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PERLMODINSTALL(1)		 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		PERLMODINSTALL(1)

       perlmodinstall - Installing CPAN Modules

       You can think of a module as the fundamental unit of reusable Perl code; see perlmod for
       details.  Whenever anyone creates a chunk of Perl code that they think will be useful to
       the world, they register as a Perl developer at http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html
       so that they can then upload their code to the CPAN.  The CPAN is the Comprehensive Perl
       Archive Network and can be accessed at http://www.cpan.org/ , and searched at
       http://search.cpan.org/ .

       This documentation is for people who want to download CPAN modules and install them on
       their own computer.

       First, are you sure that the module isn't already on your system?  Try "perl -MFoo -e 1".
       (Replace "Foo" with the name of the module; for instance, "perl -MCGI::Carp -e 1".

       If you don't see an error message, you have the module.	(If you do see an error message,
       it's still possible you have the module, but that it's not in your path, which you can
       display with "perl -e "print qq(@INC)"".)  For the remainder of this document, we'll
       assume that you really honestly truly lack an installed module, but have found it on the

       So now you have a file ending in .tar.gz (or, less often, .zip).  You know there's a tasty
       module inside.  There are four steps you must now take:

       DECOMPRESS the file
       UNPACK the file into a directory
       BUILD the module (sometimes unnecessary)
       INSTALL the module.

       Here's how to perform each step for each operating system.  This is <not> a substitute for
       reading the README and INSTALL files that might have come with your module!

       Also note that these instructions are tailored for installing the module into your
       system's repository of Perl modules, but you can install modules into any directory you
       wish.  For instance, where I say "perl Makefile.PL", you can substitute "perl Makefile.PL
       PREFIX=/my/perl_directory" to install the modules into "/my/perl_directory".  Then you can
       use the modules from your Perl programs with "use lib "/my/perl_directory/lib/site_perl";"
       or sometimes just "use "/my/perl_directory";".  If you're on a system that requires
       superuser/root access to install modules into the directories you see when you type "perl
       -e "print qq(@INC)"", you'll want to install them into a local directory (such as your
       home directory) and use this approach.

       o   If you're on a Unix or Unix-like system,

	   You can use Andreas Koenig's CPAN module ( http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/CPAN
	   ) to automate the following steps, from DECOMPRESS through INSTALL.


	   Decompress the file with "gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz"

	   You can get gzip from ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/

	   Or, you can combine this step with the next to save disk space:

		gzip -dc yourmodule.tar.gz | tar -xof -


	   Unpack the result with "tar -xof yourmodule.tar"

	   C. BUILD

	   Go into the newly-created directory and type:

		 perl Makefile.PL
		 make test


		 perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/my/perl_directory

	   to install it locally.  (Remember that if you do this, you'll have to put "use lib
	   "/my/perl_directory";" near the top of the program that is to use this module.


	   While still in that directory, type:

		 make install

	   Make sure you have the appropriate permissions to install the module in your Perl 5
	   library directory.  Often, you'll need to be root.

	   That's all you need to do on Unix systems with dynamic linking.  Most Unix systems
	   have dynamic linking. If yours doesn't, or if for another reason you have a
	   statically-linked perl, and the module requires compilation, you'll need to build a
	   new Perl binary that includes the module.  Again, you'll probably need to be root.

       o   If you're running ActivePerl (Win95/98/2K/NT/XP, Linux, Solaris)

	   First, type "ppm" from a shell and see whether ActiveState's PPM repository has your
	   module.  If so, you can install it with "ppm" and you won't have to bother with any of
	   the other steps here.  You might be able to use the CPAN instructions from the "Unix
	   or Linux" section above as well; give it a try.  Otherwise, you'll have to follow the
	   steps below.


	   You can use the shareware Winzip ( http://www.winzip.com ) to decompress and unpack

	      B. UNPACK

	   If you used WinZip, this was already done for you.

	      C. BUILD

	   You'll need the "nmake" utility, available at
	   http://download.microsoft.com/download/vc15/Patch/1.52/W95/EN-US/nmake15.exe or dmake,
	   available on CPAN.  http://search.cpan.org/dist/dmake/

	   Does the module require compilation (i.e. does it have files that end in .xs, .c, .h,
	   .y, .cc, .cxx, or .C)?  If it does, life is now officially tough for you, because you
	   have to compile the module yourself (no easy feat on Windows).  You'll need a compiler
	   such as Visual C++.	Alternatively, you can download a pre-built PPM package from
	   ActiveState.  http://aspn.activestate.com/ASPN/Downloads/ActivePerl/PPM/

	   Go into the newly-created directory and type:

		 perl Makefile.PL
		 nmake test

	      D. INSTALL

	   While still in that directory, type:

		 nmake install

       o   If you're using a Macintosh with "Classic" MacOS and MacPerl,


	   First, make sure you have the latest cpan-mac distribution (
	   http://www.cpan.org/authors/id/CNANDOR/ ), which has utilities for doing all of the
	   steps.  Read the cpan-mac directions carefully and install it.  If you choose not to
	   use cpan-mac for some reason, there are alternatives listed here.

	   After installing cpan-mac, drop the module archive on the untarzipme droplet, which
	   will decompress and unpack for you.

	   Or, you can either use the shareware StuffIt Expander program (
	   http://my.smithmicro.com/mac/stuffit/ ) or the freeware MacGzip program (
	   http://persephone.cps.unizar.es/general/gente/spd/gzip/gzip.html ).


	   If you're using untarzipme or StuffIt, the archive should be extracted now.	Or, you
	   can use the freeware suntar or Tar (
	   http://hyperarchive.lcs.mit.edu/HyperArchive/Archive/cmp/ ).

	   C. BUILD

	   Check the contents of the distribution.  Read the module's documentation, looking for
	   reasons why you might have trouble using it with MacPerl.  Look for .xs and .c files,
	   which normally denote that the distribution must be compiled, and you cannot install
	   it "out of the box."  (See "PORTABILITY".)


	   If you are using cpan-mac, just drop the folder on the installme droplet, and use the

	   Or, if you aren't using cpan-mac, do some manual labor.

	   Make sure the newlines for the modules are in Mac format, not Unix format.  If they
	   are not then you might have decompressed them incorrectly.  Check your decompression
	   and unpacking utilities settings to make sure they are translating text files

	   As a last resort, you can use the perl one-liner:

	       perl -i.bak -pe 's/(?:\015)?\012/\015/g' <filenames>

	   on the source files.

	   Then move the files (probably just the .pm files, though there may be some additional
	   ones, too; check the module documentation) to their final destination: This will most
	   likely be in "$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:" (i.e., "HD:MacPerl folder:site_lib:").  You can
	   add new paths to the default @INC in the Preferences menu item in the MacPerl
	   application ("$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:" is added automagically).  Create whatever
	   directory structures are required (i.e., for "Some::Module", create
	   "$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:Some:" and put "Module.pm" in that directory).

	   Then run the following script (or something like it):

		#!perl -w
		use AutoSplit;
		my $dir = "${MACPERL}site_perl";
		autosplit("$dir:Some:Module.pm", "$dir:auto", 0, 1, 1);

       o   If you're on the DJGPP port of DOS,


	   djtarx ( ftp://ftp.delorie.com/pub/djgpp/current/v2/ ) will both uncompress and

	      B. UNPACK

	   See above.

	      C. BUILD

	   Go into the newly-created directory and type:

		 perl Makefile.PL
		 make test

	   You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in the Perl distribution.

	      D. INSTALL

	   While still in that directory, type:

		make install

	   You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in the Perl distribution.

       o   If you're on OS/2,

	   Get the EMX development suite and gzip/tar, from either Hobbes (
	   http://hobbes.nmsu.edu ) or Leo ( http://www.leo.org ), and then follow the
	   instructions for Unix.

       o   If you're on VMS,

	   When downloading from CPAN, save your file with a ".tgz" extension instead of
	   ".tar.gz".  All other periods in the filename should be replaced with underscores.
	   For example, "Your-Module-1.33.tar.gz" should be downloaded as "Your-Module-1_33.tgz".



	       gzip -d Your-Module.tgz

	   or, for zipped modules, type

	       unzip Your-Module.zip

	   Executables for gzip, zip, and VMStar:


	   and their source code:


	   Note that GNU's gzip/gunzip is not the same as Info-ZIP's zip/unzip package.  The
	   former is a simple compression tool; the latter permits creation of multi-file


	   If you're using VMStar:

		VMStar xf Your-Module.tar

	   Or, if you're fond of VMS command syntax:

		tar/extract/verbose Your_Module.tar

	   C. BUILD

	   Make sure you have MMS (from Digital) or the freeware MMK ( available from MadGoat at
	   http://www.madgoat.com ).  Then type this to create the DESCRIP.MMS for the module:

	       perl Makefile.PL

	   Now you're ready to build:

	       mms test

	   Substitute "mmk" for "mms" above if you're using MMK.



	       mms install

	   Substitute "mmk" for "mms" above if you're using MMK.

       o   If you're on MVS,

	   Introduce the .tar.gz file into an HFS as binary; don't translate from ASCII to


	   Decompress the file with "gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz"

	   You can get gzip from http://www.s390.ibm.com/products/oe/bpxqp1.html


	   Unpack the result with

		pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < yourmodule.tar

	   The BUILD and INSTALL steps are identical to those for Unix.  Some modules generate
	   Makefiles that work better with GNU make, which is available from

       Note that not all modules will work with on all platforms.  See perlport for more
       information on portability issues.  Read the documentation to see if the module will work
       on your system.	There are basically three categories of modules that will not work "out
       of the box" with all platforms (with some possibility of overlap):

       o   Those that should, but don't.  These need to be fixed; consider contacting the author
	   and possibly writing a patch.

       o   Those that need to be compiled, where the target platform doesn't have compilers
	   readily available.  (These modules contain .xs or .c files, usually.)  You might be
	   able to find existing binaries on the CPAN or elsewhere, or you might want to try
	   getting compilers and building it yourself, and then release the binary for other poor
	   souls to use.

       o   Those that are targeted at a specific platform.  (Such as the Win32:: modules.)  If
	   the module is targeted specifically at a platform other than yours, you're out of
	   luck, most likely.

       Check the CPAN Testers if a module should work with your platform but it doesn't behave as
       you'd expect, or you aren't sure whether or not a module will work under your platform.
       If the module you want isn't listed there, you can test it yourself and let CPAN Testers
       know, you can join CPAN Testers, or you can request it be tested.


       If you have any suggested changes for this page, let me know.  Please don't send me mail
       asking for help on how to install your modules.	There are too many modules, and too few
       Orwants, for me to be able to answer or even acknowledge all your questions.  Contact the
       module author instead, or post to comp.lang.perl.modules, or ask someone familiar with
       Perl on your operating system.

       Jon Orwant


       with invaluable help from Chris Nandor, and valuable help from Brandon Allbery, Charles
       Bailey, Graham Barr, Dominic Dunlop, Jarkko Hietaniemi, Ben Holzman, Tom Horsley, Nick
       Ing-Simmons, Tuomas J. Lukka, Laszlo Molnar, Alan Olsen, Peter Prymmer, Gurusamy Sarathy,
       Christoph Spalinger, Dan Sugalski, Larry Virden, and Ilya Zakharevich.

       First version July 22, 1998; last revised November 21, 2001.

       Copyright (C) 1998, 2002, 2003 Jon Orwant.  All Rights Reserved.

       This document may be distributed under the same terms as Perl itself.

perl v5.16.3				    2013-03-04				PERLMODINSTALL(1)
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