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PERLCYGWIN(1)			 Perl Programmers Reference Guide		    PERLCYGWIN(1)

       perlcygwin - Perl for Cygwin

       This document will help you configure, make, test and install Perl on Cygwin.  This
       document also describes features of Cygwin that will affect how Perl behaves at runtime.

       NOTE: There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cygwin and a version of Perl is
       provided in the normal Cygwin install.  If you do not need to customize the configuration,
       consider using one of those packages.

   Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)
       The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development tools for Win32 platforms.  They
       run thanks to the Cygwin library which provides the UNIX system calls and environment
       these programs expect.  More information about this project can be found at:


       A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.

       At the time this document was last updated, Cygwin 1.7.10 was current.

   Cygwin Configuration
       While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your Cygwin setup so that Perl builds
       cleanly.  These changes are not required for normal Perl usage.

       NOTE: The binaries that are built will run on all Win32 versions.  They do not depend on
       your host system (WinXP/Win2K/Win7) or your Cygwin configuration (binary/text mounts,
       cvgserver).  The only dependencies come from hard-coded pathnames like "/usr/local".
       However, your host system and Cygwin configuration will affect Perl's runtime behavior
       (see "TEST").

       o   "PATH"

	   Set the "PATH" environment variable so that Configure finds the Cygwin versions of
	   programs. Any not-needed Windows directories should be removed or moved to the end of
	   your "PATH".

       o   nroff

	   If you do not have nroff (which is part of the groff package), Configure will not
	   prompt you to install man pages.

       The default options gathered by Configure with the assistance of hints/cygwin.sh will
       build a Perl that supports dynamic loading (which requires a shared cygperl5_16.dll).

       This will run Configure and keep a record:

	 ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure

       If you are willing to accept all the defaults run Configure with -de.  However, several
       useful customizations are available.

   Stripping Perl Binaries on Cygwin
       It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the build process.	The resulting
       binaries will be significantly smaller.	If you want the binaries to be stripped, you can
       either add a -s option when Configure prompts you,

	 Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
	 Any special flags to pass to g++ to create a dynamically loaded library?
	 [none] -s
	 Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s

       or you can edit hints/cygwin.sh and uncomment the relevant variables near the end of the

   Optional Libraries for Perl on Cygwin
       Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence of some optional libraries.
       Configure will find them if they are installed in one of the directories listed as being
       used for library searches.  Pre-built packages for most of these are available from the
       Cygwin installer.

       o   "-lcrypt"

	   The crypt package distributed with Cygwin is a Linux compatible 56-bit DES crypt port
	   by Corinna Vinschen.

	   Alternatively, the crypt libraries in GNU libc have been ported to Cygwin.

       o   "-lgdbm_compat" ("use GDBM_File")

	   GDBM is available for Cygwin.

	   NOTE: The GDBM library only works on NTFS partitions.

       o   "-ldb" ("use DB_File")

	   BerkeleyDB is available for Cygwin.

	   NOTE: The BerkeleyDB library only completely works on NTFS partitions.

       o   "cygserver" ("use IPC::SysV")

	   A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.

	   NOTE: This has not been extensively tested.	In particular, "d_semctl_semun" is
	   undefined because it fails a Configure test and on Win9x the shm*() functions seem to
	   hang.  It also creates a compile time dependency because perl.h includes <sys/ipc.h>
	   and <sys/sem.h> (which will be required in the future when compiling CPAN modules).

       o   "-lutil"

	   Included with the standard Cygwin netrelease is the inetutils package which includes

   Configure-time Options for Perl on Cygwin
       The INSTALL document describes several Configure-time options.  Some of these will work
       with Cygwin, others are not yet possible.  Also, some of these are experimental.  You can
       either select an option when Configure prompts you or you can define (undefine) symbols on
       the command line.

       o   "-Uusedl"

	   Undefining this symbol forces Perl to be compiled statically.

       o   "-Dusemymalloc"

	   By default Perl does not use the "malloc()" included with the Perl source, because it
	   was slower and not entirely thread-safe.  If you want to force Perl to build with the
	   old -Dusemymalloc define this.

       o   "-Uuseperlio"

	   Undefining this symbol disables the PerlIO abstraction.  PerlIO is now the default; it
	   is not recommended to disable PerlIO.

       o   "-Dusemultiplicity"

	   Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C program and using more than one
	   interpreter instance.  This is only required when you build a not-threaded perl with

       o   "-Uuse64bitint"

	   By default Perl uses 64 bit integers.  If you want to use smaller 32 bit integers,
	   define this symbol.

       o   "-Duselongdouble"

	   gcc supports long doubles (12 bytes).  However, several additional long double math
	   functions are necessary to use them within Perl ({atan2, cos, exp, floor, fmod, frexp,
	   isnan, log, modf, pow, sin, sqrt}l, strtold).  These are not yet available with
	   newlib, the Cygwin libc.

       o   "-Uuseithreads"

	   Define this symbol if you want not-threaded faster perl.

       o   "-Duselargefiles"

	   Cygwin uses 64-bit integers for internal size and position calculations, this will be
	   correctly detected and defined by Configure.

       o   "-Dmksymlinks"

	   Use this to build perl outside of the source tree.  Details can be found in the
	   INSTALL document.  This is the recommended way to build perl from sources.

   Suspicious Warnings on Cygwin
       You may see some messages during Configure that seem suspicious.

       o   Win9x and "d_eofnblk"

	   Win9x does not correctly report "EOF" with a non-blocking read on a closed pipe.  You
	   will see the following messages:

	     But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
	     WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!

	     *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
		 The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
		 Keep the recommended value? [y]

	   At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep the recommended value.

       o   Compiler/Preprocessor defines

	   The following error occurs because of the Cygwin "#define" of "_LONG_DOUBLE":

	     Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...
	     try.c:<line#>: missing binary operator

	   This failure does not seem to cause any problems.  With older gcc versions, "parse
	   error" is reported instead of "missing binary operator".

       Simply run make and wait:

	 make 2>&1 | tee log.make

       There are two steps to running the test suite:

	 make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test

	 cd t; ./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness

       The same tests are run both times, but more information is provided when running as
       "./perl harness".

       Test results vary depending on your host system and your Cygwin configuration.  If a test
       can pass in some Cygwin setup, it is always attempted and explainable test failures are
       documented.  It is possible for Perl to pass all the tests, but it is more likely that
       some tests will fail for one of the reasons listed below.

   File Permissions on Cygwin
       UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for {read,write,execute} for each
       {user,group,other}.  By default Cygwin only tracks the Win32 read-only attribute
       represented as the UNIX file user write bit (files are always readable, files are
       executable if they have a .{com,bat,exe} extension or begin with "#!", directories are
       always readable and executable).  On WinNT with the ntea "CYGWIN" setting, the additional
       mode bits are stored as extended file attributes.  On WinNT with the default ntsec
       "CYGWIN" setting, permissions use the standard WinNT security descriptors and access
       control lists. Without one of these options, these tests will fail (listing not updated

	 Failed Test	       List of failed
	 io/fs.t	       5, 7, 9-10
	 lib/anydbm.t	       2
	 lib/db-btree.t        20
	 lib/db-hash.t	       16
	 lib/db-recno.t        18
	 lib/gdbm.t	       2
	 lib/ndbm.t	       2
	 lib/odbm.t	       2
	 lib/sdbm.t	       2
	 op/stat.t	       9, 20 (.tmp not an executable extension)

   NDBM_File and ODBM_File do not work on FAT filesystems
       Do not use NDBM_File or ODBM_File on FAT filesystem.  They can be built on a FAT
       filesystem, but many tests will fail:

	../ext/NDBM_File/ndbm.t       13  3328	  71   59  83.10%  1-2 4 16-71
	../ext/ODBM_File/odbm.t      255 65280	  ??   ??	%  ??
	../lib/AnyDBM_File.t	       2   512	  12	2  16.67%  1 4
	../lib/Memoize/t/errors.t      0   139	  11	5  45.45%  7-11
	../lib/Memoize/t/tie_ndbm.t   13  3328	   4	4 100.00%  1-4
	run/fresh_perl.t			  97	1   1.03%  91

       If you intend to run only on FAT (or if using AnyDBM_File on FAT), run Configure with the
       -Ui_ndbm and -Ui_dbm options to prevent NDBM_File and ODBM_File being built.

       With NTFS (and no CYGWIN=nontsec), there should be no problems even if perl was built on

   "fork()" failures in io_* tests
       A "fork()" failure may result in the following tests failing:


       See comment on fork in "Miscellaneous" below.

Specific features of the Cygwin port
   Script Portability on Cygwin
       Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like semantics on top of Win32 systems.
       However, in addition to the items noted above, there are some differences that you should
       know about.  This is a very brief guide to portability, more information can be found in
       the Cygwin documentation.

       o   Pathnames

	   Cygwin pathnames are separated by forward (/) slashes, Universal Naming Codes (//UNC)
	   are also supported Since cygwin-1.7 non-POSIX pathnames are disencouraged.  Names may
	   contain all printable characters.

	   File names are case insensitive, but case preserving.  A pathname that contains a
	   backslash or drive letter is a Win32 pathname, and not subject to the translations
	   applied to POSIX style pathnames, but cygwin will warn you, so better convert them to

	   For conversion we have "Cygwin::win_to_posix_path()" and

	   Since cygwin-1.7 pathnames are UTF-8 encoded.

       o   Text/Binary

	   Since cywgin-1.7 textmounts are deprecated and stronlgy discouraged.

	   When a file is opened it is in either text or binary mode.  In text mode a file is
	   subject to CR/LF/Ctrl-Z translations.  With Cygwin, the default mode for an "open()"
	   is determined by the mode of the mount that underlies the file. See
	   "Cygwin::is_binmount"(). Perl provides a "binmode()" function to set binary mode on
	   files that otherwise would be treated as text.  "sysopen()" with the "O_TEXT" flag
	   sets text mode on files that otherwise would be treated as binary:

	       sysopen(FOO, "bar", O_WRONLY|O_CREAT|O_TEXT)

	   "lseek()", "tell()" and "sysseek()" only work with files opened in binary mode.

	   The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cygwin documentation.

       o   PerlIO

	   PerlIO overrides the default Cygwin Text/Binary behaviour.  A file will always be
	   treated as binary, regardless of the mode of the mount it lives on, just like it is in
	   UNIX.  So CR/LF translation needs to be requested in either the "open()" call like

	     open(FH, ">:crlf", "out.txt");

	   which will do conversion from LF to CR/LF on the output, or in the environment
	   settings (add this to your .bashrc):

	     export PERLIO=crlf

	   which will pull in the crlf PerlIO layer which does LF -> CRLF conversion on every
	   output generated by perl.

       o   .exe

	   The Cygwin "stat()", "lstat()" and "readlink()" functions make the .exe extension
	   transparent by looking for foo.exe when you ask for foo (unless a foo also exists).
	   Cygwin does not require a .exe extension, but gcc adds it automatically when building
	   a program.  However, when accessing an executable as a normal file (e.g., cp in a
	   makefile) the .exe is not transparent.  The install program included with Cygwin
	   automatically appends a .exe when necessary.

       o   Cygwin vs. Windows process ids

	   Cygwin processes have their own pid, which is different from the underlying windows
	   pid.  Most posix compliant Proc functions expect the cygwin pid, but several
	   Win32::Process functions expect the winpid. E.g. $$ is the cygwin pid of
	   /usr/bin/perl, which is not the winpid.  Use "Cygwin::winpid_to_pid()" and
	   "Cygwin::winpid_to_pid()" to translate between them.

       o   Cygwin vs. Windows errors

	   Under Cygwin, $^E is the same as $!.  When using Win32 API Functions, use
	   "Win32::GetLastError()" to get the last Windows error.

       o   rebase errors on fork or system

	   Using "fork()" or "system()" out to another perl after loading multiple dlls may
	   result on a DLL baseaddress conflict. The internal cygwin error looks like like the

	     0 [main] perl 8916 child_info_fork::abort: data segment start: parent(0xC1A000) != child(0xA6A000)


	     183 [main] perl 3588 C:\cygwin\bin\perl.exe: *** fatal error - unable to remap C:\cygwin\bin\cygsvn_subr-1-0.dll to same address as parent(0x6FB30000) != 0x6FE60000
	     46 [main] perl 3488 fork: child 3588 - died waiting for dll loading, errno11

	   See http://cygwin.com/faq/faq-nochunks.html#faq.using.fixing-fork-failures
	   <http://cygwin.com/faq/faq-nochunks.html#faq.using.fixing-fork-failures> It helps if
	   not too many DLLs are loaded in memory so the available address space is larger, e.g.
	   stopping the MS Internet Explorer might help.

	   Use the perlrebase or rebase utilities to resolve the conflicting dll addresses.  The
	   rebase package is included in the Cygwin setup. Use setup.exe from
	   <http://www.cygwin.com/setup.exe> to install it.

	   1. kill all perl processes and run "perlrebase" or

	   2. kill all cygwin processes and services, start dash from cmd.exe and run

       o   "chown()"

	   On WinNT "chown()" can change a file's user and group IDs.  On Win9x "chown()" is a
	   no-op, although this is appropriate since there is no security model.

       o   Miscellaneous

	   File locking using the "F_GETLK" command to "fcntl()" is a stub that returns "ENOSYS".

	   Win9x can not "rename()" an open file (although WinNT can).

	   The Cygwin "chroot()" implementation has holes (it can not restrict file access by
	   native Win32 programs).

	   Inplace editing "perl -i" of files doesn't work without doing a backup of the file
	   being edited "perl -i.bak" because of windowish restrictions, therefore Perl adds the
	   suffix ".bak" automatically if you use "perl -i" without specifying a backup

   Prebuilt methods:
	   Returns the current working directory.

	   Translates a cygwin pid to the corresponding Windows pid (which may or may not be the

	   Translates a Windows pid to the corresponding cygwin pid (if any).

	   Translates a Windows path to the corresponding cygwin path respecting the current
	   mount points. With a second non-null argument returns an absolute path. Double-byte
	   characters will not be translated.

	   Translates a cygwin path to the corresponding cygwin path respecting the current mount
	   points. With a second non-null argument returns an absolute path. Double-byte
	   characters will not be translated.

	   Returns an array of [mnt_dir, mnt_fsname, mnt_type, mnt_opts].

	     perl -e 'for $i (Cygwin::mount_table) {print join(" ",@$i),"\n";}'
	     /bin c:\cygwin\bin system binmode,cygexec
	     /usr/bin c:\cygwin\bin system binmode
	     /usr/lib c:\cygwin\lib system binmode
	     / c:\cygwin system binmode
	     /cygdrive/c c: system binmode,noumount
	     /cygdrive/d d: system binmode,noumount
	     /cygdrive/e e: system binmode,noumount

	   Returns the mount type and flags for a specified mount point.  A comma-separated
	   string of mntent->mnt_type (always "system" or "user"), then the mntent->mnt_opts,
	   where the first is always "binmode" or "textmode".


	   If the argument is "/cygdrive", then just the volume mount settings, and the cygdrive
	   mount prefix are returned.

	   User mounts override system mounts.

	     $ perl -e 'print Cygwin::mount_flags "/usr/bin"'
	     $ perl -e 'print Cygwin::mount_flags "/cygdrive"'

	   Returns true if the given cygwin path is binary mounted, false if the path is mounted
	   in textmode.

	   Cygwin does not initialize all original Win32 environment variables.  See the bottom
	   of this page http://cygwin.com/cygwin-ug-net/setup-env.html <http://cygwin.com/cygwin-
	   ug-net/setup-env.html> for "Restricted Win32 environment".

	   Certain Win32 programs called from cygwin programs might need some environment
	   variable, such as e.g. ADODB needs %COMMONPROGRAMFILES%.  Call Cygwin::sync_winenv()
	   to copy all Win32 environment variables to your process and note that cygwin will warn
	   on every encounter of non-POSIX paths.

       This will install Perl, including man pages.

	 make install 2>&1 | tee log.make-install

       NOTE: If "STDERR" is redirected "make install" will not prompt you to install perl into

       You may need to be Administrator to run "make install".	If you are not, you must have
       write access to the directories in question.

       Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML format can be found in the
       INSTALL document.

       These are the files in the Perl release that contain references to Cygwin.  These very
       brief notes attempt to explain the reason for all conditional code.  Hopefully, keeping
       this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to be kept as clean as possible.

	     pod/perl.pod pod/perlport.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod
	     pod/perldelta.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod pod/perl56delta.pod
	     pod/perl561delta.pod pod/perl570delta.pod pod/perl572delta.pod
	     pod/perl573delta.pod pod/perl58delta.pod pod/perl581delta.pod
	     pod/perl590delta.pod pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod
	     pod/perltoc.pod Porting/Glossary pod/perlgit.pod
	     dist/Cwd/Changes ext/Compress-Raw-Zlib/Changes
	     ext/Compress-Raw-Zlib/README ext/Compress-Zlib/Changes
	     ext/DB_File/Changes ext/Encode/Changes ext/Sys-Syslog/Changes
	     ext/Time-HiRes/Changes ext/Win32API-File/Changes lib/CGI/Changes
	     lib/ExtUtils/CBuilder/Changes lib/ExtUtils/Changes lib/ExtUtils/NOTES
	     lib/ExtUtils/PATCHING lib/ExtUtils/README lib/Module/Build/Changes
	     lib/Net/Ping/Changes lib/Test/Harness/Changes
	     lib/Term/ANSIColor/ChangeLog lib/Term/ANSIColor/README README.symbian

       Build, Configure, Make, Install
	     Configure		   - help finding hints from uname,
				     shared libperl required for dynamic loading
	     Makefile.SH Cross/Makefile-cross-SH
				   - linklibperl
	     Porting/patchls	   - cygwin in port list
	     installman 	   - man pages with :: translated to .
	     installperl	   - install dll, install to 'pods'
	     makedepend.SH	   - uwinfix
	     regen_lib.pl	   - file permissions

	     symbian/sanity.pl symbian/sisify.pl
	     win32/Makefile win32/makefile.mk

	     t/io/fs.t		   - no file mode checks if not ntsec
				     skip rename() check when not check_case:relaxed
	     t/io/tell.t	   - binmode
	     t/lib/cygwin.t	   - builtin cygwin function tests
	     t/op/groups.t	   - basegroup has ID = 0
	     t/op/magic.t	   - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
	     t/op/stat.t	   - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
				     (cache manager sometimes preserves ctime of file
				     previously created and deleted), no -u (setuid)
	     t/op/taint.t	   - can't use empty path under Cygwin Perl
	     t/op/time.t	   - no tzset()

       Compiled Perl Source
	     EXTERN.h		   - __declspec(dllimport)
	     XSUB.h		   - __declspec(dllexport)
	     cygwin/cygwin.c	   - os_extras (getcwd, spawn, and several Cygwin:: functions)
	     perl.c		   - os_extras, -i.bak
	     perl.h		   - binmode
	     doio.c		   - win9x can not rename a file when it is open
	     pp_sys.c		   - do not define h_errno, init _pwent_struct.pw_comment
	     util.c		   - use setenv
	     util.h		   - PERL_FILE_IS_ABSOLUTE macro
	     pp.c		   - Comment about Posix vs IEEE math under Cygwin
	     perlio.c		   - CR/LF mode
	     perliol.c		   - Comment about EXTCONST under Cygwin

       Compiled Module Source
				   - Can't install via CPAN shell under Cygwin
				   - Cygwin is Unix-like and has vsnprintf
	     ext/Errno/Errno_pm.PL - Special handling for Win32 Perl under Cygwin
	     ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs    - tzname defined externally
				   - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
				   - binary open
				   - Cygwin has syslog.h
				   - Convert paths to Windows paths
				   - Various timers not available
				   - Find w32api/windows.h
	     ext/Win32/Makefile.PL - Use various libraries under Cygwin
	     ext/Win32/Win32.xs    - Child dir and child env under Cygwin
				   - _open_osfhandle not implemented under Cygwin
				   - __declspec(dllexport)

       Perl Modules/Scripts
	     ext/B/t/OptreeCheck.pm - Comment about stderr/stdout order under Cygwin
				   - Use binary mode under Cygwin
				   - Convert paths to Windows paths
				   - Comment about various timers not available
				   - _open_osfhandle not implemented under Cygwin
				   - History of Win32CORE under Cygwin
	     lib/CGI.pm 	   - binmode and path separator
	     lib/CPANPLUS/Dist/MM.pm - Commented out code that fails under Win32/Cygwin
				   - OS classifications
				   - Constants for Cygwin
				   - Example of Cygwin report
				   - Abort if running on old Cygwin version
	     lib/Cwd.pm 	   - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
				   - use gcc for ld, and link to libperl.dll.a
				   - Cygwin is Unix-like
	     lib/ExtUtils/Install.pm - Install and rename issues under Cygwin
	     lib/ExtUtils/MM.pm    - OS classifications
	     lib/ExtUtils/MM_Any.pm - Example for Cygwin
				   - require MM_Cygwin.pm
				   - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
	     lib/File/Fetch.pm	   - Comment about quotes using a Cygwin example
	     lib/File/Find.pm	   - on remote drives stat() always sets st_nlink to 1
	     lib/File/Spec/Cygwin.pm - case_tolerant
	     lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
	     lib/File/Spec/Win32.pm - References a message on cygwin.com
	     lib/File/Spec.pm	   - Pulls in lib/File/Spec/Cygwin.pm
	     lib/File/Temp.pm	   - no directory sticky bit
	     lib/Module/Build/Compat.pm - Comment references 'make' under Cygwin
				   - Use '.' for man page separator
	     lib/Module/Build.pm   - Cygwin is Unix-like
	     lib/Module/CoreList.pm - List of all module files and versions
	     lib/Net/Domain.pm	   - No domainname command under Cygwin
	     lib/Net/Netrc.pm	   - Bypass using stat() under Cygwin
	     lib/Net/Ping.pm	   - ECONREFUSED is EAGAIN under Cygwin
	     lib/Pod/Find.pm	   - Set 'pods' dir
	     lib/Pod/Perldoc/ToMan.pm - '-c' switch for pod2man
	     lib/Pod/Perldoc.pm    - Use 'less' pager, and use .exe extension
	     lib/Term/ANSIColor.pm - Cygwin terminal info
	     lib/perl5db.pl	   - use stdin not /dev/tty
	     utils/perlbug.PL	   - Add CYGWIN environment variable to report

       Perl Module Tests

       Support for swapping real and effective user and group IDs is incomplete.  On WinNT Cygwin
       provides "setuid()", "seteuid()", "setgid()" and "setegid()".  However, additional Cygwin
       calls for manipulating WinNT access tokens and security contexts are required.

       Charles Wilson <cwilson@ece.gatech.edu>, Eric Fifer <egf7@columbia.edu>, alexander
       smishlajev <als@turnhere.com>, Steven Morlock <newspost@morlock.net>, Sebastien Barre
       <Sebastien.Barre@utc.fr>, Teun Burgers <burgers@ecn.nl>, Gerrit P. Haase
       <gp@familiehaase.de>, Reini Urban <rurban@cpan.org>, Jan Dubois <jand@activestate.com>,
       Jerry D. Hedden <jdhedden@cpan.org>.

       Last updated: 2012-02-08

perl v5.16.3				    2013-03-04				    PERLCYGWIN(1)
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