Unix/Linux Go Back    


CentOS 7.0 - man page for perlebcdic (centos section 1)

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages
Man Page or Keyword Search:   man
Select Man Page Set:       apropos Keyword Search (sections above)


PERLEBCDIC(1)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		    PERLEBCDIC(1)

NAME
       perlebcdic - Considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms

DESCRIPTION
       An exploration of some of the issues facing Perl programmers on EBCDIC based computers.
       We do not cover localization, internationalization, or multi-byte character set issues
       other than some discussion of UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC.

       Portions that are still incomplete are marked with XXX.

       Perl used to work on EBCDIC machines, but there are now areas of the code where it
       doesn't.  If you want to use Perl on an EBCDIC machine, please let us know by sending mail
       to perlbug@perl.org

COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS
   ASCII
       The American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII or US-ASCII) is a set of
       integers running from 0 to 127 (decimal) that imply character interpretation by the
       display and other systems of computers.	The range 0..127 can be covered by setting the
       bits in a 7-bit binary digit, hence the set is sometimes referred to as "7-bit ASCII".
       ASCII was described by the American National Standards Institute document ANSI X3.4-1986.
       It was also described by ISO 646:1991 (with localization for currency symbols).	The full
       ASCII set is given in the table below as the first 128 elements.  Languages that can be
       written adequately with the characters in ASCII include English, Hawaiian, Indonesian,
       Swahili and some Native American languages.

       There are many character sets that extend the range of integers from 0..2**7-1 up to
       2**8-1, or 8 bit bytes (octets if you prefer).  One common one is the ISO 8859-1 character
       set.

   ISO 8859
       The ISO 8859-$n are a collection of character code sets from the International
       Organization for Standardization (ISO) each of which adds characters to the ASCII set that
       are typically found in European languages many of which are based on the Roman, or Latin,
       alphabet.

   Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)
       A particular 8-bit extension to ASCII that includes grave and acute accented Latin
       characters.  Languages that can employ ISO 8859-1 include all the languages covered by
       ASCII as well as Afrikaans, Albanian, Basque, Catalan, Danish, Faroese, Finnish,
       Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, and Swedish.  Dutch is covered albeit without the ij
       ligature.  French is covered too but without the oe ligature.  German can use ISO 8859-1
       but must do so without German-style quotation marks.  This set is based on Western
       European extensions to ASCII and is commonly encountered in world wide web work.  In IBM
       character code set identification terminology ISO 8859-1 is also known as CCSID 819 (or
       sometimes 0819 or even 00819).

   EBCDIC
       The Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code refers to a large collection of single-
       and multi-byte coded character sets that are different from ASCII or ISO 8859-1 and are
       all slightly different from each other; they typically run on host computers.  The EBCDIC
       encodings derive from 8-bit byte extensions of Hollerith punched card encodings.  The
       layout on the cards was such that high bits were set for the upper and lower case alphabet
       characters [a-z] and [A-Z], but there were gaps within each Latin alphabet range.

       Some IBM EBCDIC character sets may be known by character code set identification numbers
       (CCSID numbers) or code page numbers.

       Perl can be compiled on platforms that run any of three commonly used EBCDIC character
       sets, listed below.

   The 13 variant characters
       Among IBM EBCDIC character code sets there are 13 characters that are often mapped to
       different integer values.  Those characters are known as the 13 "variant" characters and
       are:

	   \ [ ] { } ^ ~ ! # | $ @ `

       When Perl is compiled for a platform, it looks at some of these characters to guess which
       EBCDIC character set the platform uses, and adapts itself accordingly to that platform.
       If the platform uses a character set that is not one of the three Perl knows about, Perl
       will either fail to compile, or mistakenly and silently choose one of the three.  They
       are:

   0037
       Character code set ID 0037 is a mapping of the ASCII plus Latin-1 characters (i.e. ISO
       8859-1) to an EBCDIC set.  0037 is used in North American English locales on the OS/400
       operating system that runs on AS/400 computers.	CCSID 0037 differs from ISO 8859-1 in 237
       places, in other words they agree on only 19 code point values.

   1047
       Character code set ID 1047 is also a mapping of the ASCII plus Latin-1 characters (i.e.
       ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set.  1047 is used under Unix System Services for OS/390 or z/OS,
       and OpenEdition for VM/ESA.  CCSID 1047 differs from CCSID 0037 in eight places.

   POSIX-BC
       The EBCDIC code page in use on Siemens' BS2000 system is distinct from 1047 and 0037.  It
       is identified below as the POSIX-BC set.

   Unicode code points versus EBCDIC code points
       In Unicode terminology a code point is the number assigned to a character: for example, in
       EBCDIC the character "A" is usually assigned the number 193.  In Unicode the character "A"
       is assigned the number 65.  This causes a problem with the semantics of the pack/unpack
       "U", which are supposed to pack Unicode code points to characters and back to numbers.
       The problem is: which code points to use for code points less than 256?	(for 256 and over
       there's no problem: Unicode code points are used) In EBCDIC, for the low 256 the EBCDIC
       code points are used.  This means that the equivalences

	   pack("U", ord($character)) eq $character
	   unpack("U", $character) == ord $character

       will hold.  (If Unicode code points were applied consistently over all the possible code
       points, pack("U",ord("A")) would in EBCDIC equal A with acute or chr(101), and unpack("U",
       "A") would equal 65, or non-breaking space, not 193, or ord "A".)

   Remaining Perl Unicode problems in EBCDIC
       o   Many of the remaining problems seem to be related to case-insensitive matching

       o   The extensions Unicode::Collate and Unicode::Normalized are not supported under
	   EBCDIC, likewise for the encoding pragma.

   Unicode and UTF
       UTF stands for "Unicode Transformation Format".	UTF-8 is an encoding of Unicode into a
       sequence of 8-bit byte chunks, based on ASCII and Latin-1.  The length of a sequence
       required to represent a Unicode code point depends on the ordinal number of that code
       point, with larger numbers requiring more bytes.  UTF-EBCDIC is like UTF-8, but based on
       EBCDIC.

       You may see the term "invariant" character or code point.  This simply means that the
       character has the same numeric value when encoded as when not.  (Note that this is a very
       different concept from "The 13 variant characters" mentioned above.)  For example, the
       ordinal value of 'A' is 193 in most EBCDIC code pages, and also is 193 when encoded in
       UTF-EBCDIC.  All variant code points occupy at least two bytes when encoded.  In UTF-8,
       the code points corresponding to the lowest 128 ordinal numbers (0 - 127: the ASCII
       characters) are invariant.  In UTF-EBCDIC, there are 160 invariant characters.  (If you
       care, the EBCDIC invariants are those characters which have ASCII equivalents, plus those
       that correspond to the C1 controls (80..9f on ASCII platforms).)

       A string encoded in UTF-EBCDIC may be longer (but never shorter) than one encoded in
       UTF-8.

   Using Encode
       Starting from Perl 5.8 you can use the standard new module Encode to translate from EBCDIC
       to Latin-1 code points.	Encode knows about more EBCDIC character sets than Perl can
       currently be compiled to run on.

	  use Encode 'from_to';

	  my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );

	  # $a is in EBCDIC code points
	  from_to($a, $ebcdic{ord '^'}, 'latin1');
	  # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points

       and from Latin-1 code points to EBCDIC code points

	  use Encode 'from_to';

	  my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );

	  # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
	  from_to($a, 'latin1', $ebcdic{ord '^'});
	  # $a is in EBCDIC code points

       For doing I/O it is suggested that you use the autotranslating features of PerlIO, see
       perluniintro.

       Since version 5.8 Perl uses the new PerlIO I/O library.	This enables you to use different
       encodings per IO channel.  For example you may use

	   use Encode;
	   open($f, ">:encoding(ascii)", "test.ascii");
	   print $f "Hello World!\n";
	   open($f, ">:encoding(cp37)", "test.ebcdic");
	   print $f "Hello World!\n";
	   open($f, ">:encoding(latin1)", "test.latin1");
	   print $f "Hello World!\n";
	   open($f, ">:encoding(utf8)", "test.utf8");
	   print $f "Hello World!\n";

       to get four files containing "Hello World!\n" in ASCII, CP 0037 EBCDIC, ISO 8859-1
       (Latin-1) (in this example identical to ASCII since only ASCII characters were printed),
       and UTF-EBCDIC (in this example identical to normal EBCDIC since only characters that
       don't differ between EBCDIC and UTF-EBCDIC were printed).  See the documentation of
       Encode::PerlIO for details.

       As the PerlIO layer uses raw IO (bytes) internally, all this totally ignores things like
       the type of your filesystem (ASCII or EBCDIC).

SINGLE OCTET TABLES
       The following tables list the ASCII and Latin 1 ordered sets including the subsets: C0
       controls (0..31), ASCII graphics (32..7e), delete(7f), C1 controls (80..9f), and Latin-1
       (a.k.a. ISO 8859-1) (a0..ff).  In the table non-printing control character names as well
       as the Latin 1 extensions to ASCII have been labelled with character names roughly
       corresponding to The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0 albeit with substitutions such as
       s/LATIN// and s/VULGAR// in all cases, s/CAPITAL LETTER// in some cases, and s/SMALL
       LETTER ([A-Z])/\l$1/ in some other cases.  The "names" of the controls listed here are the
       Unicode Version 1 names, except for the few that don't have names, in which case the names
       in the Wikipedia article were used
       (<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C0_and_C1_control_codes>).  The differences between the
       0037 and 1047 sets are flagged with ***.  The differences between the 1047 and POSIX-BC
       sets are flagged with ###.  All ord() numbers listed are decimal.  If you would rather see
       this table listing octal values then run the table (that is, the pod version of this
       document since this recipe may not work with a pod2_other_format translation) through:

       recipe 0

	   perl -ne 'if(/(.{43})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
	    -e '{printf("%s%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%.03o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' \
	    perlebcdic.pod

       If you want to retain the UTF-x code points then in script form you might want to write:

       recipe 1

	open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
	while (<FH>) {
	    if (/(.{43})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/)
	    {
		if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
		    printf(
		       "%s%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%-3o.%-5o%-3o.%.03o\n",
						   $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
		}
		elsif ($7 ne '') {
		    printf("%s%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%-3o.%-5o%.03o\n",
						  $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
		}
		else {
		    printf("%s%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%-9.03o%.03o\n",
						       $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
		}
	    }
	}

       If you would rather see this table listing hexadecimal values then run the table through:

       recipe 2

	   perl -ne 'if(/(.{43})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
	    -e '{printf("%s%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%.02X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' \
	    perlebcdic.pod

       Or, in order to retain the UTF-x code points in hexadecimal:

       recipe 3

	open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
	while (<FH>) {
	    if (/(.{43})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/)
	    {
		if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
		    printf(
		       "%s%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%-2X.%-6.02X%02X.%02X\n",
						  $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
		}
		elsif ($7 ne '') {
		    printf("%s%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%-2X.%-6.02X%02X\n",
						     $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
		}
		else {
		    printf("%s%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%-9.02X%02X\n",
							 $1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
		}
	    }
	}

					     ISO 8859-1  CCSID	  CCSID 		   CCSID 1047
	chr				     CCSID 0819  0037	  1047	  POSIX-BC  UTF-8  UTF-EBCDIC
	----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
	<NULL>					  0	   0	    0	     0	      0        0
	<START OF HEADING>			  1	   1	    1	     1	      1        1
	<START OF TEXT> 			  2	   2	    2	     2	      2        2
	<END OF TEXT>				  3	   3	    3	     3	      3        3
	<END OF TRANSMISSION>			  4	   55	    55	     55       4        55
	<ENQUIRY>				  5	   45	    45	     45       5        45
	<ACKNOWLEDGE>				  6	   46	    46	     46       6        46
	<BELL>					  7	   47	    47	     47       7        47
	<BACKSPACE>				  8	   22	    22	     22       8        22
	<HORIZONTAL TABULATION> 		  9	   5	    5	     5	      9        5
	<LINE FEED>				  10	   37	    21	     21       10       21	***
	<VERTICAL TABULATION>			  11	   11	    11	     11       11       11
	<FORM FEED>				  12	   12	    12	     12       12       12
	<CARRIAGE RETURN>			  13	   13	    13	     13       13       13
	<SHIFT OUT>				  14	   14	    14	     14       14       14
	<SHIFT IN>				  15	   15	    15	     15       15       15
	<DATA LINK ESCAPE>			  16	   16	    16	     16       16       16
	<DEVICE CONTROL ONE>			  17	   17	    17	     17       17       17
	<DEVICE CONTROL TWO>			  18	   18	    18	     18       18       18
	<DEVICE CONTROL THREE>			  19	   19	    19	     19       19       19
	<DEVICE CONTROL FOUR>			  20	   60	    60	     60       20       60
	<NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE>			  21	   61	    61	     61       21       61
	<SYNCHRONOUS IDLE>			  22	   50	    50	     50       22       50
	<END OF TRANSMISSION BLOCK>		  23	   38	    38	     38       23       38
	<CANCEL>				  24	   24	    24	     24       24       24
	<END OF MEDIUM> 			  25	   25	    25	     25       25       25
	<SUBSTITUTE>				  26	   63	    63	     63       26       63
	<ESCAPE>				  27	   39	    39	     39       27       39
	<FILE SEPARATOR>			  28	   28	    28	     28       28       28
	<GROUP SEPARATOR>			  29	   29	    29	     29       29       29
	<RECORD SEPARATOR>			  30	   30	    30	     30       30       30
	<UNIT SEPARATOR>			  31	   31	    31	     31       31       31
	<SPACE> 				  32	   64	    64	     64       32       64
	!					  33	   90	    90	     90       33       90
	"					  34	   127	    127      127      34       127
	#					  35	   123	    123      123      35       123
	$					  36	   91	    91	     91       36       91
	%					  37	   108	    108      108      37       108
	&					  38	   80	    80	     80       38       80
	'					  39	   125	    125      125      39       125
	(					  40	   77	    77	     77       40       77
	)					  41	   93	    93	     93       41       93
	*					  42	   92	    92	     92       42       92
	+					  43	   78	    78	     78       43       78
	,					  44	   107	    107      107      44       107
	-					  45	   96	    96	     96       45       96
	.					  46	   75	    75	     75       46       75
	/					  47	   97	    97	     97       47       97
	0					  48	   240	    240      240      48       240
	1					  49	   241	    241      241      49       241
	2					  50	   242	    242      242      50       242
	3					  51	   243	    243      243      51       243
	4					  52	   244	    244      244      52       244
	5					  53	   245	    245      245      53       245
	6					  54	   246	    246      246      54       246
	7					  55	   247	    247      247      55       247
	8					  56	   248	    248      248      56       248
	9					  57	   249	    249      249      57       249
	:					  58	   122	    122      122      58       122
	;					  59	   94	    94	     94       59       94
	<					  60	   76	    76	     76       60       76
	=					  61	   126	    126      126      61       126
	>					  62	   110	    110      110      62       110
	?					  63	   111	    111      111      63       111
	@					  64	   124	    124      124      64       124
	A					  65	   193	    193      193      65       193
	B					  66	   194	    194      194      66       194
	C					  67	   195	    195      195      67       195
	D					  68	   196	    196      196      68       196
	E					  69	   197	    197      197      69       197
	F					  70	   198	    198      198      70       198
	G					  71	   199	    199      199      71       199
	H					  72	   200	    200      200      72       200
	I					  73	   201	    201      201      73       201
	J					  74	   209	    209      209      74       209
	K					  75	   210	    210      210      75       210
	L					  76	   211	    211      211      76       211
	M					  77	   212	    212      212      77       212
	N					  78	   213	    213      213      78       213
	O					  79	   214	    214      214      79       214
	P					  80	   215	    215      215      80       215
	Q					  81	   216	    216      216      81       216
	R					  82	   217	    217      217      82       217
	S					  83	   226	    226      226      83       226
	T					  84	   227	    227      227      84       227
	U					  85	   228	    228      228      85       228
	V					  86	   229	    229      229      86       229
	W					  87	   230	    230      230      87       230
	X					  88	   231	    231      231      88       231
	Y					  89	   232	    232      232      89       232
	Z					  90	   233	    233      233      90       233
	[					  91	   186	    173      187      91       173	*** ###
	\					  92	   224	    224      188      92       224	###
	]					  93	   187	    189      189      93       189	***
	^					  94	   176	    95	     106      94       95	*** ###
	_					  95	   109	    109      109      95       109
	`					  96	   121	    121      74       96       121	###
	a					  97	   129	    129      129      97       129
	b					  98	   130	    130      130      98       130
	c					  99	   131	    131      131      99       131
	d					  100	   132	    132      132      100      132
	e					  101	   133	    133      133      101      133
	f					  102	   134	    134      134      102      134
	g					  103	   135	    135      135      103      135
	h					  104	   136	    136      136      104      136
	i					  105	   137	    137      137      105      137
	j					  106	   145	    145      145      106      145
	k					  107	   146	    146      146      107      146
	l					  108	   147	    147      147      108      147
	m					  109	   148	    148      148      109      148
	n					  110	   149	    149      149      110      149
	o					  111	   150	    150      150      111      150
	p					  112	   151	    151      151      112      151
	q					  113	   152	    152      152      113      152
	r					  114	   153	    153      153      114      153
	s					  115	   162	    162      162      115      162
	t					  116	   163	    163      163      116      163
	u					  117	   164	    164      164      117      164
	v					  118	   165	    165      165      118      165
	w					  119	   166	    166      166      119      166
	x					  120	   167	    167      167      120      167
	y					  121	   168	    168      168      121      168
	z					  122	   169	    169      169      122      169
	{					  123	   192	    192      251      123      192	###
	|					  124	   79	    79	     79       124      79
	}					  125	   208	    208      253      125      208	###
	~					  126	   161	    161      255      126      161	###
	<DELETE>				  127	   7	    7	     7	      127      7
	<PADDING CHARACTER>			  128	   32	    32	     32       194.128  32
	<HIGH OCTET PRESET>			  129	   33	    33	     33       194.129  33
	<BREAK PERMITTED HERE>			  130	   34	    34	     34       194.130  34
	<NO BREAK HERE> 			  131	   35	    35	     35       194.131  35
	<INDEX> 				  132	   36	    36	     36       194.132  36
	<NEXT LINE>				  133	   21	    37	     37       194.133  37	***
	<START OF SELECTED AREA>		  134	   6	    6	     6	      194.134  6
	<END OF SELECTED AREA>			  135	   23	    23	     23       194.135  23
	<CHARACTER TABULATION SET>		  136	   40	    40	     40       194.136  40
	<CHARACTER TABULATION WITH JUSTIFICATION> 137	   41	    41	     41       194.137  41
	<LINE TABULATION SET>			  138	   42	    42	     42       194.138  42
	<PARTIAL LINE FORWARD>			  139	   43	    43	     43       194.139  43
	<PARTIAL LINE BACKWARD> 		  140	   44	    44	     44       194.140  44
	<REVERSE LINE FEED>			  141	   9	    9	     9	      194.141  9
	<SINGLE SHIFT TWO>			  142	   10	    10	     10       194.142  10
	<SINGLE SHIFT THREE>			  143	   27	    27	     27       194.143  27
	<DEVICE CONTROL STRING> 		  144	   48	    48	     48       194.144  48
	<PRIVATE USE ONE>			  145	   49	    49	     49       194.145  49
	<PRIVATE USE TWO>			  146	   26	    26	     26       194.146  26
	<SET TRANSMIT STATE>			  147	   51	    51	     51       194.147  51
	<CANCEL CHARACTER>			  148	   52	    52	     52       194.148  52
	<MESSAGE WAITING>			  149	   53	    53	     53       194.149  53
	<START OF GUARDED AREA> 		  150	   54	    54	     54       194.150  54
	<END OF GUARDED AREA>			  151	   8	    8	     8	      194.151  8
	<START OF STRING>			  152	   56	    56	     56       194.152  56
	<SINGLE GRAPHIC CHARACTER INTRODUCER>	  153	   57	    57	     57       194.153  57
	<SINGLE CHARACTER INTRODUCER>		  154	   58	    58	     58       194.154  58
	<CONTROL SEQUENCE INTRODUCER>		  155	   59	    59	     59       194.155  59
	<STRING TERMINATOR>			  156	   4	    4	     4	      194.156  4
	<OPERATING SYSTEM COMMAND>		  157	   20	    20	     20       194.157  20
	<PRIVACY MESSAGE>			  158	   62	    62	     62       194.158  62
	<APPLICATION PROGRAM COMMAND>		  159	   255	    255      95       194.159  255	###
	<NON-BREAKING SPACE>			  160	   65	    65	     65       194.160  128.65
	<INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK>		  161	   170	    170      170      194.161  128.66
	<CENT SIGN>				  162	   74	    74	     176      194.162  128.67	###
	<POUND SIGN>				  163	   177	    177      177      194.163  128.68
	<CURRENCY SIGN> 			  164	   159	    159      159      194.164  128.69
	<YEN SIGN>				  165	   178	    178      178      194.165  128.70
	<BROKEN BAR>				  166	   106	    106      208      194.166  128.71	###
	<SECTION SIGN>				  167	   181	    181      181      194.167  128.72
	<DIAERESIS>				  168	   189	    187      121      194.168  128.73	*** ###
	<COPYRIGHT SIGN>			  169	   180	    180      180      194.169  128.74
	<FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR>		  170	   154	    154      154      194.170  128.81
	<LEFT POINTING GUILLEMET>		  171	   138	    138      138      194.171  128.82
	<NOT SIGN>				  172	   95	    176      186      194.172  128.83	*** ###
	<SOFT HYPHEN>				  173	   202	    202      202      194.173  128.84
	<REGISTERED TRADE MARK SIGN>		  174	   175	    175      175      194.174  128.85
	<MACRON>				  175	   188	    188      161      194.175  128.86	###
	<DEGREE SIGN>				  176	   144	    144      144      194.176  128.87
	<PLUS-OR-MINUS SIGN>			  177	   143	    143      143      194.177  128.88
	<SUPERSCRIPT TWO>			  178	   234	    234      234      194.178  128.89
	<SUPERSCRIPT THREE>			  179	   250	    250      250      194.179  128.98
	<ACUTE ACCENT>				  180	   190	    190      190      194.180  128.99
	<MICRO SIGN>				  181	   160	    160      160      194.181  128.100
	<PARAGRAPH SIGN>			  182	   182	    182      182      194.182  128.101
	<MIDDLE DOT>				  183	   179	    179      179      194.183  128.102
	<CEDILLA>				  184	   157	    157      157      194.184  128.103
	<SUPERSCRIPT ONE>			  185	   218	    218      218      194.185  128.104
	<MASC. ORDINAL INDICATOR>		  186	   155	    155      155      194.186  128.105
	<RIGHT POINTING GUILLEMET>		  187	   139	    139      139      194.187  128.106
	<FRACTION ONE QUARTER>			  188	   183	    183      183      194.188  128.112
	<FRACTION ONE HALF>			  189	   184	    184      184      194.189  128.113
	<FRACTION THREE QUARTERS>		  190	   185	    185      185      194.190  128.114
	<INVERTED QUESTION MARK>		  191	   171	    171      171      194.191  128.115
	<A WITH GRAVE>				  192	   100	    100      100      195.128  138.65
	<A WITH ACUTE>				  193	   101	    101      101      195.129  138.66
	<A WITH CIRCUMFLEX>			  194	   98	    98	     98       195.130  138.67
	<A WITH TILDE>				  195	   102	    102      102      195.131  138.68
	<A WITH DIAERESIS>			  196	   99	    99	     99       195.132  138.69
	<A WITH RING ABOVE>			  197	   103	    103      103      195.133  138.70
	<CAPITAL LIGATURE AE>			  198	   158	    158      158      195.134  138.71
	<C WITH CEDILLA>			  199	   104	    104      104      195.135  138.72
	<E WITH GRAVE>				  200	   116	    116      116      195.136  138.73
	<E WITH ACUTE>				  201	   113	    113      113      195.137  138.74
	<E WITH CIRCUMFLEX>			  202	   114	    114      114      195.138  138.81
	<E WITH DIAERESIS>			  203	   115	    115      115      195.139  138.82
	<I WITH GRAVE>				  204	   120	    120      120      195.140  138.83
	<I WITH ACUTE>				  205	   117	    117      117      195.141  138.84
	<I WITH CIRCUMFLEX>			  206	   118	    118      118      195.142  138.85
	<I WITH DIAERESIS>			  207	   119	    119      119      195.143  138.86
	<CAPITAL LETTER ETH>			  208	   172	    172      172      195.144  138.87
	<N WITH TILDE>				  209	   105	    105      105      195.145  138.88
	<O WITH GRAVE>				  210	   237	    237      237      195.146  138.89
	<O WITH ACUTE>				  211	   238	    238      238      195.147  138.98
	<O WITH CIRCUMFLEX>			  212	   235	    235      235      195.148  138.99
	<O WITH TILDE>				  213	   239	    239      239      195.149  138.100
	<O WITH DIAERESIS>			  214	   236	    236      236      195.150  138.101
	<MULTIPLICATION SIGN>			  215	   191	    191      191      195.151  138.102
	<O WITH STROKE> 			  216	   128	    128      128      195.152  138.103
	<U WITH GRAVE>				  217	   253	    253      224      195.153  138.104	###
	<U WITH ACUTE>				  218	   254	    254      254      195.154  138.105
	<U WITH CIRCUMFLEX>			  219	   251	    251      221      195.155  138.106	###
	<U WITH DIAERESIS>			  220	   252	    252      252      195.156  138.112
	<Y WITH ACUTE>				  221	   173	    186      173      195.157  138.113	*** ###
	<CAPITAL LETTER THORN>			  222	   174	    174      174      195.158  138.114
	<SMALL LETTER SHARP S>			  223	   89	    89	     89       195.159  138.115
	<a WITH GRAVE>				  224	   68	    68	     68       195.160  139.65
	<a WITH ACUTE>				  225	   69	    69	     69       195.161  139.66
	<a WITH CIRCUMFLEX>			  226	   66	    66	     66       195.162  139.67
	<a WITH TILDE>				  227	   70	    70	     70       195.163  139.68
	<a WITH DIAERESIS>			  228	   67	    67	     67       195.164  139.69
	<a WITH RING ABOVE>			  229	   71	    71	     71       195.165  139.70
	<SMALL LIGATURE ae>			  230	   156	    156      156      195.166  139.71
	<c WITH CEDILLA>			  231	   72	    72	     72       195.167  139.72
	<e WITH GRAVE>				  232	   84	    84	     84       195.168  139.73
	<e WITH ACUTE>				  233	   81	    81	     81       195.169  139.74
	<e WITH CIRCUMFLEX>			  234	   82	    82	     82       195.170  139.81
	<e WITH DIAERESIS>			  235	   83	    83	     83       195.171  139.82
	<i WITH GRAVE>				  236	   88	    88	     88       195.172  139.83
	<i WITH ACUTE>				  237	   85	    85	     85       195.173  139.84
	<i WITH CIRCUMFLEX>			  238	   86	    86	     86       195.174  139.85
	<i WITH DIAERESIS>			  239	   87	    87	     87       195.175  139.86
	<SMALL LETTER eth>			  240	   140	    140      140      195.176  139.87
	<n WITH TILDE>				  241	   73	    73	     73       195.177  139.88
	<o WITH GRAVE>				  242	   205	    205      205      195.178  139.89
	<o WITH ACUTE>				  243	   206	    206      206      195.179  139.98
	<o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>			  244	   203	    203      203      195.180  139.99
	<o WITH TILDE>				  245	   207	    207      207      195.181  139.100
	<o WITH DIAERESIS>			  246	   204	    204      204      195.182  139.101
	<DIVISION SIGN> 			  247	   225	    225      225      195.183  139.102
	<o WITH STROKE> 			  248	   112	    112      112      195.184  139.103
	<u WITH GRAVE>				  249	   221	    221      192      195.185  139.104	###
	<u WITH ACUTE>				  250	   222	    222      222      195.186  139.105
	<u WITH CIRCUMFLEX>			  251	   219	    219      219      195.187  139.106
	<u WITH DIAERESIS>			  252	   220	    220      220      195.188  139.112
	<y WITH ACUTE>				  253	   141	    141      141      195.189  139.113
	<SMALL LETTER thorn>			  254	   142	    142      142      195.190  139.114
	<y WITH DIAERESIS>			  255	   223	    223      223      195.191  139.115

       If you would rather see the above table in CCSID 0037 order rather than ASCII + Latin-1
       order then run the table through:

       recipe 4

	perl \
	   -ne 'if(/.{43}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
	    -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
	    -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
	    -e '	  sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
	    -e '	  map{[$_,substr($_,52,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod

       If you would rather see it in CCSID 1047 order then change the number 52 in the last line
       to 61, like this:

       recipe 5

	perl \
	   -ne 'if(/.{43}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
	   -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
	   -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
	   -e ' 	 sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
	   -e ' 	 map{[$_,substr($_,61,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod

       If you would rather see it in POSIX-BC order then change the number 61 in the last line to
       70, like this:

       recipe 6

	perl \
	   -ne 'if(/.{43}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
	    -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
	    -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
	    -e '	  sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
	    -e '	  map{[$_,substr($_,70,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod

IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS
       To determine the character set you are running under from perl one could use the return
       value of ord() or chr() to test one or more character values.  For example:

	   $is_ascii  = "A" eq chr(65);
	   $is_ebcdic = "A" eq chr(193);

       Also, "\t" is a "HORIZONTAL TABULATION" character so that:

	   $is_ascii  = ord("\t") == 9;
	   $is_ebcdic = ord("\t") == 5;

       To distinguish EBCDIC code pages try looking at one or more of the characters that differ
       between them.  For example:

	   $is_ebcdic_37   = "\n" eq chr(37);
	   $is_ebcdic_1047 = "\n" eq chr(21);

       Or better still choose a character that is uniquely encoded in any of the code sets, e.g.:

	   $is_ascii	       = ord('[') == 91;
	   $is_ebcdic_37       = ord('[') == 186;
	   $is_ebcdic_1047     = ord('[') == 173;
	   $is_ebcdic_POSIX_BC = ord('[') == 187;

       However, it would be unwise to write tests such as:

	   $is_ascii = "\r" ne chr(13);  #  WRONG
	   $is_ascii = "\n" ne chr(10);  #  ILL ADVISED

       Obviously the first of these will fail to distinguish most ASCII platforms from either a
       CCSID 0037, a 1047, or a POSIX-BC EBCDIC platform since "\r" eq chr(13) under all of those
       coded character sets.  But note too that because "\n" is chr(13) and "\r" is chr(10) on
       the Macintosh (which is an ASCII platform) the second $is_ascii test will lead to trouble
       there.

       To determine whether or not perl was built under an EBCDIC code page you can use the
       Config module like so:

	   use Config;
	   $is_ebcdic = $Config{'ebcdic'} eq 'define';

CONVERSIONS
   tr///
       In order to convert a string of characters from one character set to another a simple list
       of numbers, such as in the right columns in the above table, along with perl's tr///
       operator is all that is needed.	The data in the table are in ASCII/Latin1 order, hence
       the EBCDIC columns provide easy-to-use ASCII/Latin1 to EBCDIC operations that are also
       easily reversed.

       For example, to convert ASCII/Latin1 to code page 037 take the output of the second
       numbers column from the output of recipe 2 (modified to add '\' characters) and use it in
       tr/// like so:

	   $cp_037 =
	   '\x00\x01\x02\x03\x37\x2D\x2E\x2F\x16\x05\x25\x0B\x0C\x0D\x0E\x0F' .
	   '\x10\x11\x12\x13\x3C\x3D\x32\x26\x18\x19\x3F\x27\x1C\x1D\x1E\x1F' .
	   '\x40\x5A\x7F\x7B\x5B\x6C\x50\x7D\x4D\x5D\x5C\x4E\x6B\x60\x4B\x61' .
	   '\xF0\xF1\xF2\xF3\xF4\xF5\xF6\xF7\xF8\xF9\x7A\x5E\x4C\x7E\x6E\x6F' .
	   '\x7C\xC1\xC2\xC3\xC4\xC5\xC6\xC7\xC8\xC9\xD1\xD2\xD3\xD4\xD5\xD6' .
	   '\xD7\xD8\xD9\xE2\xE3\xE4\xE5\xE6\xE7\xE8\xE9\xBA\xE0\xBB\xB0\x6D' .
	   '\x79\x81\x82\x83\x84\x85\x86\x87\x88\x89\x91\x92\x93\x94\x95\x96' .
	   '\x97\x98\x99\xA2\xA3\xA4\xA5\xA6\xA7\xA8\xA9\xC0\x4F\xD0\xA1\x07' .
	   '\x20\x21\x22\x23\x24\x15\x06\x17\x28\x29\x2A\x2B\x2C\x09\x0A\x1B' .
	   '\x30\x31\x1A\x33\x34\x35\x36\x08\x38\x39\x3A\x3B\x04\x14\x3E\xFF' .
	   '\x41\xAA\x4A\xB1\x9F\xB2\x6A\xB5\xBD\xB4\x9A\x8A\x5F\xCA\xAF\xBC' .
	   '\x90\x8F\xEA\xFA\xBE\xA0\xB6\xB3\x9D\xDA\x9B\x8B\xB7\xB8\xB9\xAB' .
	   '\x64\x65\x62\x66\x63\x67\x9E\x68\x74\x71\x72\x73\x78\x75\x76\x77' .
	   '\xAC\x69\xED\xEE\xEB\xEF\xEC\xBF\x80\xFD\xFE\xFB\xFC\xAD\xAE\x59' .
	   '\x44\x45\x42\x46\x43\x47\x9C\x48\x54\x51\x52\x53\x58\x55\x56\x57' .
	   '\x8C\x49\xCD\xCE\xCB\xCF\xCC\xE1\x70\xDD\xDE\xDB\xDC\x8D\x8E\xDF';

	   my $ebcdic_string = $ascii_string;
	   eval '$ebcdic_string =~ tr/\000-\377/' . $cp_037 . '/';

       To convert from EBCDIC 037 to ASCII just reverse the order of the tr/// arguments like so:

	   my $ascii_string = $ebcdic_string;
	   eval '$ascii_string =~ tr/' . $cp_037 . '/\000-\377/';

       Similarly one could take the output of the third numbers column from recipe 2 to obtain a
       $cp_1047 table.	The fourth numbers column of the output from recipe 2 could provide a
       $cp_posix_bc table suitable for transcoding as well.

       If you wanted to see the inverse tables, you would first have to sort on the desired
       numbers column as in recipes 4, 5 or 6, then take the output of the first numbers column.

   iconv
       XPG operability often implies the presence of an iconv utility available from the shell or
       from the C library.  Consult your system's documentation for information on iconv.

       On OS/390 or z/OS see the iconv(1) manpage.  One way to invoke the iconv shell utility
       from within perl would be to:

	   # OS/390 or z/OS example
	   $ascii_data = `echo '$ebcdic_data'| iconv -f IBM-1047 -t ISO8859-1`

       or the inverse map:

	   # OS/390 or z/OS example
	   $ebcdic_data = `echo '$ascii_data'| iconv -f ISO8859-1 -t IBM-1047`

       For other perl-based conversion options see the Convert::* modules on CPAN.

   C RTL
       The OS/390 and z/OS C run-time libraries provide _atoe() and _etoa() functions.

OPERATOR DIFFERENCES
       The ".." range operator treats certain character ranges with care on EBCDIC platforms.
       For example the following array will have twenty six elements on either an EBCDIC platform
       or an ASCII platform:

	   @alphabet = ('A'..'Z');   #	$#alphabet == 25

       The bitwise operators such as & ^ | may return different results when operating on string
       or character data in a perl program running on an EBCDIC platform than when run on an
       ASCII platform.	Here is an example adapted from the one in perlop:

	   # EBCDIC-based examples
	   print "j p \n" ^ " a h";			 # prints "JAPH\n"
	   print "JA" | "  ph\n";			 # prints "japh\n"
	   print "JAPH\nJunk" & "\277\277\277\277\277";  # prints "japh\n";
	   print 'p N$' ^ " E<H\n";			 # prints "Perl\n";

       An interesting property of the 32 C0 control characters in the ASCII table is that they
       can "literally" be constructed as control characters in perl, e.g. "(chr(0)" eq "\c@")>
       "(chr(1)" eq "\cA")>, and so on.  Perl on EBCDIC platforms has been ported to take "\c@"
       to chr(0) and "\cA" to chr(1), etc. as well, but the thirty three characters that result
       depend on which code page you are using.  The table below uses the standard acronyms for
       the controls.  The POSIX-BC and 1047 sets are identical throughout this range and differ
       from the 0037 set at only one spot (21 decimal).  Note that the "LINE FEED" character may
       be generated by "\cJ" on ASCII platforms but by "\cU" on 1047 or POSIX-BC platforms and
       cannot be generated as a "\c.letter." control character on 0037 platforms.  Note also that
       "\c\" cannot be the final element in a string or regex, as it will absorb the terminator.
       But "\c\X" is a "FILE SEPARATOR" concatenated with X for all X.

	chr   ord   8859-1    0037    1047 && POSIX-BC
	-----------------------------------------------------------------------
	\c?   127   <DEL>	"	     "
	\c@	0   <NUL>     <NUL>	   <NUL>
	\cA	1   <SOH>     <SOH>	   <SOH>
	\cB	2   <STX>     <STX>	   <STX>
	\cC	3   <ETX>     <ETX>	   <ETX>
	\cD	4   <EOT>     <ST>	   <ST>
	\cE	5   <ENQ>     <HT>	   <HT>
	\cF	6   <ACK>     <SSA>	   <SSA>
	\cG	7   <BEL>     <DEL>	   <DEL>
	\cH	8   <BS>      <EPA>	   <EPA>
	\cI	9   <HT>      <RI>	   <RI>
	\cJ    10   <LF>      <SS2>	   <SS2>
	\cK    11   <VT>      <VT>	   <VT>
	\cL    12   <FF>      <FF>	   <FF>
	\cM    13   <CR>      <CR>	   <CR>
	\cN    14   <SO>      <SO>	   <SO>
	\cO    15   <SI>      <SI>	   <SI>
	\cP    16   <DLE>     <DLE>	   <DLE>
	\cQ    17   <DC1>     <DC1>	   <DC1>
	\cR    18   <DC2>     <DC2>	   <DC2>
	\cS    19   <DC3>     <DC3>	   <DC3>
	\cT    20   <DC4>     <OSC>	   <OSC>
	\cU    21   <NAK>     <NEL>	   <LF> 	     ***
	\cV    22   <SYN>     <BS>	   <BS>
	\cW    23   <ETB>     <ESA>	   <ESA>
	\cX    24   <CAN>     <CAN>	   <CAN>
	\cY    25   <EOM>     <EOM>	   <EOM>
	\cZ    26   <SUB>     <PU2>	   <PU2>
	\c[    27   <ESC>     <SS3>	   <SS3>
	\c\X   28   <FS>X     <FS>X	   <FS>X
	\c]    29   <GS>      <GS>	   <GS>
	\c^    30   <RS>      <RS>	   <RS>
	\c_    31   <US>      <US>	   <US>

FUNCTION DIFFERENCES
       chr()   chr() must be given an EBCDIC code number argument to yield a desired character
	       return value on an EBCDIC platform.  For example:

		   $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = chr(193);

       ord()   ord() will return EBCDIC code number values on an EBCDIC platform.  For example:

		   $the_number_193 = ord("A");

       pack()  The c and C templates for pack() are dependent upon character set encoding.
	       Examples of usage on EBCDIC include:

		   $foo = pack("CCCC",193,194,195,196);
		   # $foo eq "ABCD"
		   $foo = pack("C4",193,194,195,196);
		   # same thing

		   $foo = pack("ccxxcc",193,194,195,196);
		   # $foo eq "AB\0\0CD"

       print() One must be careful with scalars and strings that are passed to print that contain
	       ASCII encodings.  One common place for this to occur is in the output of the MIME
	       type header for CGI script writing.  For example, many perl programming guides
	       recommend something similar to:

		   print "Content-type:\ttext/html\015\012\015\012";
		   # this may be wrong on EBCDIC

	       Under the IBM OS/390 USS Web Server or WebSphere on z/OS for example you should
	       instead write that as:

		   print "Content-type:\ttext/html\r\n\r\n"; # OK for DGW et al

	       That is because the translation from EBCDIC to ASCII is done by the web server in
	       this case (such code will not be appropriate for the Macintosh however).  Consult
	       your web server's documentation for further details.

       printf()
	       The formats that can convert characters to numbers and vice versa will be
	       different from their ASCII counterparts when executed on an EBCDIC platform.
	       Examples include:

		   printf("%c%c%c",193,194,195);  # prints ABC

       sort()  EBCDIC sort results may differ from ASCII sort results especially for mixed case
	       strings.  This is discussed in more detail below.

       sprintf()
	       See the discussion of printf() above.  An example of the use of sprintf would be:

		   $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = sprintf("%c",193);

       unpack()
	       See the discussion of pack() above.

REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES
       As of perl 5.005_03 the letter range regular expressions such as [A-Z] and [a-z] have been
       especially coded to not pick up gap characters.	For example, characters such as o "o WITH
       CIRCUMFLEX" that lie between I and J would not be matched by the regular expression range
       "/[H-K]/".  This works in the other direction, too, if either of the range end points is
       explicitly numeric: "[\x89-\x91]" will match "\x8e", even though "\x89" is "i" and "\x91 "
       is "j", and "\x8e" is a gap character from the alphabetic viewpoint.

       If you do want to match the alphabet gap characters in a single octet regular expression
       try matching the hex or octal code such as "/\313/" on EBCDIC or "/\364/" on ASCII
       platforms to have your regular expression match "o WITH CIRCUMFLEX".

       Another construct to be wary of is the inappropriate use of hex or octal constants in
       regular expressions.  Consider the following set of subs:

	   sub is_c0 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
	   }

	   sub is_print_ascii {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char =~ /[\040-\176]/;
	   }

	   sub is_delete {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char eq "\177";
	   }

	   sub is_c1 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
	   }

	   sub is_latin_1 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
	   }

       The above would be adequate if the concern was only with numeric code points.  However,
       the concern may be with characters rather than code points and on an EBCDIC platform it
       may be desirable for constructs such as "if (is_print_ascii("A")) {print "A is a printable
       character\n";}" to print out the expected message.  One way to represent the above
       collection of character classification subs that is capable of working across the four
       coded character sets discussed in this document is as follows:

	   sub Is_c0 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
		   return $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==176) { # 0037
		   return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\045\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==95 || ord('^')==106) { # 1047 || posix-bc
		   return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\025\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
	       }
	   }

	   sub Is_print_ascii {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char =~ /[ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<=>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~]/;
	   }

	   sub Is_delete {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
		   return $char eq "\177";
	       }
	       else  {		    # ebcdic
		   return $char eq "\007";
	       }
	   }

	   sub Is_c1 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
		   return $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==176) { # 0037
		   return $char =~ /[\040-\044\025\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==95)  { # 1047
		   return $char =~ /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
		   return $char =~
		     /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\137]/;
	       }
	   }

	   sub Is_latin_1 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
		   return $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==176) { # 0037
		   return $char =~
		     /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\275\264\232\212\137\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==95)  { # 1047
		   return $char =~
		     /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\273\264\232\212\260\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\272\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
	       }
	       if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
		   return $char =~
		     /[\101\252\260\261\237\262\320\265\171\264\232\212\272\312\257\241\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\340\376\335\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\300\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
	       }
	   }

       Note however that only the "Is_ascii_print()" sub is really independent of coded character
       set.  Another way to write "Is_latin_1()" would be to use the characters in the range
       explicitly:

	   sub Is_latin_1 {
	       my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
	       $char =~ /[A AXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXAXA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~ A~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~A~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~X]/;
	   }

       Although that form may run into trouble in network transit (due to the presence of 8 bit
       characters) or on non ISO-Latin character sets.

SOCKETS
       Most socket programming assumes ASCII character encodings in network byte order.
       Exceptions can include CGI script writing under a host web server where the server may
       take care of translation for you.  Most host web servers convert EBCDIC data to ISO-8859-1
       or Unicode on output.

SORTING
       One big difference between ASCII-based character sets and EBCDIC ones are the relative
       positions of upper and lower case letters and the letters compared to the digits.  If
       sorted on an ASCII-based platform the two-letter abbreviation for a physician comes before
       the two letter abbreviation for drive; that is:

	@sorted = sort(qw(Dr. dr.));  # @sorted holds ('Dr.','dr.') on ASCII,
					 # but ('dr.','Dr.') on EBCDIC

       The property of lowercase before uppercase letters in EBCDIC is even carried to the Latin
       1 EBCDIC pages such as 0037 and 1047.  An example would be that Ee "E WITH DIAERESIS"
       (203) comes before ee "e WITH DIAERESIS" (235) on an ASCII platform, but the latter(83)
       comes before the former(115) on an EBCDIC platform.  (Astute readers will note that the
       uppercase version of ss "SMALL LETTER SHARP S" is simply "SS" and that the upper case
       version of ye "y WITH DIAERESIS" is not in the 0..255 range but it is at U+x0178 in
       Unicode, or "\x{178}" in a Unicode enabled Perl).

       The sort order will cause differences between results obtained on ASCII platforms versus
       EBCDIC platforms.  What follows are some suggestions on how to deal with these
       differences.

   Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.
       This is the least computationally expensive strategy.  It may require some user education.

   MONO CASE then sort data.
       In order to minimize the expense of mono casing mixed-case text, try to "tr///" towards
       the character set case most employed within the data.  If the data are primarily UPPERCASE
       non Latin 1 then apply tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/ then sort().  If the data are primarily lowercase
       non Latin 1 then apply tr/[A-Z]/[a-z]/ before sorting.  If the data are primarily
       UPPERCASE and include Latin-1 characters then apply:

	   tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/;
	   tr/[A~ A~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~A~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~X]/[A~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~XA~X/;
	   s/A~X/SS/g;

       then sort().  Do note however that such Latin-1 manipulation does not address the ye "y
       WITH DIAERESIS" character that will remain at code point 255 on ASCII platforms, but 223
       on most EBCDIC platforms where it will sort to a place less than the EBCDIC numerals.
       With a Unicode-enabled Perl you might try:

	   tr/^?/\x{178}/;

       The strategy of mono casing data before sorting does not preserve the case of the data and
       may not be acceptable for that reason.

   Convert, sort data, then re convert.
       This is the most expensive proposition that does not employ a network connection.

   Perform sorting on one type of platform only.
       This strategy can employ a network connection.  As such it would be computationally
       expensive.

TRANSFORMATION FORMATS
       There are a variety of ways of transforming data with an intra character set mapping that
       serve a variety of purposes.  Sorting was discussed in the previous section and a few of
       the other more popular mapping techniques are discussed next.

   URL decoding and encoding
       Note that some URLs have hexadecimal ASCII code points in them in an attempt to overcome
       character or protocol limitation issues.  For example the tilde character is not on every
       keyboard hence a URL of the form:

	   http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/

       may also be expressed as either of:

	   http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/

	   http://www.pvhp.com/%7epvhp/

       where 7E is the hexadecimal ASCII code point for '~'.  Here is an example of decoding such
       a URL under CCSID 1047:

	   $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/';
	   # this array assumes code page 1047
	   my @a2e_1047 = (
		 0,  1,  2,  3, 55, 45, 46, 47, 22,  5, 21, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
		16, 17, 18, 19, 60, 61, 50, 38, 24, 25, 63, 39, 28, 29, 30, 31,
		64, 90,127,123, 91,108, 80,125, 77, 93, 92, 78,107, 96, 75, 97,
	       240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,122, 94, 76,126,110,111,
	       124,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,209,210,211,212,213,214,
	       215,216,217,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,173,224,189, 95,109,
	       121,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,145,146,147,148,149,150,
	       151,152,153,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,192, 79,208,161,  7,
		32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37,  6, 23, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44,  9, 10, 27,
		48, 49, 26, 51, 52, 53, 54,  8, 56, 57, 58, 59,  4, 20, 62,255,
		65,170, 74,177,159,178,106,181,187,180,154,138,176,202,175,188,
	       144,143,234,250,190,160,182,179,157,218,155,139,183,184,185,171,
	       100,101, 98,102, 99,103,158,104,116,113,114,115,120,117,118,119,
	       172,105,237,238,235,239,236,191,128,253,254,251,252,186,174, 89,
		68, 69, 66, 70, 67, 71,156, 72, 84, 81, 82, 83, 88, 85, 86, 87,
	       140, 73,205,206,203,207,204,225,112,221,222,219,220,141,142,223
	   );
	   $url =~ s/%([0-9a-fA-F]{2})/pack("c",$a2e_1047[hex($1)])/ge;

       Conversely, here is a partial solution for the task of encoding such a URL under the 1047
       code page:

	   $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/';
	   # this array assumes code page 1047
	   my @e2a_1047 = (
		 0,  1,  2,  3,156,  9,134,127,151,141,142, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
		16, 17, 18, 19,157, 10,  8,135, 24, 25,146,143, 28, 29, 30, 31,
	       128,129,130,131,132,133, 23, 27,136,137,138,139,140,  5,  6,  7,
	       144,145, 22,147,148,149,150,  4,152,153,154,155, 20, 21,158, 26,
		32,160,226,228,224,225,227,229,231,241,162, 46, 60, 40, 43,124,
		38,233,234,235,232,237,238,239,236,223, 33, 36, 42, 41, 59, 94,
		45, 47,194,196,192,193,195,197,199,209,166, 44, 37, 95, 62, 63,
	       248,201,202,203,200,205,206,207,204, 96, 58, 35, 64, 39, 61, 34,
	       216, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,171,187,240,253,254,177,
	       176,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,170,186,230,184,198,164,
	       181,126,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,161,191,208, 91,222,174,
	       172,163,165,183,169,167,182,188,189,190,221,168,175, 93,180,215,
	       123, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,173,244,246,242,243,245,
	       125, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,185,251,252,249,250,255,
		92,247, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90,178,212,214,210,211,213,
		48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,179,219,220,217,218,159
	   );
	   # The following regular expression does not address the
	   # mappings for: ('.' => '%2E', '/' => '%2F', ':' => '%3A')
	   $url =~ s/([\t "#%&\(\),;<=>\?\@\[\\\]^`{|}~])/sprintf("%%%02X",$e2a_1047[ord($1)])/ge;

       where a more complete solution would split the URL into components and apply a full s///
       substitution only to the appropriate parts.

       In the remaining examples a @e2a or @a2e array may be employed but the assignment will not
       be shown explicitly.  For code page 1047 you could use the @a2e_1047 or @e2a_1047 arrays
       just shown.

   uu encoding and decoding
       The "u" template to pack() or unpack() will render EBCDIC data in EBCDIC characters
       equivalent to their ASCII counterparts.	For example, the following will print "Yes
       indeed\n" on either an ASCII or EBCDIC computer:

	   $all_byte_chrs = '';
	   for (0..255) { $all_byte_chrs .= chr($_); }
	   $uuencode_byte_chrs = pack('u', $all_byte_chrs);
	   ($uu = <<'ENDOFHEREDOC') =~ s/^\s*//gm;
	   M``$"`P0%!@<("0H+#`T.#Q`1$A,4%187&!D:&QP='A\@(2(C)"4F)R@I*BLL
	   M+2XO,#$R,S0U-C<X.3H[/#T^/T!!0D-$149'2$E*2TQ-3D]045)35%565UA9
	   M6EM<75Y?8&%B8V1E9F=H:6IK;&UN;W!Q<G-T=79W>'EZ>WQ]?G^`@8*#A(6&
	   MAXB)BHN,C8Z/D)&2DY25EI>8F9J;G)V>GZ"AHJ.DI::GJ*FJJZRMKJ^PL;*S
	   MM+6VM[BYNKN\O;Z_P,'"P\3%QL?(R<K+S,W.S]#1TM/4U=;7V-G:V]S=WM_@
	   ?X>+CY.7FY^CIZNOL[>[O\/'R\_3U]O?X^?K[_/W^_P``
	   ENDOFHEREDOC
	   if ($uuencode_byte_chrs eq $uu) {
	       print "Yes ";
	   }
	   $uudecode_byte_chrs = unpack('u', $uuencode_byte_chrs);
	   if ($uudecode_byte_chrs eq $all_byte_chrs) {
	       print "indeed\n";
	   }

       Here is a very spartan uudecoder that will work on EBCDIC provided that the @e2a array is
       filled in appropriately:

	   #!/usr/local/bin/perl
	   @e2a = ( # this must be filled in
		  );
	   $_ = <> until ($mode,$file) = /^begin\s*(\d*)\s*(\S*)/;
	   open(OUT, "> $file") if $file ne "";
	   while(<>) {
	       last if /^end/;
	       next if /[a-z]/;
	       next unless int(((($e2a[ord()] - 32 ) & 077) + 2) / 3) ==
		   int(length() / 4);
	       print OUT unpack("u", $_);
	   }
	   close(OUT);
	   chmod oct($mode), $file;

   Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding
       On ASCII-encoded platforms it is possible to strip characters outside of the printable set
       using:

	   # This QP encoder works on ASCII only
	   $qp_string =~ s/([=\x00-\x1F\x80-\xFF])/sprintf("=%02X",ord($1))/ge;

       Whereas a QP encoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC platforms would look somewhat
       like the following (where the EBCDIC branch @e2a array is omitted for brevity):

	   if (ord('A') == 65) {    # ASCII
	       $delete = "\x7F";    # ASCII
	       @e2a = (0 .. 255)    # ASCII to ASCII identity map
	   }
	   else {		    # EBCDIC
	       $delete = "\x07";    # EBCDIC
	       @e2a =		    # EBCDIC to ASCII map (as shown above)
	   }
	   $qp_string =~
	     s/([^ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~$delete])/sprintf("=%02X",$e2a[ord($1)])/ge;

       (although in production code the substitutions might be done in the EBCDIC branch with the
       @e2a array and separately in the ASCII branch without the expense of the identity map).

       Such QP strings can be decoded with:

	   # This QP decoder is limited to ASCII only
	   $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr hex $1/ge;
	   $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;

       Whereas a QP decoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC platforms would look somewhat
       like the following (where the @a2e array is omitted for brevity):

	   $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr $a2e[hex $1]/ge;
	   $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;

   Caesarean ciphers
       The practice of shifting an alphabet one or more characters for encipherment dates back
       thousands of years and was explicitly detailed by Gaius Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars
       text.  A single alphabet shift is sometimes referred to as a rotation and the shift amount
       is given as a number $n after the string 'rot' or "rot$n".  Rot0 and rot26 would designate
       identity maps on the 26-letter English version of the Latin alphabet.  Rot13 has the
       interesting property that alternate subsequent invocations are identity maps (thus rot13
       is its own non-trivial inverse in the group of 26 alphabet rotations).  Hence the
       following is a rot13 encoder and decoder that will work on ASCII and EBCDIC platforms:

	   #!/usr/local/bin/perl

	   while(<>){
	       tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;
	       print;
	   }

       In one-liner form:

	   perl -ne 'tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;print'

Hashing order and checksums
       To the extent that it is possible to write code that depends on hashing order there may be
       differences between hashes as stored on an ASCII-based platform and hashes stored on an
       EBCDIC-based platform.  XXX

I18N AND L10N
       Internationalization (I18N) and localization (L10N) are supported at least in principle
       even on EBCDIC platforms.  The details are system-dependent and discussed under the "OS
       ISSUES" in perlebcdic section below.

MULTI-OCTET CHARACTER SETS
       Perl may work with an internal UTF-EBCDIC encoding form for wide characters on EBCDIC
       platforms in a manner analogous to the way that it works with the UTF-8 internal encoding
       form on ASCII based platforms.

       Legacy multi byte EBCDIC code pages XXX.

OS ISSUES
       There may be a few system-dependent issues of concern to EBCDIC Perl programmers.

   OS/400
       PASE    The PASE environment is a runtime environment for OS/400 that can run executables
	       built for PowerPC AIX in OS/400; see perlos400.	PASE is ASCII-based, not EBCDIC-
	       based as the ILE.

       IFS access
	       XXX.

   OS/390, z/OS
       Perl runs under Unix Systems Services or USS.

       chcp    chcp is supported as a shell utility for displaying and changing one's code page.
	       See also chcp(1).

       dataset access
	       For sequential data set access try:

		   my @ds_records = `cat //DSNAME`;

	       or:

		   my @ds_records = `cat //'HLQ.DSNAME'`;

	       See also the OS390::Stdio module on CPAN.

       OS/390, z/OS iconv
	       iconv is supported as both a shell utility and a C RTL routine.	See also the
	       iconv(1) and iconv(3) manual pages.

       locales On OS/390 or z/OS see locale for information on locales.  The L10N files are in
	       /usr/nls/locale.  $Config{d_setlocale} is 'define' on OS/390 or z/OS.

   VM/ESA?
       XXX.

   POSIX-BC?
       XXX.

BUGS
       This pod document contains literal Latin 1 characters and may encounter translation
       difficulties.  In particular one popular nroff implementation was known to strip accented
       characters to their unaccented counterparts while attempting to view this document through
       the pod2man program (for example, you may see a plain "y" rather than one with a diaeresis
       as in ye).  Another nroff truncated the resultant manpage at the first occurrence of 8 bit
       characters.

       Not all shells will allow multiple "-e" string arguments to perl to be concatenated
       together properly as recipes 0, 2, 4, 5, and 6 might seem to imply.

SEE ALSO
       perllocale, perlfunc, perlunicode, utf8.

REFERENCES
       <http://anubis.dkuug.dk/i18n/charmaps>

       <http://www.unicode.org/>

       <http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr16/>

       <http://www.wps.com/projects/codes/> ASCII: American Standard Code for Information
       Infiltration Tom Jennings, September 1999.

       The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0 The Unicode Consortium, Lisa Moore ed., ISBN
       0-201-61633-5, Addison Wesley Developers Press, February 2000.

       CDRA: IBM - Character Data Representation Architecture - Reference and Registry, IBM
       SC09-2190-00, December 1996.

       "Demystifying Character Sets", Andrea Vine, Multilingual Computing & Technology, #26 Vol.
       10 Issue 4, August/September 1999; ISSN 1523-0309; Multilingual Computing Inc. Sandpoint
       ID, USA.

       Codes, Ciphers, and Other Cryptic and Clandestine Communication Fred B. Wrixon, ISBN
       1-57912-040-7, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 1998.

       http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM <http://www.bobbemer.com/P-BIT.HTM> IBM - EBCDIC and the
       P-bit; The biggest Computer Goof Ever Robert Bemer.

HISTORY
       15 April 2001: added UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC to main table, pvhp.

AUTHOR
       Peter Prymmer pvhp@best.com wrote this in 1999 and 2000 with CCSID 0819 and 0037 help from
       Chris Leach and Andre Pirard A.Pirard@ulg.ac.be as well as POSIX-BC help from Thomas
       Dorner Thomas.Dorner@start.de.  Thanks also to Vickie Cooper, Philip Newton, William
       Raffloer, and Joe Smith.  Trademarks, registered trademarks, service marks and registered
       service marks used in this document are the property of their respective owners.

perl v5.16.3				    2013-03-04				    PERLEBCDIC(1)
Unix & Linux Commands & Man Pages : ©2000 - 2018 Unix and Linux Forums


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 09:24 PM.