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GIT-HTTP-BACKEND(1)			    Git Manual			      GIT-HTTP-BACKEND(1)

NAME
       git-http-backend - Server side implementation of Git over HTTP

SYNOPSIS
       git http-backend

DESCRIPTION
       A simple CGI program to serve the contents of a Git repository to Git clients accessing
       the repository over http:// and https:// protocols. The program supports clients fetching
       using both the smart HTTP protocol and the backwards-compatible dumb HTTP protocol, as
       well as clients pushing using the smart HTTP protocol.

       It verifies that the directory has the magic file "git-daemon-export-ok", and it will
       refuse to export any Git directory that hasn't explicitly been marked for export this way
       (unless the GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environmental variable is set).

       By default, only the upload-pack service is enabled, which serves git fetch-pack and git
       ls-remote clients, which are invoked from git fetch, git pull, and git clone. If the
       client is authenticated, the receive-pack service is enabled, which serves git send-pack
       clients, which is invoked from git push.

SERVICES
       These services can be enabled/disabled using the per-repository configuration file:

       http.getanyfile
	   This serves Git clients older than version 1.6.6 that are unable to use the upload
	   pack service. When enabled, clients are able to read any file within the repository,
	   including objects that are no longer reachable from a branch but are still present. It
	   is enabled by default, but a repository can disable it by setting this configuration
	   item to false.

       http.uploadpack
	   This serves git fetch-pack and git ls-remote clients. It is enabled by default, but a
	   repository can disable it by setting this configuration item to false.

       http.receivepack
	   This serves git send-pack clients, allowing push. It is disabled by default for
	   anonymous users, and enabled by default for users authenticated by the web server. It
	   can be disabled by setting this item to false, or enabled for all users, including
	   anonymous users, by setting it to true.

URL TRANSLATION
       To determine the location of the repository on disk, git http-backend concatenates the
       environment variables PATH_INFO, which is set automatically by the web server, and
       GIT_PROJECT_ROOT, which must be set manually in the web server configuration. If
       GIT_PROJECT_ROOT is not set, git http-backend reads PATH_TRANSLATED, which is also set
       automatically by the web server.

EXAMPLES
       All of the following examples map http://$hostname/git/foo/bar.git to
       /var/www/git/foo/bar.git.

       Apache 2.x
	   Ensure mod_cgi, mod_alias, and mod_env are enabled, set GIT_PROJECT_ROOT (or
	   DocumentRoot) appropriately, and create a ScriptAlias to the CGI:

	       SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git
	       SetEnv GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL
	       ScriptAlias /git/ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/

	   To enable anonymous read access but authenticated write access, require authorization
	   for both the initial ref advertisement (which we detect as a push via the service
	   parameter in the query string), and the receive-pack invocation itself:

	       RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} service=git-receive-pack [OR]
	       RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} /git-receive-pack$
	       RewriteRule ^/git/ - [E=AUTHREQUIRED:yes]

	       <LocationMatch "^/git/">
		       Order Deny,Allow
		       Deny from env=AUTHREQUIRED

		       AuthType Basic
		       AuthName "Git Access"
		       Require group committers
		       Satisfy Any
		       ...
	       </LocationMatch>

	   If you do not have mod_rewrite available to match against the query string, it is
	   sufficient to just protect git-receive-pack itself, like:

	       <LocationMatch "^/git/.*/git-receive-pack$">
		       AuthType Basic
		       AuthName "Git Access"
		       Require group committers
		       ...
	       </LocationMatch>

	   In this mode, the server will not request authentication until the client actually
	   starts the object negotiation phase of the push, rather than during the initial
	   contact. For this reason, you must also enable the http.receivepack config option in
	   any repositories that should accept a push. The default behavior, if http.receivepack
	   is not set, is to reject any pushes by unauthenticated users; the initial request will
	   therefore report 403 Forbidden to the client, without even giving an opportunity for
	   authentication.

	   To require authentication for both reads and writes, use a Location directive around
	   the repository, or one of its parent directories:

	       <Location /git/private>
		       AuthType Basic
		       AuthName "Private Git Access"
		       Require group committers
		       ...
	       </Location>

	   To serve gitweb at the same url, use a ScriptAliasMatch to only those URLs that git
	   http-backend can handle, and forward the rest to gitweb:

	       ScriptAliasMatch \
		       "(?x)^/git/(.*/(HEAD | \
				       info/refs | \
				       objects/(info/[^/]+ | \
						[0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38} | \
						pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}\.(pack|idx)) | \
				       git-(upload|receive)-pack))$" \
		       /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/$1

	       ScriptAlias /git/ /var/www/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi/

	   To serve multiple repositories from different gitnamespaces(7) in a single repository:

	       SetEnvIf Request_URI "^/git/([^/]*)" GIT_NAMESPACE=$1
	       ScriptAliasMatch ^/git/[^/]*(.*) /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/storage.git$1

       Accelerated static Apache 2.x
	   Similar to the above, but Apache can be used to return static files that are stored on
	   disk. On many systems this may be more efficient as Apache can ask the kernel to copy
	   the file contents from the file system directly to the network:

	       SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git

	       AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/[0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38})$		/var/www/git/$1
	       AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}.(pack|idx))$ /var/www/git/$1
	       ScriptAlias /git/ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/

	   This can be combined with the gitweb configuration:

	       SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git

	       AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/[0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38})$		/var/www/git/$1
	       AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}.(pack|idx))$ /var/www/git/$1
	       ScriptAliasMatch \
		       "(?x)^/git/(.*/(HEAD | \
				       info/refs | \
				       objects/info/[^/]+ | \
				       git-(upload|receive)-pack))$" \
		       /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/$1
	       ScriptAlias /git/ /var/www/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi/

       Lighttpd
	   Ensure that mod_cgi, mod_alias, `mod_auth, mod_setenv are loaded, then set
	   GIT_PROJECT_ROOT appropriately and redirect all requests to the CGI:

	       alias.url += ( "/git" => "/usr/lib/git-core/git-http-backend" )
	       $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git" {
		       cgi.assign = ("" => "")
		       setenv.add-environment = (
			       "GIT_PROJECT_ROOT" => "/var/www/git",
			       "GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL" => ""
		       )
	       }

	   To enable anonymous read access but authenticated write access:

	       $HTTP["querystring"] =~ "service=git-receive-pack" {
		       include "git-auth.conf"
	       }
	       $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git/.*/git-receive-pack$" {
		       include "git-auth.conf"
	       }

	   where git-auth.conf looks something like:

	       auth.require = (
		       "/" => (
			       "method" => "basic",
			       "realm" => "Git Access",
			       "require" => "valid-user"
			      )
	       )
	       # ...and set up auth.backend here

	   To require authentication for both reads and writes:

	       $HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git/private" {
		       include "git-auth.conf"
	       }

ENVIRONMENT
       git http-backend relies upon the CGI environment variables set by the invoking web server,
       including:

       o   PATH_INFO (if GIT_PROJECT_ROOT is set, otherwise PATH_TRANSLATED)

       o   REMOTE_USER

       o   REMOTE_ADDR

       o   CONTENT_TYPE

       o   QUERY_STRING

       o   REQUEST_METHOD

       The GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environmental variable may be passed to git-http-backend to bypass
       the check for the "git-daemon-export-ok" file in each repository before allowing export of
       that repository.

       The backend process sets GIT_COMMITTER_NAME to $REMOTE_USER and GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL to
       ${REMOTE_USER}@http.${REMOTE_ADDR}, ensuring that any reflogs created by git-receive-pack
       contain some identifying information of the remote user who performed the push.

       All CGI environment variables are available to each of the hooks invoked by the
       git-receive-pack.

AUTHOR
       Written by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org[1]>.

DOCUMENTATION
       Documentation by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org[1]>.

GIT
       Part of the git(1) suite

NOTES
	1. spearce@spearce.org
	   mailto:spearce@spearce.org

Git 1.8.3.1				    06/10/2014			      GIT-HTTP-BACKEND(1)
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