Unix/Linux Go Back    


CentOS 7.0 - man page for perlcritic (centos section 1)

Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages
Man Page or Keyword Search:   man
Select Man Page Set:       apropos Keyword Search (sections above)


PERLCRITIC(1)		       User Contributed Perl Documentation		    PERLCRITIC(1)

NAME
       "perlcritic" - Command-line interface to critique Perl source.

SYNOPSIS
	 perlcritic [-12345 | --brutal | --cruel | --harsh | --stern | --gentle]
		    [--severity number | name] [{-p | --profile} file | --noprofile]
		    [--top [ number ]] [--theme expression] [--include pattern]
		    [--exclude pattern] [{-s | --single-policy} pattern]
		    [--only | --noonly] [--profile-strictness {warn|fatal|quiet}]
		    [--force | --noforce] [--statistics] [--statistics-only]
		    [--count | -C] [--verbose {number | format}] [--allow-unsafe]
		    [--color | --nocolor] [--pager pager] [--quiet]
		    [--color-severity-highest color_specification]
		    [--color-severity-high color_specification]
		    [--color-severity-medium color_specification]
		    [--color-severity-low color_specification]
		    [--color-severity-lowest color_specification]
		    [--files-with-violations | -l]
		    [--files-without-violations | -L]
		    [--program-extensions file_name_extension]
		    {FILE | DIRECTORY | STDIN}

	 perlcritic --profile-proto

	 perlcritic { --list | --list-enabled | --list-themes | --doc pattern [...] }

	 perlcritic { --help | --options | --man | --version }

DESCRIPTION
       "perlcritic" is a Perl source code analyzer.  It is the executable front-end to the
       Perl::Critic engine, which attempts to identify awkward, hard to read, error-prone, or
       unconventional constructs in your code.	Most of the rules are based on Damian Conway's
       book Perl Best Practices.  However, "perlcritic" is not limited to enforcing PBP, and it
       will even support rules that contradict Conway.	All rules can easily be configured or
       disabled to your liking.

       This documentation only covers how to drive this command.  For all other information,
       including how to persistently configure this command so that you don't have to say so much
       on the command-line, see the documentation for Perl::Critic itself.

USAGE EXAMPLES
       Before getting into all the gory details, here are some basic usage examples to help get
       you started.

	   # Report only most severe violations (severity = 5)
	   perlcritic YourModule.pm

	   # Same as above, but read input from STDIN
	   perlcritic

	   # Recursively process all Perl files beneath directory
	   perlcritic /some/directory

	   # Report slightly less severe violations too (severity >= 4)
	   perlcritic -4 YourModule.pm

	   # Same as above, but using named severity level
	   perlcritic --stern YourModule.pm

	   # Report all violations, regardless of severity (severity >= 1)
	   perlcritic -1 YourModule.pm

	   # Same as above, but using named severity level
	   perlcritic --brutal YourModule.pm

	   # Report only violations of things from "Perl Best Practices"
	   perlcritic --theme pbp YourModule.pm

	   # Report top 20 most severe violations (severity >= 1)
	   perlcritic --top YourModule.pm

	   # Report additional violations of Policies that match m/variables/xms
	   perlcritic --include variables YourModule.pm

	   # Use defaults from somewhere other than ~/.perlcriticrc
	   perlcriticrc --profile project/specific/perlcriticrc YourModule.pm

ARGUMENTS
       The arguments are paths to the files you wish to analyze.  You may specify multiple files.
       If an argument is a directory, "perlcritic" will analyze all Perl files below the
       directory.  If no arguments are specified, then input is read from STDIN.

OPTIONS
       Option names can be abbreviated to uniqueness and can be stated with singe or double
       dashes, and option values can be separated from the option name by a space or '=' (as with
       Getopt::Long).  Option names are also case-sensitive.

       "--profile FILE" or "-p FILE"
	   Directs "perlcritic" to use a profile named by FILE rather than looking for the
	   default .perlcriticrc file in the current directory or your home directory.	See
	   "CONFIGURATION" in Perl::Critic for more information.

       "--noprofile"
	   Directs "perlcritic" not to load any configuration file, thus reverting to the default
	   configuration for all Policies.

       "--severity N"
	   Directs "perlcritic" to only apply Policies with a severity greater than "N".
	   Severity values are integers ranging from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe).  The
	   default is 5.  For a given "--profile", decreasing the "--severity" will usually
	   produce more violations.  You can set the default value for this option in your
	   .perlcriticrc file.	You can also redefine the "severity" for any Policy in your
	   .perlcriticrc file.	See "CONFIGURATION" for more information.

       "-5 | -4 | -3 | -2 | -1"
	   These are numeric shortcuts for setting the "--severity" option.  For example, "-4" is
	   equivalent to "--severity 4".  If multiple shortcuts are specified, then the most
	   restrictive one wins.  If an explicit "--severity" option is also given, then all
	   shortcut options are silently ignored.  NOTE: Be careful not to put one of the number
	   severity shortcut options immediately after the "--top" flag or "perlcritic" will
	   interpret it as the number of violations to report.

       "--severity NAME"
	   If it is difficult for you to remember whether severity "5" is the most or least
	   restrictive level, then you can use one of these named values:

	       SEVERITY NAME   ...is equivalent to...	SEVERITY NUMBER
	       --------------------------------------------------------
	       --severity gentle			   --severity 5
	       --severity stern 			   --severity 4
	       --severity harsh 			   --severity 3
	       --severity cruel 			   --severity 2
	       --severity brutal			   --severity 1

       "--gentle | --stern | --harsh | --cruel | --brutal"
	   These are named shortcuts for setting the "--severity" option.  For example, "--cruel"
	   is equivalent to "--severity 2".  If multiple shortcuts are specified, then the most
	   restrictive one wins.  If an explicit "--severity" option is also given, then all
	   shortcut options are silently ignored.

       "--theme RULE"
	   Directs "perlcritic" to apply only Policies with themes that satisfy the "RULE".
	   Themes are arbitrary names for groups of related policies.  You can combine theme
	   names with boolean operators to create an arbitrarily complex "RULE".  For example,
	   the following would apply only Policies that have a 'bugs' AND 'pbp' theme:

	       $> perlcritic --theme='bugs && pbp' MyModule.pm

	   Unless the "--severity" option is explicitly given, setting "--theme" silently causes
	   the "--severity" to be set to 1.  You can set the default value for this option in
	   your .perlcriticrc file.  See "POLICY THEMES" in Perl::Critic for more information
	   about themes.

       "--include PATTERN"
	   Directs "perlcritic" to apply additional Policies that match the regex "/PATTERN/imx".
	   Use this option to temporarily override your profile and/or the severity settings at
	   the command-line.  For example:

	       perlcritic --include=layout my_file.pl

	   This would cause "perlcritic" to apply all the "CodeLayout::*" policies even if they
	   have a severity level that is less than the default level of 5, or have been disabled
	   in your .perlcriticrc file.	You can specify multiple "--include" options and you can
	   use it in conjunction with the "--exclude" option.  Note that "--exclude" takes
	   precedence over "--include" when a Policy matches both patterns.  You can set the
	   default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

       "--exclude PATTERN"
	   Directs "perlcritic" to not apply any Policy that matches the regex "/PATTERN/imx".
	   Use this option to temporarily override your profile and/or the severity settings at
	   the command-line.  For example:

	       perlcritic --exclude=strict my_file.pl

	   This would cause "perlcritic" to not apply the "RequireUseStrict" and
	   "ProhibitNoStrict" Policies even though they have the highest severity level.  You can
	   specify multiple "--exclude" options and you can use it in conjunction with the
	   "--include" option.	Note that "--exclude" takes precedence over "--include" when a
	   Policy matches both patterns.  You can set the default value for this option in your
	   .perlcriticrc file.

       "--single-policy PATTERN" or "-s PATTERN"
	   Directs "perlcritic" to apply just one Policy module matching the regex
	   "/PATTERN/ixms", and exclude all other Policies.  This option has precedence over the
	   "--severity", "--theme", "--include", "--exclude", and "--only" options.  For example:

	       perlcritic --single-policy=nowarnings my_file.pl

	   This would cause "perlcritic" to apply just the "ProhibitNoWarnings" Policy,
	   regardless of the severity level setting.  No other Policies would be applied.

	   This is equivalent to what one might intend by...

	       perlcritic --exclude=. --include=nowarnings my_file.pl

	   ... but this won't work because the "--exclude" option overrides the "--include"
	   option.

	   The equivalent of this option can be accomplished by creating a custom profile
	   containing only the desired policy and then running...

	       perlcritic --profile=customprofile --only my_file.pl

       "--top [ N ]"
	   Directs "perlcritic" to report only the top "N" Policy violations in each file, ranked
	   by their severity.  If "N" is not specified, it defaults to 20.  If the "--severity"
	   option (or one of the shortcuts) is not explicitly given, the "--top" option implies
	   that the minimum severity level is "1" (i.e. "brutal"). Users can redefine the
	   severity for any Policy in their .perlcriticrc file.  See "CONFIGURATION" for more
	   information.  You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc
	   file.  NOTE: Be careful not to put one of the severity shortcut options immediately
	   after the "--top" flag or "perlcritic" will interpret it as the number of violations
	   to report.

       "--force"
	   Directs "perlcritic" to ignore the magical "## no critic" annotations in the source
	   code. See "BENDING THE RULES" for more information.	You can set the default value for
	   this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

       "--statistics"
	   Causes several statistics about the code being scanned and the violations found to be
	   reported after any other output.

       "--statistics-only"
	   Like the "--statistics" option, but suppresses normal output and only shows the
	   statistics.

       "--verbose N | FORMAT"
	   Sets the verbosity level or format for reporting violations.  If given a number ("N"),
	   "perlcritic" reports violations using one of the predefined formats described below.
	   If given a string ("FORMAT"), it is interpreted to be an actual format specification.
	   If the "--verbose" option is not specified, it defaults to either 4 or 5, depending on
	   whether multiple files were given as arguments to "perlcritic".  You can set the
	   default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

	       Verbosity     Format Specification
	       -----------   -------------------------------------------------------
		1	     "%f:%l:%c:%m\n",
		2	     "%f: (%l:%c) %m\n",
		3	     "%m at %f line %l\n",
		4	     "%m at line %l, column %c.  %e.  (Severity: %s)\n",
		5	     "%f: %m at line %l, column %c.  %e.  (Severity: %s)\n",
		6	     "%m at line %l, near '%r'.  (Severity: %s)\n",
		7	     "%f: %m at line %l near '%r'.  (Severity: %s)\n",
		8	     "[%p] %m at line %l, column %c.  (Severity: %s)\n",
		9	     "[%p] %m at line %l, near '%r'.  (Severity: %s)\n",
	       10	     "%m at line %l, column %c.\n  %p (Severity: %s)\n%d\n",
	       11	     "%m at line %l, near '%r'.\n  %p (Severity: %s)\n%d\n"

	   Formats are a combination of literal and escape characters similar to the way
	   "sprintf" works.  See String::Format for a full explanation of the formatting
	   capabilities.  Valid escape characters are:

	       Escape	 Meaning
	       -------	 ------------------------------------------------------------
	       %c	 Column number where the violation occurred
	       %d	 Full diagnostic discussion of the violation
	       %e	 Explanation of violation or page numbers in PBP
	       %F	 Just the name of the file where the violation occurred.
	       %f	 Path to the file where the violation occurred.
	       %l	 Line number where the violation occurred
	       %m	 Brief description of the violation
	       %P	 Full name of the Policy module that created the violation
	       %p	 Name of the Policy without the Perl::Critic::Policy:: prefix
	       %r	 The string of source code that caused the violation
	       %C	 The class of the PPI::Element that caused the violation
	       %s	 The severity level of the violation

	   The purpose of these formats is to provide some compatibility with text editors that
	   have an interface for parsing certain kinds of input. See "EDITOR INTEGRATION" for
	   more information about that.

       "--list"
	   Displays a condensed listing of all the Perl::Critic::Policy modules that are found on
	   this machine.  This option lists all Policies, regardless of your .perlcriticrc or
	   command line options.  For each Policy, the name, default severity and default themes
	   are shown.

       "--list-enabled"
	   Displays a condensed listing of all the Perl::Critic::Policy modules that would be
	   enforced, if you were actually going to critique a file with this command.  This is
	   useful when you've constructed a complicated command or modified your .perlcriticrc
	   file and you want to see exactly which Policies are going to be enforced (or not
	   enforced, as the case may be). For each Policy, the name, default severity and default
	   themes are shown.

       "--list-themes"
	   Displays a list of all the themes of the Perl::Critic::Policy modules that are found
	   on this machine.

       "--profile-proto"
	   Displays an expanded listing of all the Perl::Critic::Policy modules that are found on
	   this machine.  For each Policy, the name, default severity and default themes are
	   shown, as well as the name of any additional parameters that the Policy supports.  The
	   format is suitable as a prototype for your .perlcriticrc file.

       "--only"
	   Directs perlcritic to apply only Policies that are explicitly mentioned in your
	   .perlcriticrc file.	This is useful if you want to use just a small subset of Policies
	   without having to disable all the others.  You can set the default value for this
	   option in your .perlcriticrc file.

       "--profile-strictness {warn|fatal|quiet}"
	   Directs perlcritic how to treat certain recoverable problems found in a .perlcriticrc
	   or file specified via the "--profile" option.  Valid values are "warn" (the default),
	   "fatal", and "quiet".  For example, perlcritic normally only warns about profiles
	   referring to non-existent Policies, but this option can make this situation fatal.
	   You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

       "--count"
       "-C"
	   Display only the number of violations for each file.  Use this feature to get a quick
	   handle on where a large pile of code might need the most attention.

       "--Safari"
	   Report "Perl Best Practice" citations as section numbers from
	   <http://safari.oreilly.com> instead of page numbers from the actual book.  NOTE: This
	   feature is not implemented yet.

       "--color"
	   This option is on when outputting to a tty.	When set, Severity 5 and 4 are colored
	   red and yellow, respectively.  Colorization only happens if Term::ANSIColor is
	   installed and it only works on non-Windows environments.  Negate this switch to
	   disable color.  You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc
	   file.

	   Can also be specified as "--colour".

       "--pager PAGER_COMMAND_STRING"
	   If set, perlcritic will pipe it's output to the given PAGER_COMMAND_STRING.	You can
	   set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

	   Setting a pager turns off color by default.	You will have to turn color on
	   explicitly.	If you want color, you'll probably also want to tell your pager to
	   display raw characters.  For "less" and "more", use the -R switch.

       "--color-severity-highest COLOR_SPECIFICATION"
	   Specifies the color to be used for highest severity violations, as a Term::ANSIColor
	   color specification. Can also be specified as "--colour-severity-highest",
	   "--color-severity-5", or "--colour-severity-5".

       "--color-severity-high COLOR_SPECIFICATION"
	   Specifies the color to be used for high severity violations, as a Term::ANSIColor
	   color specification. Can also be specified as "--colour-severity-high",
	   "--color-severity-4", or "--colour-severity-4".

       "--color-severity-medium COLOR_SPECIFICATION"
	   Specifies the color to be used for medium severity violations, as a Term::ANSIColor
	   color specification. Can also be specified as "--colour-severity-medium",
	   "--color-severity-3", or "--colour-severity-3".

       "--color-severity-low COLOR_SPECIFICATION"
	   Specifies the color to be used for low severity violations, as a Term::ANSIColor color
	   specification. Can also be specified as "--colour-severity-low", "--color-severity-2",
	   or "--colour-severity-2".

       "--color-severity-lowest COLOR_SPECIFICATION"
	   Specifies the color to be used for lowest severity violations, as a Term::ANSIColor
	   color specification. Can also be specified as "--colour-severity-lowest",
	   "--color-severity-1", or "--colour-severity-1".

       "--files-with-violations"
	   Display only the names of files with violations.  Use this feature with
	   --single-policy to find files that contain violations of a given policy. Can also be
	   specified as "--l".

       "--files-without-violations"
	   Display only the names of files without violations.	Use this feature with
	   --single-policy to find files that do not contain violations of a given policy. Can
	   also be specified as "--L".

       "--program-extensions file_name_extension"
	   Tell "perlcritic" to treat files whose names end in the given file name extension as
	   programs, not as modules. If a leading '.' is desired it must be explicitly specified,
	   e.g.

	       --program-extensions .pl

	   The matching is case-sensitive, and the option may be specified as many times as
	   desired, e.g.

	       --program-extensions .pl --program-extensions .cgi

	   The above can also be done by quoting the file name extensions:

	       --program-extensions '.pl .cgi'

	   Files whose name ends in '.PL' will always be considered programs.

       "--doc PATTERN"
	   Displays the perldoc for all Perl::Critic::Policy modules that match "m/PATTERN/ixms".
	   Since Policy modules tend to have rather long names, this just provides a more
	   convenient way to say something like: "perldoc
	   Perl::Critic::Policy::ValuesAndExpressions::RequireUpperCaseHeredocTerminator" at the
	   command prompt.

       "--allow-unsafe"
	   This option directs "perlcritic" to allow the use of Policies that have been marked as
	   "unsafe".  Unsafe Policies may result in risky operations by compiling and executing
	   the code they analyze.  All the Policies that ship in the core Perl::Critic
	   distribution are safe.  However, third-party Policies, such as those in the
	   Perl::Critic::Dynamic distribution are not safe.  Note that "safety" is honorary -- if
	   a Policy author marks a Policy as safe, it is not a guarantee that it won't do nasty
	   things.  If you don't trust your Policies and the code you are analyzing, then do not
	   use this switch.

       "--quiet"
	   Suppress the "source OK" message when no violations are found.

       "--help"
       "-?"
       "-H"
	   Displays a brief summary of options and exits.

       "--options"
	   Displays the descriptions of the options and exits.	While this output is long, it it
	   nowhere near the length of the output of "--man".

       "--man"
	   Displays the complete "perlcritic" manual and exits.

       "--version"
       "-V"
	   Displays the version number of "perlcritic" and exits.

CONFIGURATION
       Most of the settings for Perl::Critic and each of the Policy modules can be controlled by
       a configuration file.  The default configuration file is called .perlcriticrc.
       "perlcritic" will look for this file in the current directory first, and then in your home
       directory.  Alternatively, you can set the "PERLCRITIC" environment variable to explicitly
       point to a different file in another location.  If none of these files exist, and the
       "--profile" option is not given on the command-line, then all Policies will be loaded with
       their default configuration.

       The format of the configuration file is a series of INI-style blocks that contain key-
       value pairs separated by "=". Comments should start with "#" and can be placed on a
       separate line or after the name-value pairs if you desire.

       Default settings for perlcritic itself can be set before the first named block. For
       example, putting any or all of these at the top of your .perlcriticrc file will set the
       default value for the corresponding command-line argument.

	   severity  = 3				     #Integer or named level
	   only      = 1				     #Zero or One
	   force     = 0				     #Zero or One
	   verbose   = 4				     #Integer or format spec
	   top	     = 50				     #A positive integer
	   theme     = (pbp + security) * bugs		     #A theme expression
	   include   = NamingConventions ClassHierarchies    #Space-delimited list
	   exclude   = Variables  Modules::RequirePackage    #Space-delimited list

       The remainder of the configuration file is a series of blocks like this:

	   [Perl::Critic::Policy::Category::PolicyName]
	   severity = 1
	   set_themes = foo bar
	   add_themes = baz
	   arg1 = value1
	   arg2 = value2

       "Perl::Critic::Policy::Category::PolicyName" is the full name of a module that implements
       the policy.  The Policy modules distributed with Perl::Critic have been grouped into
       categories according to the table of contents in Damian Conway's book Perl Best Practices.
       For brevity, you can omit the 'Perl::Critic::Policy' part of the module name.

       "severity" is the level of importance you wish to assign to the Policy.	All Policy
       modules are defined with a default severity value ranging from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most
       severe).  However, you may disagree with the default severity and choose to give it a
       higher or lower severity, based on your own coding philosophy.  You can set the "severity"
       to an integer from 1 to 5, or use one of the equivalent names:

	   SEVERITY NAME ...is equivalent to... SEVERITY NUMBER
	   ----------------------------------------------------
	   gentle					      5
	   stern					      4
	   harsh					      3
	   cruel					      2
	   brutal					      1

       "set_themes" sets the theme for the Policy and overrides its default theme.  The argument
       is a string of one or more whitespace-delimited alphanumeric words.  Themes are case-
       insensitive.  See "POLICY THEMES" for more information.

       "add_themes" appends to the default themes for this Policy.  The argument is a string of
       one or more whitespace-delimited words.	Themes are case-insensitive.  See "POLICY THEMES"
       for more information.

       The remaining key-value pairs are configuration parameters that will be passed into the
       constructor of that Policy.  The constructors for most Policy modules do not support
       arguments, and those that do should have reasonable defaults.  See the documentation on
       the appropriate Policy module for more details.

       Instead of redefining the severity for a given Policy, you can completely disable a Policy
       by prepending a '-' to the name of the module in your configuration file.  In this manner,
       the Policy will never be loaded, regardless of the "--severity" given on the command line.

       A simple configuration might look like this:

	   #--------------------------------------------------------------
	   # I think these are really important, so always load them

	   [TestingAndDebugging::RequireUseStrict]
	   severity = 5

	   [TestingAndDebugging::RequireUseWarnings]
	   severity = 5

	   #--------------------------------------------------------------
	   # I think these are less important, so only load when asked

	   [Variables::ProhibitPackageVars]
	   severity = 2

	   [ControlStructures::ProhibitPostfixControls]
	   allow = if unless  # My custom configuration
	   severity = cruel   # Same as "severity = 2"

	   #--------------------------------------------------------------
	   # Give these policies a custom theme.  I can activate just
	   # these policies by saying "perlcritic --theme 'larry || curly'"

	   [Modules::RequireFilenameMatchesPackage]
	   add_themes = larry

	   [TestingAndDebugging::RequireTestLabels]
	   add_themes = curly moe

	   #--------------------------------------------------------------
	   # I do not agree with these at all, so never load them

	   [-NamingConventions::Capitalization]
	   [-ValuesAndExpressions::ProhibitMagicNumbers]

	   #--------------------------------------------------------------
	   # For all other Policies, I accept the default severity,
	   # so no additional configuration is required for them.

       Note that all policies included with the Perl::Critic distribution that have integer
       parameters accept underscores ("_") in their values, as with Perl numeric literals.  For
       example,

	   [ValuesAndExpressions::RequireNumberSeparators]
	   min_value = 1_000

       For additional configuration examples, see the perlcriticrc file that is included in this
       examples directory of this distribution.

       Damian Conway's own Perl::Critic configuration is also included in this distribution as
       examples/perlcriticrc-conway.

THE POLICIES
       A large number of Policy modules are distributed with Perl::Critic.  They are described
       briefly in the companion document Perl::Critic::PolicySummary and in more detail in the
       individual modules themselves.  Say "perlcritic --doc PATTERN" to see the perldoc for all
       Policy modules that match the regex "m/PATTERN/ixms"

       There are a number of distributions of additional policies on CPAN.  If Perl::Critic
       doesn't contain a policy that you want, some one may have already written it.  See "SEE
       ALSO" in Perl::Critic for a list of some of these distributions.

POLICY THEMES
       Each Policy is defined with one or more "themes".  Themes can be used to create arbitrary
       groups of Policies.  They are intended to provide an alternative mechanism for selecting
       your preferred set of Policies.	For example, you may wish disable a certain set of
       Policies when analyzing test programs.  Conversely, you may wish to enable only a specific
       subset of Policies when analyzing modules.

       The Policies that ship with Perl::Critic are have been divided into the following themes.
       This is just our attempt to provide some basic logical groupings.  You are free to invent
       new themes that suit your needs.

	   THEME	     DESCRIPTION
	   ------------------------------------------------------------------------
	   core 	     All policies that ship with Perl::Critic
	   pbp		     Policies that come directly from "Perl Best Practices"
	   bugs 	     Policies that that prevent or reveal bugs
	   maintenance	     Policies that affect the long-term health of the code
	   cosmetic	     Policies that only have a superficial effect
	   complexity	     Policies that specificaly relate to code complexity
	   security	     Policies that relate to security issues
	   tests	     Policies that are specific to test programs

       Say "perlcritic --list" to get a listing of all available policies and the themes that are
       associated with each one.  You can also change the theme for any Policy in your
       .perlcriticrc file.  See the "CONFIGURATION" section for more information about that.

       Using the "--theme" command-line option, you can create an arbitrarily complex rule that
       determines which Policies to apply.  Precedence is the same as regular Perl code, and you
       can use parentheses to enforce precedence as well.  Supported operators are:

	   Operator    Altertative    Example
	   -----------------------------------------------------------------
	   &&	       and	      'pbp && core'
	   ||	       or	      'pbp || (bugs && security)'
	   !	       not	      'pbp && ! (portability || complexity)'

       Theme names are case-insensitive.  If the "--theme" is set to an empty string, then it
       evaluates as true all Policies.

BENDING THE RULES
       Perl::Critic takes a hard-line approach to your code: either you comply or you don't.  In
       the real world, it is not always practical (or even possible) to fully comply with coding
       standards.  In such cases, it is wise to show that you are knowingly violating the
       standards and that you have a Damn Good Reason (DGR) for doing so.

       To help with those situations, you can direct Perl::Critic to ignore certain lines or
       blocks of code by using annotations:

	 require 'LegacyLibaray1.pl';  ## no critic
	 require 'LegacyLibrary2.pl';  ## no critic

	 for my $element (@list) {

	     ## no critic

	     $foo = ""; 	      #Violates 'ProhibitEmptyQuotes'
	     $barf = bar() if $foo;   #Violates 'ProhibitPostfixControls'
	     #Some more evil code...

	     ## use critic

	     #Some good code...
	     do_something($_);
	 }

       The "## no critic" annotations direct Perl::Critic to ignore the remaining lines of code
       until a "## use critic" annotation is found. If the "## no critic" annotation is on the
       same line as a code statement, then only that line of code is overlooked.  To direct
       perlcritic to ignore the "## no critic" annotations, use the "--force" option.

       A bare "## no critic" annotation disables all the active Policies.  If you wish to disable
       only specific Policies, add a list of Policy names as arguments just as you would for the
       "no strict" or "no warnings" pragma.  For example, this would disable the
       "ProhibitEmptyQuotes" and "ProhibitPostfixControls" policies until the end of the block or
       until the next "## use critic" annotation (whichever comes first):

	   ## no critic (EmptyQuotes, PostfixControls);

	   # Now exempt from ValuesAndExpressions::ProhibitEmptyQuotes
	   $foo = "";

	   # Now exempt ControlStructures::ProhibitPostfixControls
	   $barf = bar() if $foo;

	   # Still subject to ValuesAndExpression::RequireNumberSeparators
	   $long_int = 10000000000;

       Since the Policy names are matched against the "## no critic" arguments as regular
       expressions, you can abbreviate the Policy names or disable an entire family of Policies
       in one shot like this:

	   ## no critic (NamingConventions)

	   # Now exempt from NamingConventions::Capitalization
	   my $camelHumpVar = 'foo';

	   # Now exempt from NamingConventions::Capitalization
	   sub camelHumpSub {}

       The argument list must be enclosed in parentheses and must contain one or more comma-
       separated barewords (i.e. don't use quotes).  The "## no critic" annotations can be
       nested, and Policies named by an inner annotation will be disabled along with those
       already disabled an outer annotation.

       Some Policies like "Subroutines::ProhibitExcessComplexity" apply to an entire block of
       code.  In those cases, "## no critic" must appear on the line where the violation is
       reported.  For example:

	   sub complicated_function {  ## no critic (ProhibitExcessComplexity)
	       # Your code here...
	   }

       Some Policies like "Documentation::RequirePodSections" apply to the entire document, in
       which case violations are reported at line 1.  But if the file requires a shebang line, it
       is impossible to put "## no critic" on the first line of the file.  This is a known
       limitation and it will be addressed in a future release.  As a workaround, you can disable
       the affected policies at the command-line or in your .perlcriticrc file.  But beware that
       this will affect the analysis of all files.

       Use this feature wisely.  "## no critic" should be used in the smallest possible scope, or
       only on individual lines of code. And you should always be as specific as possible about
       which policies you want to disable (i.e. never use a bare "## no critic").  If
       Perl::Critic complains about your code, try and find a compliant solution before resorting
       to this feature.

EDITOR INTEGRATION
       For ease-of-use, "perlcritic" can be integrated with your favorite text editor.	The
       output-formatting capabilities of "perlcritic" are specifically intended for use with the
       "grep" or "compile" modes available in editors like "emacs" and "vim".  In these modes,
       you can run an arbitrary command and the editor will parse the output into an interactive
       buffer that you can click on and jump to the relevant line of code.

       The Perl::Critic team thanks everyone who has helped integrate Perl-Critic with their
       favorite editor.  Your contributions in particular have made Perl-Critic a convenient and
       user-friendly tool for Perl developers of all stripes.  We sincerely appreciate your hard
       work.

   EMACS
       Joshua ben Jore has authored a minor-mode for emacs that allows you to run perlcritic on
       the current region or buffer.  You can run it on demand, or configure it to run
       automatically when you save the buffer.	The output appears in a hot-linked compiler
       buffer.	The code and installation instructions can be found in the extras directory
       inside this distribution.

   VIM
       Scott Peshak has published perlchecker.vim, which is available at
       <http://www.vim.org/scripts/script.php?script_id=1731>.

   gVIM
       Fritz Mehner recently added support for "perlcritic" to his fantastic gVIM plugin.  In
       addition to providing a very Perlish IDE, Fritz's plugin enables one-click access to
       "perlcritic" and many other very useful utilities.  And all is seamlessly integrated into
       the editor.  See <http://lug.fh-swf.de/vim/vim-perl/screenshots-en.html> for complete
       details.

   EPIC
       EPIC is an open source Perl IDE based on the Eclipse platform.  Features include syntax
       highlighting, on-the-fly syntax check, content assist, code completion, perldoc support,
       source formatting with Perl::Tidy, code templates, a regular expression editing tool, and
       integration with the Perl debugger.  Recent versions of EPIC also have built-in support
       for Perl::Critic.  At least one Perl::Critic contributor swears by EPIC.  Go to
       <http://e-p-i-c.sourceforge.net> for more information about EPIC.

   BBEdit
       Josh Clark has produced an excellent Perl-Critic plugin for BBEdit. See
       <http://globalmoxie.com/projects/bbedit-perl-critic/index.shtml> for download,
       installation, and usage instructions.  Apple users rejoice!

   Komodo
       Komodo is a proprietary IDE for Perl and several other dynamic languages.  Starting in
       version 5.1.1, Komodo has built-in support for Perl-Critic, if you have the Perl::Critic
       and criticism modules installed.  Free trial copies of Komodo can be obtained from the
       ActiveState website at <http://www.activestate.com>.

   ActivePerl
       ActivePerl includes a very slick graphical interface for configuring and running Perl-
       Critic called "perlcritic-gui".	A free community edition of ActivePerl can be obtained
       from the ActiveState website at <http://www.activestate.com>.

EXIT STATUS
       If "perlcritic" has any errors itself, exits with status == 1.  If there are no errors,
       but "perlcritic" finds Policy violations in your source code, exits with status == 2.  If
       there were no errors and no violations were found, exits with status == 0.

THE Perl::Critic PHILOSOPHY
	   Coding standards are deeply personal and highly subjective.	The goal of Perl::Critic
	   is to help you write code that conforms with a set of best practices.  Our primary
	   goal is not to dictate what those practices are, but rather, to implement the
	   practices discovered by others.  Ultimately, you make the rules -- Perl::Critic is
	   merely a tool for encouraging consistency.  If there is a policy that you think is
	   important or that we have overlooked, we would be very grateful for contributions, or
	   you can simply load your own private set of policies into Perl::Critic.

EXTENDING THE CRITIC
       The modular design of Perl::Critic is intended to facilitate the addition of new Policies.
       You'll need to have some understanding of PPI, but most Policy modules are pretty
       straightforward and only require about 20 lines of code, and half of those lines are
       simple use statements and simple declarations..	Please see the Perl::Critic::DEVELOPER
       file included in this distribution for a step-by-step demonstration of how to create new
       Policy modules.

       If you develop any new Policy modules, feel free to send them to
       "<jeff@imaginative-software.com>" and I'll be happy to put them into the Perl::Critic
       distribution.  Or if you would like to work on the Perl::Critic project directly, check
       out our repository at <http://perlcritic.tigris.org>.  To subscribe to our mailing list,
       send a message to <mailto:dev-subscribe@perlcritic.tigris.org>.

       The Perl::Critic team is also available for hire.  If your organization has its own coding
       standards, we can create custom Policies to enforce your local guidelines.  Or if your
       code base is prone to a particular defect pattern, we can design Policies that will help
       you catch those costly defects before they go into production.  To discuss your needs with
       the Perl::Critic team, just contact "<jeff@imaginative-software.com>".

CONTACTING THE DEVELOPMENT TEAM
       You are encouraged to subscribe to the mailing list; send a message to
       <mailto:users-subscribe@perlcritic.tigris.org>.	See also the archives at
       <http://perlcritic.tigris.org/servlets/SummarizeList?listName=users>.  You can also
       contact the author at "<jeff@imaginative-software.com>".

       At least one member of the development team has started hanging around in
       <irc://irc.perl.org/#perlcritic>.

       You can also follow Perl::Critic on Twitter, at <https://twitter.com/perlcritic>.

SEE ALSO
       There are a number of distributions of additional Policies available.  A few are listed
       here:

       Perl::Critic::More Perl::Critic::Bangs Perl::Critic::Lax Perl::Critic::StricterSubs
       Perl::Critic::Swift

       These distributions enable you to use Perl::Critic in your unit tests:

       Test::Perl::Critic Test::Perl::Critic::Progressive

       There is also a distribution that will install all the Perl::Critic related modules known
       to the development team:

       Task::Perl::Critic

       Also, ActivePerl includes a very slick graphical interface to Perl-Critic called
       "perlcritic-gui".  You can get a free community edition of ActivePerl from
       <http://www.activestate.com>.

BUGS
       Scrutinizing Perl code is hard for humans, let alone machines.  If you find any bugs,
       particularly false-positives or false-negatives from a Perl::Critic::Policy, please submit
       them to <http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/Bugs.html?Dist=Perl-Critic>.	Thanks.

       Most policies will produce false-negatives if they cannot understand a particular block of
       code.

CREDITS
       Adam Kennedy - For creating PPI, the heart and soul of Perl::Critic.

       Damian Conway - For writing Perl Best Practices, finally :)

       Chris Dolan - For contributing the best features and Policy modules.

       Andy Lester - Wise sage and master of all-things-testing.

       Elliot Shank - The self-proclaimed quality freak.

       Giuseppe Maxia - For all the great ideas and positive encouragement.

       and Sharon, my wife - For putting up with my all-night code sessions.

AUTHOR
       Jeffrey Ryan Thalhammer <jeff@imaginative-software.com>

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (c) 2005-2011 Imaginative Software Systems.  All rights reserved.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.  The full text of this license can be found in the LICENSE file
       included with this module.

perl v5.16.3				    2014-06-09				    PERLCRITIC(1)
Unix & Linux Commands & Man Pages : ©2000 - 2018 Unix and Linux Forums


All times are GMT -4. The time now is 09:49 AM.