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PERLFORM(1)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		      PERLFORM(1)

NAME
       perlform - Perl formats

DESCRIPTION
       Perl has a mechanism to help you generate simple reports and charts.  To facilitate this,
       Perl helps you code up your output page close to how it will look when it's printed.  It
       can keep track of things like how many lines are on a page, what page you're on, when to
       print page headers, etc.  Keywords are borrowed from FORTRAN: format() to declare and
       write() to execute; see their entries in perlfunc.  Fortunately, the layout is much more
       legible, more like BASIC's PRINT USING statement.  Think of it as a poor man's nroff(1).

       Formats, like packages and subroutines, are declared rather than executed, so they may
       occur at any point in your program.  (Usually it's best to keep them all together though.)
       They have their own namespace apart from all the other "types" in Perl.	This means that
       if you have a function named "Foo", it is not the same thing as having a format named
       "Foo".  However, the default name for the format associated with a given filehandle is the
       same as the name of the filehandle.  Thus, the default format for STDOUT is named
       "STDOUT", and the default format for filehandle TEMP is named "TEMP".  They just look the
       same.  They aren't.

       Output record formats are declared as follows:

	   format NAME =
	   FORMLIST
	   .

       If the name is omitted, format "STDOUT" is defined. A single "." in column 1 is used to
       terminate a format.  FORMLIST consists of a sequence of lines, each of which may be one of
       three types:

       1.  A comment, indicated by putting a '#' in the first column.

       2.  A "picture" line giving the format for one output line.

       3.  An argument line supplying values to plug into the previous picture line.

       Picture lines contain output field definitions, intermingled with literal text. These
       lines do not undergo any kind of variable interpolation.  Field definitions are made up
       from a set of characters, for starting and extending a field to its desired width. This is
       the complete set of characters for field definitions:

	  @    start of regular field
	  ^    start of special field
	  <    pad character for left justification
	  |    pad character for centering
	  >    pad character for right justification
	  #    pad character for a right-justified numeric field
	  0    instead of first #: pad number with leading zeroes
	  .    decimal point within a numeric field
	  ...  terminate a text field, show "..." as truncation evidence
	  @*   variable width field for a multi-line value
	  ^*   variable width field for next line of a multi-line value
	  ~    suppress line with all fields empty
	  ~~   repeat line until all fields are exhausted

       Each field in a picture line starts with either "@" (at) or "^" (caret), indicating what
       we'll call, respectively, a "regular" or "special" field.  The choice of pad characters
       determines whether a field is textual or numeric. The tilde operators are not part of a
       field.  Let's look at the various possibilities in detail.

   Text Fields
       The length of the field is supplied by padding out the field with multiple "<", ">", or
       "|" characters to specify a non-numeric field with, respectively, left justification,
       right justification, or centering.  For a regular field, the value (up to the first
       newline) is taken and printed according to the selected justification, truncating excess
       characters.  If you terminate a text field with "...", three dots will be shown if the
       value is truncated. A special text field may be used to do rudimentary multi-line text
       block filling; see "Using Fill Mode" for details.

	  Example:
	     format STDOUT =
	     @<<<<<<   @||||||	 @>>>>>>
	     "left",   "middle", "right"
	     .
	  Output:
	     left      middle	 right

   Numeric Fields
       Using "#" as a padding character specifies a numeric field, with right justification. An
       optional "." defines the position of the decimal point. With a "0" (zero) instead of the
       first "#", the formatted number will be padded with leading zeroes if necessary.  A
       special numeric field is blanked out if the value is undefined.	If the resulting value
       would exceed the width specified the field is filled with "#" as overflow evidence.

	  Example:
	     format STDOUT =
	     @###   @.###   @##.###  @###   @###   ^####
	      42,   3.1415,  undef,    0, 10000,   undef
	     .
	  Output:
	       42   3.142     0.000	0   ####

   The Field @* for Variable-Width Multi-Line Text
       The field "@*" can be used for printing multi-line, nontruncated values; it should (but
       need not) appear by itself on a line. A final line feed is chomped off, but all other
       characters are emitted verbatim.

   The Field ^* for Variable-Width One-line-at-a-time Text
       Like "@*", this is a variable-width field. The value supplied must be a scalar variable.
       Perl puts the first line (up to the first "\n") of the text into the field, and then chops
       off the front of the string so that the next time the variable is referenced, more of the
       text can be printed.  The variable will not be restored.

	  Example:
	     $text = "line 1\nline 2\nline 3";
	     format STDOUT =
	     Text: ^*
		   $text
	     ~~    ^*
		   $text
	     .
	  Output:
	     Text: line 1
		   line 2
		   line 3

   Specifying Values
       The values are specified on the following format line in the same order as the picture
       fields.	The expressions providing the values must be separated by commas.  They are all
       evaluated in a list context before the line is processed, so a single list expression
       could produce multiple list elements.  The expressions may be spread out to more than one
       line if enclosed in braces.  If so, the opening brace must be the first token on the first
       line.  If an expression evaluates to a number with a decimal part, and if the
       corresponding picture specifies that the decimal part should appear in the output (that
       is, any picture except multiple "#" characters without an embedded "."), the character
       used for the decimal point is determined by the current LC_NUMERIC locale if "use locale"
       is in effect.  This means that, if, for example, the run-time environment happens to
       specify a German locale, "," will be used instead of the default ".".  See perllocale and
       "WARNINGS" for more information.

   Using Fill Mode
       On text fields the caret enables a kind of fill mode.  Instead of an arbitrary expression,
       the value supplied must be a scalar variable that contains a text string.  Perl puts the
       next portion of the text into the field, and then chops off the front of the string so
       that the next time the variable is referenced, more of the text can be printed.	(Yes,
       this means that the variable itself is altered during execution of the write() call, and
       is not restored.)  The next portion of text is determined by a crude line-breaking
       algorithm. You may use the carriage return character ("\r") to force a line break. You can
       change which characters are legal to break on by changing the variable $: (that's
       $FORMAT_LINE_BREAK_CHARACTERS if you're using the English module) to a list of the desired
       characters.

       Normally you would use a sequence of fields in a vertical stack associated with the same
       scalar variable to print out a block of text. You might wish to end the final field with
       the text "...", which will appear in the output if the text was too long to appear in its
       entirety.

   Suppressing Lines Where All Fields Are Void
       Using caret fields can produce lines where all fields are blank. You can suppress such
       lines by putting a "~" (tilde) character anywhere in the line.  The tilde will be
       translated to a space upon output.

   Repeating Format Lines
       If you put two contiguous tilde characters "~~" anywhere into a line, the line will be
       repeated until all the fields on the line are exhausted, i.e. undefined. For special
       (caret) text fields this will occur sooner or later, but if you use a text field of the at
       variety, the  expression you supply had better not give the same value every time forever!
       ("shift(@f)" is a simple example that would work.)  Don't use a regular (at) numeric field
       in such lines, because it will never go blank.

   Top of Form Processing
       Top-of-form processing is by default handled by a format with the same name as the current
       filehandle with "_TOP" concatenated to it.  It's triggered at the top of each page.  See
       "write" in perlfunc.

       Examples:

	# a report on the /etc/passwd file
	format STDOUT_TOP =
				Passwd File
	Name		    Login    Office   Uid   Gid Home
	------------------------------------------------------------------
	.
	format STDOUT =
	@<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< @||||||| @<<<<<<@>>>> @>>>> @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
	$name,		    $login,  $office,$uid,$gid, $home
	.

	# a report from a bug report form
	format STDOUT_TOP =
				Bug Reports
	@<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<     @|||	  @>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
	$system,		      $%,	  $date
	------------------------------------------------------------------
	.
	format STDOUT =
	Subject: @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
		 $subject
	Index: @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< ^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
	       $index,			     $description
	Priority: @<<<<<<<<<< Date: @<<<<<<< ^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
		  $priority,	    $date,   $description
	From: @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< ^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
	      $from,			     $description
	Assigned to: @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< ^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
		     $programmer,	     $description
	~				     ^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
					     $description
	~				     ^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
					     $description
	~				     ^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
					     $description
	~				     ^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
					     $description
	~				     ^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<...
					     $description
	.

       It is possible to intermix print()s with write()s on the same output channel, but you'll
       have to handle "$-" ($FORMAT_LINES_LEFT) yourself.

   Format Variables
       The current format name is stored in the variable $~ ($FORMAT_NAME), and the current top
       of form format name is in $^ ($FORMAT_TOP_NAME).  The current output page number is stored
       in $% ($FORMAT_PAGE_NUMBER), and the number of lines on the page is in $=
       ($FORMAT_LINES_PER_PAGE).  Whether to autoflush output on this handle is stored in $|
       ($OUTPUT_AUTOFLUSH).  The string output before each top of page (except the first) is
       stored in $^L ($FORMAT_FORMFEED).  These variables are set on a per-filehandle basis, so
       you'll need to select() into a different one to affect them:

	   select((select(OUTF),
		   $~ = "My_Other_Format",
		   $^ = "My_Top_Format"
		  )[0]);

       Pretty ugly, eh?  It's a common idiom though, so don't be too surprised when you see it.
       You can at least use a temporary variable to hold the previous filehandle: (this is a much
       better approach in general, because not only does legibility improve, you now have an
       intermediary stage in the expression to single-step the debugger through):

	   $ofh = select(OUTF);
	   $~ = "My_Other_Format";
	   $^ = "My_Top_Format";
	   select($ofh);

       If you use the English module, you can even read the variable names:

	   use English '-no_match_vars';
	   $ofh = select(OUTF);
	   $FORMAT_NAME     = "My_Other_Format";
	   $FORMAT_TOP_NAME = "My_Top_Format";
	   select($ofh);

       But you still have those funny select()s.  So just use the FileHandle module.  Now, you
       can access these special variables using lowercase method names instead:

	   use FileHandle;
	   format_name	   OUTF "My_Other_Format";
	   format_top_name OUTF "My_Top_Format";

       Much better!

NOTES
       Because the values line may contain arbitrary expressions (for at fields, not caret
       fields), you can farm out more sophisticated processing to other functions, like sprintf()
       or one of your own.  For example:

	   format Ident =
	       @<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
	       &commify($n)
	   .

       To get a real at or caret into the field, do this:

	   format Ident =
	   I have an @ here.
		   "@"
	   .

       To center a whole line of text, do something like this:

	   format Ident =
	   @|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||
		   "Some text line"
	   .

       There is no builtin way to say "float this to the right hand side of the page, however
       wide it is."  You have to specify where it goes.  The truly desperate can generate their
       own format on the fly, based on the current number of columns, and then eval() it:

	   $format  = "format STDOUT = \n"
		    . '^' . '<' x $cols . "\n"
		    . '$entry' . "\n"
		    . "\t^" . "<" x ($cols-8) . "~~\n"
		    . '$entry' . "\n"
		    . ".\n";
	   print $format if $Debugging;
	   eval $format;
	   die $@ if $@;

       Which would generate a format looking something like this:

	format STDOUT =
	^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<
	$entry
		^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<~~
	$entry
	.

       Here's a little program that's somewhat like fmt(1):

	format =
	^<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< ~~
	$_

	.

	$/ = '';
	while (<>) {
	    s/\s*\n\s*/ /g;
	    write;
	}

   Footers
       While $FORMAT_TOP_NAME contains the name of the current header format, there is no
       corresponding mechanism to automatically do the same thing for a footer.  Not knowing how
       big a format is going to be until you evaluate it is one of the major problems.	It's on
       the TODO list.

       Here's one strategy:  If you have a fixed-size footer, you can get footers by checking
       $FORMAT_LINES_LEFT before each write() and print the footer yourself if necessary.

       Here's another strategy: Open a pipe to yourself, using "open(MYSELF, "|-")" (see "open"
       in perlfunc) and always write() to MYSELF instead of STDOUT.  Have your child process
       massage its STDIN to rearrange headers and footers however you like.  Not very convenient,
       but doable.

   Accessing Formatting Internals
       For low-level access to the formatting mechanism.  you may use formline() and access $^A
       (the $ACCUMULATOR variable) directly.

       For example:

	   $str = formline <<'END', 1,2,3;
	   @<<<  @|||  @>>>
	   END

	   print "Wow, I just stored '$^A' in the accumulator!\n";

       Or to make an swrite() subroutine, which is to write() what sprintf() is to printf(), do
       this:

	   use Carp;
	   sub swrite {
	       croak "usage: swrite PICTURE ARGS" unless @_;
	       my $format = shift;
	       $^A = "";
	       formline($format,@_);
	       return $^A;
	   }

	   $string = swrite(<<'END', 1, 2, 3);
	Check me out
	@<<<  @|||  @>>>
	END
	   print $string;

WARNINGS
       The lone dot that ends a format can also prematurely end a mail message passing through a
       misconfigured Internet mailer (and based on experience, such misconfiguration is the rule,
       not the exception).  So when sending format code through mail, you should indent it so
       that the format-ending dot is not on the left margin; this will prevent SMTP cutoff.

       Lexical variables (declared with "my") are not visible within a format unless the format
       is declared within the scope of the lexical variable.  (They weren't visible at all before
       version 5.001.)

       If a program's environment specifies an LC_NUMERIC locale and "use locale" is in effect
       when the format is declared, the locale is used to specify the decimal point character in
       formatted output.  Formatted output cannot be controlled by "use locale" at the time when
       write() is called. See perllocale for further discussion of locale handling.

       Within strings that are to be displayed in a fixed-length text field, each control
       character is substituted by a space. (But remember the special meaning of "\r" when using
       fill mode.) This is done to avoid misalignment when control characters "disappear" on some
       output media.

perl v5.16.3				    2013-03-04				      PERLFORM(1)
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