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PDFROFF(1)									       PDFROFF(1)

NAME
       pdfroff - create PDF documents using groff

SYNOPSIS
       pdfroff [-abcegilpstzCEGNRSUVXZ] [-d cs] [-f fam] [-F dir] [-I dir] [-L arg] [-m name]
	       [-M dir] [-n num] [-o list] [-P arg] [-r cn] [-T dev] [-w name] [-W name]
	       [--emit-ps] [--no-toc-relocation] [--no-kill-null-pages] [--stylesheet=name]
	       [--no-pdf-output] [--pdf-output=name] [--no-reference-dictionary]
	       [--reference-dictionary=name] [--report-progress] [--keep-temporary-files] file
	       ...
       pdfroff -h | --help
       pdfroff -v | --version [option ...]

DESCRIPTION
       pdfroff is a wrapper program for the GNU text processing system, groff.	It  transparently
       handles	the  mechanics of multiple pass groff processing, when applied to suitably marked
       up groff source files, such that tables of contents and	body  text  are  formatted  sepa-
       rately,	and  are  subsequently	combined in the correct order, for final publication as a
       single PDF document.  A further optional "style sheet" capability is provided; this allows
       for  the  definition of content which is required to precede the table of contents, in the
       published document.

       For each invocation of pdfroff, the ultimate groff output stream is post-processed by  the
       GhostScript interpreter, to produce a finished PDF document.

       pdfroff	makes  no assumptions about, and imposes no restrictions on, the use of any groff
       macro packages which the user may choose to employ, in order to achieve a desired document
       format;	however, it does include specific built in support for the pdfmark macro package,
       should the user choose to employ it.  Specifically, if the pdfhref macro, defined  in  the
       pdfmark.tmac  package,  is used to define public reference marks, or dynamic links to such
       reference marks, then pdfroff performs as many preformatting groff passes as required,  up
       to  a  maximum  limit  of  four,  in  order to compile a document reference dictionary, to
       resolve references, and to expand the dynamically defined content of links.

USAGE
       The command line is parsed in accordance with normal GNU conventions, but with one  excep-
       tion  -- when specifying any short form option (i.e., a single character option introduced
       by a single hyphen), and if that option expects an argument, then  it  must  be	specified
       independently  (i.e.,  it may not be appended to any group of other single character short
       form options).

       Long form option names (i.e., those introduced by a double hyphen) may be  abbreviated  to
       their minimum length unambiguous initial substring.

       Otherwise, pdfroff usage closely mirrors that of groff itself.  Indeed, with the exception
       of the -h, -v, and -T dev short form options, and all long form options, which are  parsed
       internally  by  pdfroff, all options and file name arguments specified on the command line
       are passed on to groff, to control the formatting  of  the  PDF	document.   Consequently,
       pdfroff	accepts  all  options  and arguments, as specified in groff(1), which may also be
       considered as the definitive reference for  all	standard  pdfroff  options  and  argument
       usage.

OPTIONS
       pdfroff accepts all of the short form options (i.e., those introduced by a single hyphen),
       which are available with groff itself.  In most cases, these are simply	passed	transpar-
       ently to groff; the following, however, are handled specially by pdfroff.

       -h     Same as --help; see below.

       -i     Process  standard  input,  after	all  other specified input files.  This is passed
	      transparently to groff, but, if grouped with other options, it must be the first in
	      the  group.  Hiding it within a group breaks standard input processing, in the mul-
	      tiple pass groff processing context of pdfroff.

       -T dev Only -T ps is supported by pdfroff.  Attempting to specify any other device  causes
	      pdfroff to abort.

       -v     Same as --version; see below.

       See  groff(1)  for  a description of all other short form options, which are transparently
       passed through pdfroff to groff.

       All long form options (i.e., those introduced by a double hyphen) are interpreted  locally
       by pdfroff; they are not passed on to groff, unless otherwise stated below.

       --help Causes pdfroff to display a summary of the its usage syntax, and supported options,
	      and then exit.

       --emit-ps
	      Suppresses the final output conversion step, causing  pdfroff  to  emit  PostScript
	      output instead of PDF.  This may be useful, to capture intermediate PostScript out-
	      put, when using a specialised postprocessor, such as gpresent for example, in place
	      of the default GhostScript PDF writer.

       --keep-temporary-files
	      Suppresses the deletion of temporary files, which normally occurs after pdfroff has
	      completed PDF document formatting; this may be useful,  when  debugging  formatting
	      problems.

	      See section FILES, for a description of the temporary files used by pdfroff.

       --no-pdf-output
	      May be used with the --reference-dictionary=name option (described below) to elimi-
	      nate the overhead of PDF formatting, when running pdfroff  to  create  a	reference
	      dictionary, for use in a different document.

       --no-reference-dictionary
	      May  be  used to eliminate the overhead of creating a reference dictionary, when it
	      is known that the target PDF document contains no public references, created by the
	      pdfhref macro.

       --no-toc-relocation
	      May be used to eliminate the extra groff processing pass, which is required to gen-
	      erate a table of contents, and relocate it to the start of the PDF  document,  when
	      processing any document which lacks an automatically generated table of contents.

       --no-kill-null-pages
	      While preparing for simulation of the manual collation step, which is traditionally
	      required to relocate of a table of contents to the start	of  a  document,  pdfroff
	      accumulates  a  number  of empty page descriptions into the intermediate PostScript
	      output stream.  During the final collation step, these  empty  pages  are  normally
	      discarded  from  the finished document; this option forces pdfroff to leave them in
	      place.

       --pdf-output=name
	      Specifies the name to be used for the resultant PDF document; if	unspecified,  the
	      PDF output is written to standard output.  A future version of pdfroff may use this
	      option, to encode the document name in a generated reference dictionary.

       --reference-dictionary=name
	      Specifies the name to be used for  the  generated  reference  dictionary	file;  if
	      unspecified,  the  reference  dictionary	is  created in a temporary file, which is
	      deleted when pdfroff completes processing of the	current  document.   This  option
	      must  be	specified,  if it is desired to save the reference dictionary, for use in
	      references placed in other PDF documents.

       --report-progress
	      Causes pdfroff to display an informational message on standard error, at the  start
	      of each groff processing pass.

       --stylesheet=name
	      Specifies  the name of an input file, to be used as a style sheet for formatting of
	      content, which is to be placed before the table of contents, in the  formatted  PDF
	      document.

       --version
	      Causes  pdfroff  to  display  a version identification message.  The entire command
	      line is then passed transparently to groff, in a one pass operation only, in  order
	      to display the associated groff version information, before exiting.

ENVIRONMENT
       The  following  environment variables may be set, and exported, to modify the behaviour of
       pdfroff.

       PDFROFF_COLLATE
	      Specifies the program to be used for collation of the finshed PDF document.

	      This collation step may be required to move tables of contents to the start of  the
	      finished PDF document, when formatting with traditional macro packages, which print
	      them  at	the  end.   However,  users  should  not   normally   need   to   specify
	      PDFROFF_COLLATE,	(and  indeed,  are  not  encouraged  to  do so).  If unspecified,
	      pdfroff uses sed(1) by default, which normally suffices.

	      If PDFROFF_COLLATE is specified, then it must act as a filter, accepting a list  of
	      file  name arguments, and write its output to the stdout stream, whence it is piped
	      to the PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND, to produce the finished PDF output.

	      When  specifying	PDFROFF_COLLATE,  it  is  normally  necessary  to  also   specify
	      PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES.

	      PDFROFF_COLLATE  is  ignored,  if  pdfroff is invoked with the --no-kill-null-pages
	      option.

       PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES
	      Specifies options to be passed to the PDFROFF_COLLATE program.

	      It should not normally be necessary to specify PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES.  The inter-
	      nal  default is a sed(1) script, which is intended to remove completely blank pages
	      from the collated output stream, and which should be appropriate in  most  applica-
	      tions  of  pdfroff.   However,  if  any  alternative  to	sed(1)	is  specified for
	      PDFROFF_COLLATE, then it is likely that a corresponding  alternative  specification
	      for PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES is required.

	      As  in  the case of PDFROFF_COLLATE, PDFROFF_KILL_NULL_PAGES is ignored, if pdfroff
	      is invoked with the --no-kill-null-pages option.

       PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND
	      Specifies the command to be used for the final document conversion from  PostScript
	      intermediate  output to PDF.  It must behave as a filter, writing its output to the
	      stdout stream, and must accept an arbitrary number of files ... arguments, with the
	      special case of - representing the stdin stream.

	      If unspecified, PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND defaults to

		gs -dBATCH -dQUIET -dNOPAUSE -dSAFER -sDEVICE=pdfwrite -sOutputFile=-

       GROFF_TMPDIR
	      Identifies the directory in which pdfroff should create a subdirectory for its tem-
	      porary files.  If GROFF_TMPDIR is not specified, then the variables TMPDIR, TMP and
	      TEMP  are  considered in turn, as possible temporary file repositories.  If none of
	      these are set, then temporary files are created in a subdirectory of /tmp.

       GROFF_GHOSTSCRIPT_INTERPRETER
	      Specifies the program to be invoked, when pdfroff converts groff PostScript  output
	      to  PDF.	 If  PDFROFF_POSTPROCESSOR_COMMAND is specified, then the command name it
	      specifies is implicitly assigned to GROFF_GHOSTSCRIPT_INTERPRETER,  overriding  any
	      explicit setting specified in the environment.  If GROFF_GHOSTSCRIPT_INTERPRETER is
	      not specified, then pdfroff searches the process PATH, looking for a  program  with
	      any  of the well known names for the GhostScript interpreter; if no GhostScript in-
	      terpreter can be found, pdfroff aborts.

       GROFF_AWK_INTERPRETER
	      Specifies the program to be invoked, when pdfroff is extracting  reference  dictio-
	      nary entries from a groff intermediate message stream.  If GROFF_AWK_INTERPRETER is
	      not specified, then pdfroff searches the process PATH, looking for any of the  pre-
	      ferred  programs, `gawk', `mawk', `nawk' and `awk', in this order; if none of these
	      are found, pdfroff issues a warning message, and continue processing;  however,  in
	      this case, no reference dictionary is created.

       OSTYPE Typically  defined  automatically by the operating system, OSTYPE is used on Micro-
	      soft Win32/MS-DOS platforms only, to infer the  default  PATH_SEPARATOR  character,
	      which is used when parsing the process PATH to search for external helper programs.

       PATH_SEPARATOR
	      If   set,  PATH_SEPARATOR  overrides  the  default  separator  character,  (`:'  on
	      POSIX/UNIX systems, inferred from OSTYPE on Microsoft Win32/MS-DOS), which is  used
	      when parsing the process PATH to search for external helper programs.

       SHOW_PROGRESS
	      If  this	is  set  to  a	non-empty  value,  then  pdfroff always behaves as if the
	      --report-progress option is specified, on the command line.

FILES
       Input and output files for pdfroff may be named according to any convention of the  user's
       choice.	Typically, input files may be named according to the choice of the principal for-
       matting macro package, e.g., file.ms might be an input file for formatting  using  the  ms
       macros (s.tmac); normally, the final output file should be named file.pdf.

       Temporary  files, created by pdfroff, are placed in the file system hierarchy, in or below
       the directory specified by environment variables (see section ENVIRONMENT).  If	mktemp(1)
       is  available,  it  is invoked to create a private subdirectory of the nominated temporary
       files directory, (with subdirectory name derived from the template pdfroff-XXXXXXXXXX); if
       this  subdirectory  is successfully created, the temporary files will be placed within it,
       otherwise they will be placed directly in the directory nominated in the environment.

       All temporary files themselves are named according to the convention pdf$$.*, where $$  is
       the standard shell variable representing the process ID of the pdfroff process itself, and
       * represents any of the extensions used by pdfroff to identify the following temporary and
       intermediate files.

       pdf$$.tmp
	      A  scratch  pad  file,  used to capture reference data emitted by groff, during the
	      reference dictionary compilation phase.

       pdf$$.ref
	      The reference dictionary, as compiled in the last but one  pass  of  the	reference
	      dictionary compilation phase; (at the start of the first pass, this file is created
	      empty; in successive passes, it contains the reference dictionary entries, as  col-
	      lected in the preceding pass).

	      If  the --reference-dictionary=name option is specified, this intermediate file be-
	      comes permanent, and is named name, rather than pdf$$.ref.

       pdf$$.cmp
	      Used to collect reference dictionary entries during the active pass of  the  refer-
	      ence  dictionary	compilation  phase.   At the end of any pass, when the content of
	      pdf$$.cmp compares as identical to pdf$$.ref, (or the corresponding file	named  by
	      the  --reference-dictionary=name	option), then reference dictionary compilation is
	      terminated, and the document reference map is appended to this  intermediate  file,
	      for inclusion in the final formatting passes.

       pdf$$.tc
	      An  intermediate PostScript file, in which "Table of Contents" entries are collect-
	      ed, to facilitate relocation before the body text, on ultimate output to the Ghost-
	      Script postprocessor.

       pdf$$.ps
	      An intermediate PostScript file, in which the body text is collected prior to ulti-
	      mate output to  the  GhostScript	postprocessor,	in  the  proper  sequence,  after
	      pdf$$.tc.

SEE ALSO
       See  groff(1)  for  the	definitive  reference  to  document formatting with groff.  Since
       pdfroff provides a superset of all groff capabilities, groff(1) may also be considered  to
       be  the	definitive  reference to all standard capabilities of pdfroff, with this document
       providing the reference to pdfroff's extended features.

       While pdfroff imposes neither any restriction on, nor any requirement for, the use of  any
       specific groff macro package, a number of supplied macro packages, and in particular those
       associated with the package pdfmark.tmac, are best suited for use with pdfroff as the pre-
       ferred  formatter.   Detailed  documentation on the use of these packages may be found, in
       PDF format, in the reference guide "Portable Document Format Publishing with  GNU  Troff",
       included 	in	   the	      installed        documentation	    set        as
       /usr/share/doc/groff-1.22.2/pdf/pdfmark.pdf.

AUTHOR
       Copyright (C) 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This man page is distributed under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License  (FDL),
       version	1.3  or  later, and is part of the GNU troff software package.	It was originally
       written by Keith Marshall <keith.d.marshall@ntlworld.com>, who also wrote the  implementa-
       tion of the pdfroff program, to which it relates.

       You  should  have  received a copy of the FDL as part of the GNU troff distribution; it is
       also available on-line, at the GNU copyleft site <http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html>.

Groff Version 1.22.2			   9 June 2014				       PDFROFF(1)
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