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OCAMLOPT(1)									      OCAMLOPT(1)

NAME
       ocamlopt - The OCaml native-code compiler

SYNOPSIS
       ocamlopt [ options ] filename ...

       ocamlopt.opt (same options)

DESCRIPTION
       The OCaml high-performance native-code compiler ocamlopt(1) compiles OCaml source files to
       native code object files and link these object files to produce standalone executables.

       The ocamlopt(1) command has a command-line interface very close to that of ocamlc(1).   It
       accepts the same types of arguments and processes them sequentially:

       Arguments  ending  in  .mli  are taken to be source files for compilation unit interfaces.
       Interfaces specify the names exported by compilation units: they declare value names  with
       their  types,  define  public data types, declare abstract data types, and so on. From the
       file x.mli, the ocamlopt(1) compiler produces a compiled interface in the file x.cmi.  The
       interface produced is identical to that produced by the bytecode compiler ocamlc(1).

       Arguments ending in .ml are taken to be source files for compilation unit implementations.
       Implementations provide definitions for the names exported by the unit, and  also  contain
       expressions  to	be evaluated for their side-effects.  From the file x.ml, the ocamlopt(1)
       compiler produces two files: x.o, containing native object  code,  and  x.cmx,  containing
       extra  information  for	linking and optimization of the clients of the unit. The compiled
       implementation should always be referred to under the name x.cmx (when given  a	.o  file,
       ocamlopt(1) assumes that it contains code compiled from C, not from OCaml).

       The implementation is checked against the interface file x.mli (if it exists) as described
       in the manual for ocamlc(1).

       Arguments ending in .cmx are taken to be compiled object code.	These  files  are  linked
       together,  along  with  the object files obtained by compiling .ml arguments (if any), and
       the OCaml standard library, to produce a native-code  executable  program.  The	order  in
       which  .cmx  and  .ml arguments are presented on the command line is relevant: compilation
       units are initialized in that order at run-time, and it is a link-time error to use a com-
       ponent  of a unit before having initialized it. Hence, a given x.cmx file must come before
       all .cmx files that refer to the unit x.

       Arguments ending in .cmxa are taken to be libraries of object code.  Such a library  packs
       in two files lib.cmxa and lib.a a set of object files (.cmx/.o files). Libraries are build
       with ocamlopt -a (see the description of the -a option below). The object files	contained
       in  the	library are linked as regular .cmx files (see above), in the order specified when
       the library was built. The only difference is that  if  an  object  file  contained  in	a
       library is not referenced anywhere in the program, then it is not linked in.

       Arguments  ending  in  .c  are passed to the C compiler, which generates a .o object file.
       This object file is linked with the program.

       Arguments ending in .o or .a are assumed to be C object	files  and  libraries.	They  are
       linked with the program.

       The output of the linking phase is a regular Unix executable file. It does not need ocaml-
       run(1) to run.

       ocamlopt.opt is the same compiler as ocamlopt, but compiled with itself	instead  of  with
       the  bytecode  compiler	ocamlc(1).   Thus, it behaves exactly like ocamlopt, but compiles
       faster.	ocamlopt.opt is not available in all installations of OCaml.

OPTIONS
       The following command-line options are recognized by ocamlopt(1).

       -a     Build a library (.cmxa/.a file) with the object files (.cmx/.o files) given on  the
	      command  line,  instead  of  linking  them into an executable file. The name of the
	      library must be set with the -o option.

	      If -cclib or -ccopt options are passed on  the  command  line,  these  options  are
	      stored  in  the resulting .cmxa library.	Then, linking with this library automati-
	      cally adds back the -cclib and -ccopt options as if they had been provided  on  the
	      command line, unless the -noautolink option is given.

       -annot Dump detailed information about the compilation (types, bindings, tail-calls, etc).
	      The information for file src.ml is put into file src.annot.   In	case  of  a  type
	      error,  dump all the information inferred by the type-checker before the error. The
	      src.annot file can be used with the emacs commands given in emacs/caml-types.el  to
	      display types and other annotations interactively.

       -dtypes
	      Has been deprecated. Please use -annot instead.

       -c     Compile  only. Suppress the linking phase of the compilation. Source code files are
	      turned into compiled files, but no executable file is produced. This option is use-
	      ful to compile modules separately.

       -cc ccomp
	      Use  ccomp  as  the C linker called to build the final executable and as the C com-
	      piler for compiling .c source files.

       -cclib -llibname
	      Pass the -llibname option to the linker. This causes the	given  C  library  to  be
	      linked with the program.

       -ccopt option
	      Pass  the  given	option	to  the C compiler and linker. For instance, -ccopt -Ldir
	      causes the C linker to search for C libraries in directory dir.

       -compact
	      Optimize the produced code for space rather than for time. This results in  smaller
	      but slightly slower programs. The default is to optimize for speed.

       -config
	      Print  the  version  number of ocamlopt(1) and a detailed summary of its configura-
	      tion, then exit.

       -for-pack module-path
	      Generate an object file (.cmx and .o files) that can later be included  as  a  sub-
	      module  (with  the given access path) of a compilation unit constructed with -pack.
	      For instance, ocamlopt -for-pack P -c A.ml will generate a.cmx and a.o  files  that
	      can later be used with ocamlopt -pack -o P.cmx a.cmx.

       -g     Add  debugging  information while compiling and linking. This option is required in
	      order to produce stack backtraces when the program terminates on an uncaught excep-
	      tion (see ocamlrun(1)).

       -i     Cause  the  compiler to print all defined names (with their inferred types or their
	      definitions) when compiling an implementation (.ml file). No compiled  files  (.cmo
	      and  .cmi  files)  are produced.	This can be useful to check the types inferred by
	      the compiler. Also, since the output follows the syntax of interfaces, it can  help
	      in writing an explicit interface (.mli file) for a file: just redirect the standard
	      output of the compiler to a .mli file, and edit that file to  remove  all  declara-
	      tions of unexported names.

       -I directory
	      Add  the given directory to the list of directories searched for compiled interface
	      files (.cmi) and compiled object code files (.cmo). By default, the current  direc-
	      tory is searched first, then the standard library directory. Directories added with
	      -I are searched after the current directory, in the order in which they were  given
	      on the command line, but before the standard library directory.

	      If  the given directory starts with +, it is taken relative to the standard library
	      directory. For instance, -I +labltk adds the subdirectory labltk	of  the  standard
	      library to the search path.

       -inline n
	      Set  aggressiveness  of  inlining  to  n, where n is a positive integer. Specifying
	      -inline 0 prevents all functions from being inlined, except  those  whose  body  is
	      smaller  than  the  call site. Thus, inlining causes no expansion in code size. The
	      default aggressiveness, -inline 1, allows slightly larger functions to be  inlined,
	      resulting  in a slight expansion in code size. Higher values for the -inline option
	      cause larger and larger functions to become candidate for inlining, but can  result
	      in a serious increase in code size.

       -intf filename
	      Compile the file filename as an interface file, even if its extension is not .mli.

       -intf-suffix string
	      Recognize  file names ending with string as interface files (instead of the default
	      .mli).

       -labels
	      Labels are not ignored in types, labels may be used in applications,  and  labelled
	      parameters can be given in any order.  This is the default.

       -linkall
	      Force  all  modules  contained  in  libraries  to be linked in. If this flag is not
	      given, unreferenced modules are not linked in. When building a library  (-a  flag),
	      setting  the  -linkall  flag forces all subsequent links of programs involving that
	      library to link all the modules contained in the library.

       -noassert
	      Do not compile assertion checks.	Note that the special form assert false is always
	      compiled	because  it  is  typed	specially.   This flag has no effect when linking
	      already-compiled files.

       -noautolink
	      When linking .cmxa libraries, ignore  -cclib and -ccopt  options	potentially  con-
	      tained  in the libraries (if these options were given when building the libraries).
	      This can be useful if a library contains incorrect specifications of C libraries or
	      C  options;  in  this  case, during linking, set -noautolink and pass the correct C
	      libraries and options on the command line.

       -nodynlink
	      Allow the compiler to use some optimizations that are valid only for code  that  is
	      never dynlinked.

       -nolabels
	      Ignore  non-optional  labels  in	types. Labels cannot be used in applications, and
	      parameter order becomes strict.

       -o exec-file
	      Specify the name of the output file produced by the linker. The default output name
	      is  a.out,  in  keeping with the Unix tradition. If the -a option is given, specify
	      the name of the library produced. If the -pack option is given, specify the name of
	      the  packed  object file produced.  If the -output-obj option is given, specify the
	      name of the output file produced. If the -shared option is given, specify the  name
	      of plugin file produced.

       -output-obj
	      Cause  the linker to produce a C object file instead of an executable file. This is
	      useful to wrap OCaml code as a C library, callable from any C program. The name  of
	      the  output  object  file  must be set with the -o option.  This option can also be
	      used to produce a compiled shared/dynamic library (.so extension).

       -p     Generate extra code to write profile information when the program is executed.  The
	      profile  information  can then be examined with the analysis program gprof(1).  The
	      -p option must be given both at compile-time  and  at  link-time.   Linking  object
	      files not compiled with -p is possible, but results in less precise profiling.

	      See the gprof(1) man page for more information about the profiles.

	      Full support for gprof(1) is only available for certain platforms (currently: Intel
	      x86/Linux and Alpha/Digital Unix).  On other platforms, the -p option  will  result
	      in a less precise profile (no call graph information, only a time profile).

       -pack  Build  an  object  file  (.cmx  and .o files) and its associated compiled interface
	      (.cmi) that combines the .cmx object files given on the command line,  making  them
	      appear  as  sub-modules  of the output .cmx file.  The name of the output .cmx file
	      must    be    given    with    the    -o	  option.     For     instance,     ocam-
	      lopt -pack -o P.cmx A.cmx B.cmx C.cmx generates compiled files P.cmx, P.o and P.cmi
	      describing a compilation unit having three sub-modules A, B and C, corresponding to
	      the  contents  of  the  object files A.cmx, B.cmx and C.cmx.  These contents can be
	      referenced as P.A, P.B and P.C in the remainder of the program.

	      The .cmx object files being combined must have been compiled with  the  appropriate
	      -for-pack option.  In the example above, A.cmx, B.cmx and C.cmx must have been com-
	      piled with ocamlopt -for-pack P.

	      Multiple levels of packing can be achieved by combining -pack with -for-pack.   See
	      The OCaml user's manual, chapter "Native-code compilation" for more details.

       -pp command
	      Cause  the  compiler  to	call  the given command as a preprocessor for each source
	      file. The output of command is redirected to an intermediate file,  which  is  com-
	      piled.  If there are no compilation errors, the intermediate file is deleted after-
	      wards.

       -principal
	      Check information path during type-checking,  to	make  sure  that  all  types  are
	      derived  in  a  principal  way.  All  programs accepted in -principal mode are also
	      accepted in default mode with equivalent types, but different binary signatures.

       -rectypes
	      Allow arbitrary recursive types during type-checking.  By default,  only	recursive
	      types where the recursion goes through an object type are supported. Note that once
	      you have created an interface using this flag, you must use it again for all depen-
	      dencies.

       -runtime-variant suffix
	      Add suffix to the name of the runtime library that will be used by the program.  If
	      OCaml was configured with option -with-debug-runtime, then the  d  suffix  is  sup-
	      ported and gives a debug version of the runtime.

       -S     Keep  the  assembly code produced during the compilation. The assembly code for the
	      source file x.ml is saved in the file x.s.

       -shared
	      Build a plugin (usually .cmxs) that can be dynamically loaded with the Dynlink mod-
	      ule.  The name of the plugin must be set with the -o option. A plugin can include a
	      number of OCaml modules and libraries, and extra native  objects	(.o,  .a  files).
	      Building	native	plugins  is  only supported for some operating system. Under some
	      systems (currently, only Linux AMD 64), all the OCaml code linked in a plugin  must
	      have  been  compiled without the -nodynlink flag. Some constraints might also apply
	      to the way the extra native objects have been compiled (under Linux  AMD	64,  they
	      must contain only position-independent code).

       -strict-sequence
	      The left-hand part of a sequence must have type unit.

       -thread
	      Compile  or  link  multithreaded	programs,  in combination with the system threads
	      library described in The OCaml user's manual.

       -unsafe
	      Turn bound checking off for array  and  string  accesses	(the  v.(i)ands.[i]  con-
	      structs). Programs compiled with -unsafe are therefore faster, but unsafe: anything
	      can happen if the program accesses an array or string outside of its bounds.  Addi-
	      tionally, turn off the check for zero divisor in integer division and modulus oper-
	      ations.  With -unsafe, an integer division (or modulus) by zero can halt	the  pro-
	      gram  or	continue with an unspecified result instead of raising a Division_by_zero
	      exception.

       -v     Print the version number of the compiler and the location of the	standard  library
	      directory, then exit.

       -verbose
	      Print  all external commands before they are executed, in particular invocations of
	      the assembler, C compiler, and linker.

       -vnumor-version
	      Print the version number of the compiler in short form (e.g. "3.11.0"), then exit.

       -w warning-list
	      Enable, disable, or mark as errors the warnings specified  by  the  argument  warn-
	      ing-list.  See ocamlc(1) for the syntax of warning-list.

       -warn-error warning-list
	      Mark  as	errors the warnings specified in the argument warning-list.  The compiler
	      will stop with an error when one of these warnings is  emitted.	The  warning-list
	      has  the same meaning as for the -w option: a + sign (or an uppercase letter) turns
	      the corresponding warnings into errors, a - sign (or a lowercase letter) turns them
	      back into warnings, and a @ sign both enables and marks the corresponding warnings.

	      Note:  it  is  not  recommended  to  use the -warn-error option in production code,
	      because it will almost certainly prevent compiling your program with later versions
	      of OCaml when they add new warnings.

	      The  default  setting  is  -warn-error -a  (none	of  the warnings is treated as an
	      error).

       -where Print the location of the standard library, then exit.

       - file Process file as a file name, even if it starts with a dash (-) character.

       -help or --help
	      Display a short usage summary and exit.

OPTIONS FOR THE IA32 ARCHITECTURE
       The IA32 code generator (Intel Pentium, AMD  Athlon)  supports  the  following  additional
       option:

       -ffast-math
	      Use  the	IA32  instructions  to	compute  trigonometric and exponential functions,
	      instead of calling the corresponding library routines.  The functions affected are:
	      atan,  atan2,  cos, log, log10, sin, sqrt and tan.  The resulting code runs faster,
	      but the range of supported arguments  and  the  precision  of  the  result  can  be
	      reduced.	 In  particular,  trigonometric operations cos, sin, tan have their range
	      reduced to [-2^64, 2^64].

OPTIONS FOR THE AMD64 ARCHITECTURE
       The AMD64 code generator (64-bit versions of Intel Pentium and AMD  Athlon)  supports  the
       following additional options:

       -fPIC  Generate position-independent machine code.  This is the default.

       -fno-PIC
	      Generate position-dependent machine code.

OPTIONS FOR THE SPARC ARCHITECTURE
       The Sparc code generator supports the following additional options:

       -march=v8
	      Generate SPARC version 8 code.

       -march=v9
	      Generate SPARC version 9 code.

       The default is to generate code for SPARC version 7, which runs on all SPARC processors.

SEE ALSO
       ocamlc(1).
       The OCaml user's manual, chapter "Native-code compilation".

										      OCAMLOPT(1)
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