot use -i to create directories or to strip extensions from files.

	    Perl does not expand "~" in filenames, which is good, since some folks use it for
	    their backup files:

		$ perl -pi~ -e 's/foo/bar/' file1 file2 file3...

	    Note that because -i renames or deletes the original file before creating a new file
	    of the same name, Unix-style soft and hard links will not be preserved.

	    Finally, the -i switch does not impede execution when no files are given on the
	    command line.  In this case, no backup is made (the original file cannot, of course,
	    be determined) and processing proceeds from STDIN to STDOUT as might be expected.

	    Directories specified by -I are prepended to the search path for modules (@INC).

	    enables automatic line-ending processing.  It has two separate effects.  First, it
	    automatically chomps $/ (the input record separator) when used with -n or -p.
	    Second, it assigns "$\" (the output record separator) to have the value of octnum so
	    that any print statements will have that separator added back on.  If octnum is
	    omitted, sets "$\" to the current value of $/.  For instance, to trim lines to 80

		perl -lpe 'substr($_, 80) = ""'

	    Note that the assignment "$\ = $/" is done when the switch is processed, so the input
	    record separator can be different than the output record separator if the -l switch
	    is followed by a -0 switch:

		gnufind / -print0 | perl -ln0e 'print "found $_" if -p'

	    This sets "$\" to newline and then sets $/ to the null character.

       -M[-]'module ...'
	    -mmodule executes "use" module "();" before executing your program.

	    -Mmodule executes "use" module ";" before executing your program.  You can use quotes
	    to add extra code after the module name, e.g., '-MMODULE qw(foo bar)'.

	    If the first character after the -M or -m is a dash (-) then the 'use' is replaced
	    with 'no'.

	    A little builtin syntactic sugar means you can also say -mMODULE=foo,bar or
	    -MMODULE=foo,bar as a shortcut for '-MMODULE qw(foo bar)'.	This avoids the need to
	    use quotes when importing symbols.	The actual code generated by -MMODULE=foo,bar is
	    "use module split(/,/,q{foo,bar})".  Note that the "=" form removes the distinction
	    between -m and -M.

	    A consequence of this is that -MMODULE=number never does a version check, unless
	    "MODULE::import()" itself is set up to do a version check, which could happen for
	    example if MODULE inherits from Exporter.

       -n   causes Perl to assume the following loop around your program, which makes it iterate
	    over filename arguments somewhat like sed -n or awk:

		while (<>) {
		    ... 	    # your program goes here

	    Note that the lines are not printed by default.  See "-p" to have lines printed.  If
	    a file named by an argument cannot be opened for some reason, Perl warns you about it
	    and moves on to the next file.

	    Also note that "<>" passes command line arguments to "open" in perlfunc, which
	    doesn't necessarily interpret them as file names.  See  perlop for possible security

	    Here is an efficient way to delete all files that haven't been modified for at least
	    a week:

		find . -mtime +7 -print | perl -nle unlink

	    This is faster than using the -exec switch of find because you don't have to start a
	    process on every filename found.  It does suffer from the bug of mishandling newlines
	    in pathnames, which you can fix if you follow the example under -0.

	    "BEGIN" and "END" blocks may be used to capture control before or after the implicit
	    program loop, just as in awk.

       -p   causes Perl to assume the following loop around your program, which makes it iterate
	    over filename arguments somewhat like sed:

		while (<>) {
		    ... 	    # your program goes here
		} continue {
		    print or die "-p destination: $!\n";

	    If a file named by an argument cannot be opened for some reason, Perl warns you about
	    it, and moves on to the next file.	Note that the lines are printed automatically.
	    An error occurring during printing is treated as fatal.  To suppress printing use the
	    -n switch.	A -p overrides a -n switch.

	    "BEGIN" and "END" blocks may be used to capture control before or after the implicit
	    loop, just as in awk.

       -s   enables rudimentary switch parsing for switches on the command line after the program
	    name but before any filename arguments (or before an argument of --).  Any switch
	    found there is removed from @ARGV and sets the corresponding variable in the Perl
	    program.  The following program prints "1" if the program is invoked with a -xyz
	    switch, and "abc" if it is invoked with -xyz=abc.

		#!/usr/bin/perl -s
		if ($xyz) { print "$xyz\n" }

	    Do note that a switch like --help creates the variable "${-help}", which is not
	    compliant with "use strict "refs"".  Also, when using this option on a script with
	    warnings enabled you may get a lot of spurious "used only once" warnings.

       -S   makes Perl use the PATH environment variable to search for the program unless the
	    name of the program contains path separators.

	    On some platforms, this also makes Perl append suffixes to the filename while
	    searching for it.  For example, on Win32 platforms, the ".bat" and ".cmd" suffixes
	    are appended if a lookup for the original name fails, and if the name does not
	    already end in one of those suffixes.  If your Perl was compiled with "DEBUGGING"
	    turned on, using the -Dp switch to Perl shows how the search progresses.

	    Typically this is used to emulate "#!" startup on platforms that don't support "#!".
	    It's also convenient when debugging a script that uses "#!", and is thus normally
	    found by the shell's $PATH search mechanism.

	    This example works on many platforms that have a shell compatible with Bourne shell:

		eval 'exec /usr/bin/perl -wS $0 ${1+"$@"}'
			if $running_under_some_shell;

	    The system ignores the first line and feeds the program to /bin/sh, which proceeds to
	    try to execute the Perl program as a shell script.	The shell executes the second
	    line as a normal shell command, and thus starts up the Perl interpreter.  On some
	    systems $0 doesn't always contain the full pathname, so the -S tells Perl to search
	    for the program if necessary.  After Perl locates the program, it parses the lines
	    and ignores them because the variable $running_under_some_shell is never true.  If
	    the program will be interpreted by csh, you will need to replace "${1+"$@"}" with $*,
	    even though that doesn't understand embedded spaces (and such) in the argument list.
	    To start up sh rather than csh, some systems may have to replace the "#!" line with a
	    line containing just a colon, which will be politely ignored by Perl.  Other systems
	    can't control that, and need a totally devious construct that will work under any of
	    csh, sh, or Perl, such as the following:

		    eval '(exit $?0)' && eval 'exec perl -wS $0 ${1+"$@"}'
		    & eval 'exec /usr/bin/perl -wS $0 $argv:q'
			    if $running_under_some_shell;

	    If the filename supplied contains directory separators (and so is an absolute or
	    relative pathname), and if that file is not found, platforms that append file
	    extensions will do so and try to look for the file with those extensions added, one
	    by one.

	    On DOS-like platforms, if the program does not contain directory separators, it will
	    first be searched for in the current directory before being searched for on the PATH.
	    On Unix platforms, the program will be searched for strictly on the PATH.

       -t   Like -T, but taint checks will issue warnings rather than fatal errors.  These
	    warnings can now be controlled normally with "no warnings qw(taint)".

	    Note: This is not a substitute for "-T"! This is meant to be used only as a temporary
	    development aid while securing legacy code: for real production code and for new
	    secure code written from scratch, always use the real -T.

       -T   turns on "taint" so you can test them.  Ordinarily these checks are done only when
	    running setuid or setgid.  It's a good idea to turn them on explicitly for programs
	    that run on behalf of someone else whom you might not necessarily trust, such as CGI
	    programs or any internet servers you might write in Perl.  See perlsec for details.
	    For security reasons, this option must be seen by Perl quite early; usually this
	    means it must appear early on the command line or in the "#!" line for systems which
	    support that construct.

       -u   This switch causes Perl to dump core after compiling your program.	You can then in
	    theory take this core dump and turn it into an executable file by using the undump
	    program (not supplied).  This speeds startup at the expense of some disk space (which
	    you can minimize by stripping the executable).  (Still, a "hello world" executable
	    comes out to about 200K on my machine.)  If you want to execute a portion of your
	    program before dumping, use the dump() operator instead.  Note: availability of
	    undump is platform specific and may not be available for a specific port of Perl.

       -U   allows Perl to do unsafe operations.  Currently the only "unsafe" operations are
	    attempting to unlink directories while running as superuser and running setuid
	    programs with fatal taint checks turned into warnings.  Note that warnings must be
	    enabled along with this option to actually generate the taint-check warnings.

       -v   prints the version and patchlevel of your perl executable.

       -V   prints summary of the major perl configuration values and the current values of @INC.

	    Prints to STDOUT the value of the named configuration variable(s), with multiples
	    when your "configvar" argument looks like a regex (has non-letters).  For example:

		$ perl -V:libc
		$ perl -V:lib.
		    libs='-lnsl -lgdbm -ldb -ldl -lm -lcrypt -lutil -lc';
		$ perl -V:lib.*
		    libpth='/usr/local/lib /lib /usr/lib';
		    libs='-lnsl -lgdbm -ldb -ldl -lm -lcrypt -lutil -lc';

	    Additionally, extra colons can be used to control formatting.  A trailing colon
	    suppresses the linefeed and terminator ";", allowing you to embed queries into shell
	    commands.  (mnemonic: PATH separator ":".)

		$ echo "compression-vars: " `perl -V:z.*: ` " are here !"
		compression-vars:  zcat='' zip='zip'  are here !

	    A leading colon removes the "name=" part of the response, this allows you to map to
	    the name you need.	(mnemonic: empty label)

		$ echo "goodvfork="`./perl -Ilib -V::usevfork`

	    Leading and trailing colons can be used together if you need positional parameter
	    values without the names.  Note that in the case below, the "PERL_API" params are
	    returned in alphabetical order.

		$ echo building_on `perl -V::osname: -V::PERL_API_.*:` now
		building_on 'linux' '5' '1' '9' now

       -w   prints warnings about dubious constructs, such as variable names mentioned only once
	    and scalar variables used before being set; redefined subroutines; references to
	    undefined filehandles; filehandles opened read-only that you are attempting to write
	    on; values used as a number that don't look like numbers; using an array as though it
	    were a scalar; if your subroutines recurse more than 100 deep; and innumerable other

	    This switch really just enables the global $^W variable; normally, the lexically
	    scoped "use warnings" pragma is preferred. You can disable or promote into fatal
	    errors specific warnings using "__WARN__" hooks, as described in perlvar and "warn"
	    in perlfunc.  See also perldiag and perltrap.  A fine-grained warning facility is
	    also available if you want to manipulate entire classes of warnings; see warnings or

       -W   Enables all warnings regardless of "no warnings" or $^W.  See perllexwarn.

       -X   Disables all warnings regardless of "use warnings" or $^W.	See perllexwarn.

	    tells Perl that the program is embedded in a larger chunk of unrelated text, such as
	    in a mail message.	Leading garbage will be discarded until the first line that
	    starts with "#!" and contains the string "perl".  Any meaningful switches on that
	    line will be applied.

	    All references to line numbers by the program (warnings, errors, ...)  will treat the
	    "#!" line as the first line.  Thus a warning on the 2nd line of the program, which is
	    on the 100th line in the file will be reported as line 2, not as line 100.	This can
	    be overridden by using the "#line" directive.  (See "Plain Old Comments (Not!)" in

	    If a directory name is specified, Perl will switch to that directory before running
	    the program.  The -x switch controls only the disposal of leading garbage.	The
	    program must be terminated with "__END__" if there is trailing garbage to be ignored;
	    the program can process any or all of the trailing garbage via the "DATA" filehandle
	    if desired.

	    The directory, if specified, must appear immediately following the -x with no
	    intervening whitespace.

       HOME	   Used if "chdir" has no argument.

       LOGDIR	   Used if "chdir" has no argument and HOME is not set.

       PATH	   Used in executing subprocesses, and in finding the program if -S is used.

       PERL5LIB    A list of directories in which to look for Perl library files before looking
		   in the standard library and the current directory.  Any architecture-specific
		   directories under the specified locations are automatically included if they
		   exist, with this lookup done at interpreter startup time.

		   If PERL5LIB is not defined, PERLLIB is used.  Directories are separated (like
		   in PATH) by a colon on Unixish platforms and by a semicolon on Windows (the
		   proper path separator being given by the command "perl -V:path_sep").

		   When running taint checks, either because the program was running setuid or
		   setgid, or the -T or -t switch was specified, neither PERL5LIB nor PERLLIB is
		   consulted. The program should instead say:

		       use lib "/my/directory";

       PERL5OPT    Command-line options (switches).  Switches in this variable are treated as if
		   they were on every Perl command line.  Only the -[CDIMUdmtwW] switches are
		   allowed.  When running taint checks (either because the program was running
		   setuid or setgid, or because the -T or -t switch was used), this variable is
		   ignored.  If PERL5OPT begins with - T, tainting will be enabled and subsequent
		   options ignored.  If PERL5OPT begins with -t, tainting will be enabled, a
		   writable dot removed from @INC, and subsequent options honored.

       PERLIO	   A space (or colon) separated list of PerlIO layers. If perl is built to use
		   PerlIO system for IO (the default) these layers affect Perl's IO.

		   It is conventional to start layer names with a colon (for example, ":perlio")
		   to emphasize their similarity to variable "attributes". But the code that
		   parses layer specification strings,	which is also used to decode the PERLIO
		   environment variable, treats the colon as a separator.

		   An unset or empty PERLIO is equivalent to the default set of layers for your
		   platform; for example, ":unix:perlio" on Unix-like systems and ":unix:crlf" on
		   Windows and other DOS-like systems.

		   The list becomes the default for all Perl's IO. Consequently only built-in
		   layers can appear in this list, as external layers (such as ":encoding()")
		   need IO in  order to load them!. See "open pragma" for how to add external
		   encodings as defaults.

		   Layers it makes sense to include in the PERLIO environment variable are
		   briefly summarized below. For more details see PerlIO.

		   :bytes  A pseudolayer that turns the ":utf8" flag off for the layer below;
			   unlikely to be useful on its own in the global PERLIO environment
			   variable.  You perhaps were thinking of ":crlf:bytes" or

		   :crlf   A layer which does CRLF to "\n" translation distinguishing "text" and
			   "binary" files in the manner of MS-DOS and similar operating systems.
			   (It currently does not mimic MS-DOS as far as treating of Control-Z as
			   being an end-of-file marker.)

		   :mmap   A layer that implements "reading" of files by using mmap(2) to make an
			   entire file appear in the process's address space, and then using that
			   as PerlIO's "buffer".

		   :perlio This is a re-implementation of stdio-like buffering written as a
			   PerlIO layer.  As such it will call whatever layer is below it for its
			   operations, typically ":unix".

		   :pop    An experimental pseudolayer that removes the topmost layer.	Use with
			   the same care as is reserved for nitroglycerine.

		   :raw    A pseudolayer that manipulates other layers.  Applying the ":raw"
			   layer is equivalent to calling "binmode($fh)".  It makes the stream
			   pass each byte as-is without translation.  In particular, both CRLF
			   translation and intuiting ":utf8" from the locale are disabled.

			   Unlike in earlier versions of Perl, ":raw" is not just the inverse of
			   ":crlf": other layers which would affect the binary nature of the
			   stream are also removed or disabled.

		   :stdio  This layer provides a PerlIO interface by wrapping system's ANSI C
			   "stdio" library calls. The layer provides both buffering and IO.  Note
			   that the ":stdio" layer does not do CRLF translation even if that is
			   the platform's normal behaviour. You will need a ":crlf" layer above
			   it to do that.

		   :unix   Low-level layer that calls "read", "write", "lseek", etc.

		   :utf8   A pseudolayer that enables a flag in the layer below to tell Perl that
			   output should be in utf8 and that input should be regarded as already
			   in valid utf8 form. WARNING: It does not check for validity and as
			   such should be handled with extreme caution for input, because
			   security violations can occur with non-shortest UTF-8 encodings, etc.
			   Generally ":encoding(utf8)" is the best option when reading UTF-8
			   encoded data.

		   :win32  On Win32 platforms this experimental layer uses native "handle" IO
			   rather than a Unix-like numeric file descriptor layer. Known to be
			   buggy in this release (5.14).

		   The default set of layers should give acceptable results on all platforms

		   For Unix platforms that will be the equivalent of "unix perlio" or "stdio".
		   Configure is set up to prefer the "stdio" implementation if the system's
		   library provides for fast access to the buffer; otherwise, it uses the "unix
		   perlio" implementation.

		   On Win32 the default in this release (5.14) is "unix crlf". Win32's "stdio"
		   has a number of bugs/mis-features for Perl IO which are somewhat depending on
		   the version and vendor of the C compiler. Using our own "crlf" layer as the
		   buffer avoids those issues and makes things more uniform.  The "crlf" layer
		   provides CRLF conversion as well as buffering.

		   This release (5.14) uses "unix" as the bottom layer on Win32, and so still
		   uses the C compiler's numeric file descriptor routines. There is an
		   experimental native "win32" layer, which is expected to be enhanced and should
		   eventually become the default under Win32.

		   The PERLIO environment variable is completely ignored when Perl is run in
		   taint mode.

		   If set to the name of a file or device, certain operations of PerlIO subsystem
		   will be logged to that file, which is opened in append mode Typical uses are
		   in Unix:

		      % env PERLIO_DEBUG=/dev/tty perl script ...

		   and under Win32, the approximately equivalent:

		      > set PERLIO_DEBUG=CON
		      perl script ...

		   This functionality is disabled for setuid scripts and for scripts run with -T.

       PERLLIB	   A list of directories in which to look for Perl library files before looking
		   in the standard library and the current directory.  If PERL5LIB is defined,
		   PERLLIB is not used.

		   The PERLLIB environment variable is completely ignored when Perl is run in
		   taint mode.

       PERL5DB	   The command used to load the debugger code.	The default is:

			   BEGIN { require "perl5db.pl" }

		   The PERL5DB environment variable is only used when Perl is started with a bare
		   -d switch.

		   If set to a true value, indicates to the debugger that the code being debugged
		   uses threads.

       PERL5SHELL (specific to the Win32 port)
		   On Win32 ports only, may be set to an alternative shell that Perl must use
		   internally for executing "backtick" commands or system().  Default is "cmd.exe
		   /x/d/c" on WindowsNT and "command.com /c" on Windows95.  The value is
		   considered space-separated.	Precede any character that needs to be protected,
		   like a space or backslash, with another backslash.

		   Note that Perl doesn't use COMSPEC for this purpose because COMSPEC has a high
		   degree of variability among users, leading to portability concerns.	Besides,
		   Perl can use a shell that may not be fit for interactive use, and setting
		   COMSPEC to such a shell may interfere with the proper functioning of other
		   programs (which usually look in COMSPEC to find a shell fit for interactive

		   Before Perl 5.10.0 and 5.8.8, PERL5SHELL was not taint checked when running
		   external commands.  It is recommended that you explicitly set (or delete)
		   $ENV{PERL5SHELL} when running in taint mode under Windows.

       PERL_ALLOW_NON_IFS_LSP (specific to the Win32 port)
		   Set to 1 to allow the use of non-IFS compatible LSPs (Layered Service
		   Providers).	Perl normally searches for an IFS-compatible LSP because this is
		   required for its emulation of Windows sockets as real filehandles.  However,
		   this may cause problems if you have a firewall such as McAfee Guardian, which
		   requires that all applications use its LSP but which is not IFS-compatible,
		   because clearly Perl will normally avoid using such an LSP.

		   Setting this environment variable to 1 means that Perl will simply use the
		   first suitable LSP enumerated in the catalog, which keeps McAfee Guardian
		   happy--and in that particular case Perl still works too because McAfee
		   Guardian's LSP actually plays other games which allow applications requiring
		   IFS compatibility to work.

		   Relevant only if Perl is compiled with the "malloc" included with the Perl
		   distribution; that is, if "perl -V:d_mymalloc" is "define".

		   If set, this dumps out memory statistics after execution.  If set to an
		   integer greater than one, also dumps out memory statistics after compilation.

		   Relevant only if your Perl executable was built with -DDEBUGGING, this
		   controls the behaviour of global destruction of objects and other references.
		   See "PERL_DESTRUCT_LEVEL" in perlhacktips for more information.

		   Set to "1" to have Perl resolve all undefined symbols when it loads a dynamic
		   library.  The default behaviour is to resolve symbols when they are used.
		   Setting this variable is useful during testing of extensions, as it ensures
		   that you get an error on misspelled function names even if the test suite
		   doesn't call them.

		   If using the "use encoding" pragma without an explicit encoding name, the
		   PERL_ENCODING environment variable is consulted for an encoding name.

		   (Since Perl 5.8.1.)	Used to randomize Perl's internal hash function.  To
		   emulate the pre-5.8.1 behaviour, set to an integer; "0" means exactly the same
		   order as in 5.8.0.  "Pre-5.8.1" means, among other things, that hash keys will
		   always have the same ordering between different runs of Perl.

		   Most hashes by default return elements in the same order as in Perl 5.8.0.  On
		   a hash by hash basis, if pathological data is detected during a hash key
		   insertion, then that hash will switch to an alternative random hash seed.

		   The default behaviour is to randomize unless the PERL_HASH_SEED is set.  If
		   Perl has been compiled with -DUSE_HASH_SEED_EXPLICIT, the default behaviour is
		   not to randomize unless the PERL_HASH_SEED is set.

		   If PERL_HASH_SEED is unset or set to a non-numeric string, Perl uses the
		   pseudorandom seed supplied by the operating system and libraries.

		   PLEASE NOTE: The hash seed is sensitive information. Hashes are randomized to
		   protect against local and remote attacks against Perl code. By manually
		   setting a seed, this protection may be partially or completely lost.

		   See "Algorithmic Complexity Attacks" in perlsec and "PERL_HASH_SEED_DEBUG" for
		   more information.

		   (Since Perl 5.8.1.)	Set to "1" to display (to STDERR) the value of the hash
		   seed at the beginning of execution.	This, combined with "PERL_HASH_SEED" is
		   intended to aid in debugging nondeterministic behaviour caused by hash

		   Note that the hash seed is sensitive information: by knowing it, one can craft
		   a denial-of-service attack against Perl code, even remotely; see "Algorithmic
		   Complexity Attacks" in perlsec for more information.  Do not disclose the hash
		   seed to people who don't need to know it.  See also hash_seed() in Hash::Util.

		   If your Perl was configured with -Accflags=-DPERL_MEM_LOG, setting the
		   environment variable "PERL_MEM_LOG" enables logging debug messages. The value
		   has the form "<number>[m][s][t]", where "number" is the file descriptor number
		   you want to write to (2 is default), and the combination of letters specifies
		   that you want information about (m)emory and/or (s)v, optionally with
		   (t)imestamps. For example, "PERL_MEM_LOG=1mst" logs all information to stdout.
		   You can write to other opened file descriptors in a variety of ways:

		     $ 3>foo3 PERL_MEM_LOG=3m perl ...

       PERL_ROOT (specific to the VMS port)
		   A translation-concealed rooted logical name that contains Perl and the logical
		   device for the @INC path on VMS only.  Other logical names that affect Perl on
		   optional and discussed further in perlvms and in README.vms in the Perl source

		   Available in Perls 5.8.1 and later.	If set to "unsafe", the pre-Perl-5.8.0
		   signal behaviour (which is immediate but unsafe) is restored.  If set to
		   "safe", then safe (but deferred) signals are used.  See "Deferred Signals
		   (Safe Signals)" in perlipc.

		   Equivalent to the -C command-line switch.  Note that this is not a boolean
		   variable. Setting this to "1" is not the right way to "enable Unicode"
		   (whatever that would mean).	You can use "0" to "disable Unicode", though (or
		   alternatively unset PERL_UNICODE in your shell before starting Perl).  See the
		   description of the -C switch for more information.

       SYS$LOGIN (specific to the VMS port)
		   Used if chdir has no argument and HOME and LOGDIR are not set.

       Perl also has environment variables that control how Perl handles data specific to
       particular natural languages; see perllocale.

       Perl and its various modules and components, including its test frameworks, may sometimes
       make use of certain other environment variables.  Some of these are specific to a
       particular platform.  Please consult the appropriate module documentation and any
       documentation for your platform (like perlsolaris, perllinux, perlmacosx, perlwin32, etc)
       for variables peculiar to those specific situations.

       Perl makes all environment variables available to the program being executed, and passes
       these along to any child processes it starts.  However, programs running setuid would do
       well to execute the following lines before doing anything else, just to keep people

	   $ENV{PATH}  = "/bin:/usr/bin";    # or whatever you need
	   $ENV{SHELL} = "/bin/sh" if exists $ENV{SHELL};
	   delete @ENV{qw(IFS CDPATH ENV BASH_ENV)};

perl v5.16.3				    2013-03-04				       PERLRUN(1)

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