MYSQL_UPGRADE(1) MySQL Database System MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)
mysql_upgrade - check tables for MySQL upgrade
mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also
upgrades the system tables so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.
mysql_upgrade should be executed each time you upgrade MySQL. It supersedes the older mysql_fix_privilege_tables script, which should no
longer be used.
If a table is found to have a possible incompatibility, mysql_upgrade performs a table check. If any problems are found, a table repair is
attempted. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.4.4, "Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes" for manual table repair
On Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by running a
Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.
You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 6.2, "Database Backup Methods".
Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See
Section 2.4.1, "Upgrading MySQL", for instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and how
to handle them.
To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running, and then invoke it like this:
shell> mysql_upgrade [options]
After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to the system tables take effect.
mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:
mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --auto-repair
mysql < fix_priv_tables
mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --fix-db-names --fix-table-names
Notes about the preceding commands:
o Because mysql_upgrade invokes mysqlcheck with the --all-databases option, it processes all tables in all databases, which might take a
long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check and repair
operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables.
o For details about what checks the --check-upgrade option entails, see the description of the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE
statement (see Section 126.96.36.199, "CHECK TABLE Syntax").
o fix_priv_tables represents a script generated internally by mysql_upgrade that contains SQL statements to upgrade the tables in the
o Prior to MySQL 5.1.31, mysql_upgrade does not run the second mysqlcheck command, which is necessary to re-encode database or table
names that contain nonalphanumeric characters. (They still appear after the upgrade with the #mysql50# prefix described in
Section 8.2.3, "Mapping of Identifiers to File Names".) If you have such database or table names, execute the second mysqlcheck command
manually after executing mysql_upgrade.
All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with
the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.
mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check
whether all tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the check
regardless, use the --force option.
If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM
but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.6.1, "Installing MySQL from RPM Packages on Linux".)
In MySQL 5.1.7, mysql_upgrade was added as a shell script and worked only for Unix systems. As of MySQL 5.1.10, mysql_upgrade is an
executable binary and is available on all systems.
mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] option file
groups. Other options are passed to mysqlcheck. For example, it might be necessary to specify the --password[=password] option.
mysql_upgrade also supports the options for processing option files described at Section 188.8.131.52.1, "Command-Line Options that Affect
Display a short help message and exit.
The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option is accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.
The path to the data directory. This option is accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.
Print some debugging information when the program exits. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.21.
o --debug-info, -T
Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.21.
Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution of mysqlcheck even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current
version of MySQL.
o --tmpdir=path, -t path
The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.25.
o --user=user_name, -u user_name
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The default user name is root.
Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.
Cause binary logging to be enabled while mysql_upgrade runs. This is the default behavior; to disable binary logging during the
upgrade, use the inverse of this option (that is, start the program with --skip-write-binlog).
This option was introduced in MySQL 5.1.40.
Copyright 2007-2008 MySQL AB, 2008-2010 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.
This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
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For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which may already be installed locally and which is also available online
Sun Microsystems, Inc. (http://www.mysql.com/).
MySQL 5.1 04/06/2010 MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)