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GS(1)					   Ghostscript					    GS(1)

NAME
       gs - Ghostscript (PostScript and PDF language interpreter and previewer)

SYNOPSIS
       gs [ options ] [ files ] ... (Unix, VMS)
       gswin32c [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows)
       gswin32 [ options ] [ files ] ... (MS Windows 3.1)
       gsos2 [ options ] [ files ] ... (OS/2)

DESCRIPTION
       The  gs	(gswin32c,  gswin32,  gsos2) command invokes Ghostscript, an interpreter of Adobe
       Systems' PostScript(tm) and Portable Document Format (PDF) languages.  gs reads "files" in
       sequence  and  executes	them  as Ghostscript programs. After doing this, it reads further
       input from the standard input stream (normally the keyboard), interpreting each line sepa-
       rately and output to an output device (may be a file or an X11 window preview, see below).
       The interpreter exits gracefully when it encounters the "quit" command (either in  a  file
       or from the keyboard), at end-of-file, or at an interrupt signal (such as Control-C at the
       keyboard).

       The interpreter recognizes many option switches, some of which are described below. Please
       see  the usage documentation for complete information. Switches may appear anywhere in the
       command line and apply to all files thereafter.	Invoking Ghostscript with the  -h  or  -?
       switch  produces  a  message which shows several useful switches, all the devices known to
       that executable, and the search path for fonts; on Unix it  also  shows	the  location  of
       detailed documentation.

       Ghostscript  may be built to use many different output devices.	To see which devices your
       executable includes, run "gs -h".

       Unless you specify a particular device, Ghostscript normally opens the first one of  those
       and directs output to it.

       If  built  with	X11  support, often the default device is an X11 window (previewer), else
       ghostscript will typically use the bbox device and print on stdout the  dimension  of  the
       postscript file.

       So if the first one in the list is the one you want to use, just issue the command

	    gs myfile.ps

       You  can  also  check  the set of available devices from within Ghostscript: invoke Ghost-
       script and type

	    devicenames ==

       but the first device on the resulting list may not be the  default  device  you	determine
       with "gs -h".  To specify "AbcXyz" as the initial output device, include the switch

	    -sDEVICE=AbcXyz

       For example, for output to an Epson printer you might use the command

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson myfile.ps

       The  "-sDEVICE="  switch  must  precede the first mention of a file to print, and only the
       switch's first use has any effect.

       Finally, you can specify a default device in  the  environment  variable  GS_DEVICE.   The
       order  of  precedence  for these alternatives from highest to lowest (Ghostscript uses the
       device defined highest in the list) is:

       Some devices can support different resolutions (densities).  To specify the resolution  on
       such a printer, use the "-r" switch:

	    gs -sDEVICE=<device> -r<xres>x<yres>

       For  example,  on  a  9-pin Epson-compatible printer, you get the lowest-density (fastest)
       mode with

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson -r60x72

       and the highest-density (best output quality) mode with

	    gs -sDEVICE=epson -r240x72.

       If you select a printer as the output device, Ghostscript also allows you to choose  where
       Ghostscript sends the output -- on Unix systems, usually to a temporary file.  To send the
       output to a file "foo.xyz", use the switch

	    -sOutputFile=foo.xyz

       You might want to print each page separately.  To do this, send the output to a series  of
       files  "foo1.xyz,  foo2.xyz, ..." using the "-sOutputFile=" switch with "%d" in a filename
       template:

	    -sOutputFile=foo%d.xyz

       Each resulting file receives one page of output, and the files are numbered  in	sequence.
       "%d" is a printf format specification; you can also use a variant like "%02d".

       On  Unix  and MS Windows systems you can also send output to a pipe.  For example, to pipe
       output to the "lpr" command (which, on many Unix systems, directs it to	a  printer),  use
       the option

	    -sOutputFile=%pipe%lpr

       Note  that  the	'%'  characters need to be doubled on MS Windows to avoid mangling by the
       command interpreter.

       You can also send output to standard output:

	    -sOutputFile=-
       or
	    -sOutputFile=%stdout%

       In this case you must also use the -q switch, to prevent Ghostscript from writing messages
       to standard output.

       To select a specific paper size, use the command line switch

	    -sPAPERSIZE=<paper_size>

       for instance

	    -sPAPERSIZE=a4
       or
	    -sPAPERSIZE=legal

       Most  ISO  and US paper sizes are recognized. See the usage documentation for a full list,
       or the definitions in the initialization file "gs_statd.ps".

       Ghostscript can do many things other than print or view PostScript  and	PDF  files.   For
       example,  if  you want to know the bounding box of a PostScript (or EPS) file, Ghostscript
       provides a special "device" that just prints out this information.

       For example, using one of the example files distributed with Ghostscript,

	    gs -sDEVICE=bbox golfer.ps

       prints out

	    %%BoundingBox: 0 25 583 732
	    %%HiResBoundingBox: 0.808497 25.009496 582.994503 731.809445

OPTIONS
       -- filename arg1 ...
	      Takes the next argument as a file name as usual, but takes all remaining	arguments
	      (even if they have the syntactic form of switches) and defines the name "ARGUMENTS"
	      in "userdict" (not "systemdict") as an array of those strings, before  running  the
	      file.  When Ghostscript finishes executing the file, it exits back to the shell.

       -Dname=token
       -dname=token
	      Define a name in "systemdict" with the given definition.	The token must be exactly
	      one token (as defined by the "token" operator) and may contain no whitespace.

       -Dname
       -dname Define a name in "systemdict" with value=null.

       -Sname=string
       -sname=string
	      Define a name in "systemdict" with a given string as value.  This is different from
	      -d.  For example, -dname=35 is equivalent to the program fragment
		   /name 35 def
	      whereas -sname=35 is equivalent to
		   /name (35) def

       -P     Makes  Ghostscript  to  look  first in the current directory for library files.  By
	      default, Ghostscript no longer looks in the current directory, unless,  of  course,
	      the  first explicitly supplied directory is "." in -I.  See also the INITIALIZATION
	      FILES section below, and bundled Use.htm for detailed discussion	on  search  paths
	      and how Ghostcript finds files.

       -q     Quiet  startup:  suppress  normal  startup  messages, and also do the equivalent of
	      -dQUIET.

       -gnumber1xnumber2
	      Equivalent to -dDEVICEWIDTH=number1 and -dDEVICEHEIGHT=number2.  This  is  for  the
	      benefit  of  devices (such as X11 windows) that require (or allow) width and height
	      to be specified.

       -rnumber
       -rnumber1xnumber2
	      Equivalent to -dDEVICEXRESOLUTION=number1 and -dDEVICEYRESOLUTION=number2.  This is
	      for  the	benefit of devices such as printers that support multiple X and Y resolu-
	      tions.  If only one number is given, it is used for both X and Y resolutions.

       -Idirectories
	      Adds the designated list of directories at the head of the search path for  library
	      files.

       -      This  is	not  really a switch, but indicates to Ghostscript that standard input is
	      coming from a file or a pipe and not interactively from the command  line.   Ghost-
	      script  reads  from  standard input until it reaches end-of-file, executing it like
	      any other file, and then continues with processing the command line.  When the com-
	      mand line has been entirely processed, Ghostscript exits rather than going into its
	      interactive mode.

       Note that the normal initialization file "gs_init.ps" makes "systemdict" read-only, so the
       values  of  names  defined  with -D, -d, -S, or -s cannot be changed (although, of course,
       they can be superseded by definitions in "userdict" or other dictionaries.)

SPECIAL NAMES
       -dDISKFONTS
	      Causes individual character outlines to be loaded from the disk the first time they
	      are  encountered.   (Normally  Ghostscript loads all the character outlines when it
	      loads a font.)  This may allow loading more fonts  into  RAM,  at  the  expense  of
	      slower rendering.

       -dNOCACHE
	      Disables character caching.  Useful only for debugging.

       -dNOBIND
	      Disables the "bind" operator.  Useful only for debugging.

       -dNODISPLAY
	      Suppresses the normal initialization of the output device.  This may be useful when
	      debugging.

       -dNOPAUSE
	      Disables the prompt and pause at the end of each page.  This may be  desirable  for
	      applications where another program is driving Ghostscript.

       -dNOPLATFONTS
	      Disables	the use of fonts supplied by the underlying platform (for instance X Win-
	      dows). This may be needed if the platform fonts look undesirably different from the
	      scalable fonts.

       -dSAFER
	      Restricts  file operations the job can perform.  Strongly recommended for spoolers,
	      conversion scripts or other sensitive environments where a badly written	or  mali-
	      cious PostScript program code must be prevented from changing important files.

       -dWRITESYSTEMDICT
	      Leaves  "systemdict" writable.  This is necessary when running special utility pro-
	      grams such as font2c and pcharstr, which must bypass normal PostScript access  pro-
	      tection.

       -sDEVICE=device
	      Selects an alternate initial output device, as described above.

       -sOutputFile=filename
	      Selects  an  alternate  output  file  (or  pipe)	for the initial output device, as
	      described above.

SAFER MODE
       The -dSAFER option disables the "deletefile"  and  "renamefile"	operators  and	prohibits
       opening piped commands ("%pipe%cmd"). Only "%stdout" and "%stderr" can be opened for writ-
       ing. It also disables reading from files, except for "%stdin", files given  as  a  command
       line  argument, and files contained in paths given by LIBPATH and FONTPATH or specified by
       the system params /FontResourceDir and /GenericResourceDir.

       This mode also sets the .LockSafetyParams parameter of the initial output device  to  pro-
       tect  against  programs that attempt to write to files using the OutputFile device parame-
       ter. Since the device parameters specified on the command line, including OutputFile,  are
       set prior to SAFER mode, use of "-sOutputFile=..." on the command line is unrestricted.

       SAFER mode prevents changing the /GenericResourceDir, /FontResourceDir, /SystemParamsPass-
       word, and /StartJobPassword.

       While SAFER mode is not the default, it is the default for many wrapper	scripts  such  as
       ps2pdf  and  may be the default in a subsequent release of Ghostscript.	Thus when running
       programs that need to open  files  or  set  restricted  parameters  you	should	pass  the
       -dNOSAFER command line option or its synonym -dDELAYSAFER.

       When  running  with  -dNOSAFER  it is possible to perform a "save" followed by ".setsafe",
       execute a file or procedure in SAFER mode, and then use "restore"  to  return  to  NOSAFER
       mode.  In order to prevent the save object from being restored by the foreign file or pro-
       cedure, the ".runandhide" operator should be  used  to  hide  the  save	object	from  the
       restricted procedure.

FILES
       The  locations of many Ghostscript run-time files are compiled into the executable when it
       is built.  On Unix these are typically based in /usr/local, but this may be  different  on
       your  system.   Under  DOS  they are typically based in C:\GS, but may be elsewhere, espe-
       cially if you install Ghostscript with GSview.  Run "gs -h" to find the location of Ghost-
       script documentation on your system, from which you can get more details.

       /usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##/*
	      Startup files, utilities, and basic font definitions

       /usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/*
	      More font definitions

       /usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##/examples/*
	      Ghostscript demonstration files

       /usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##/doc/*
	      Diverse document files

INITIALIZATION FILES
       When  looking  for  the initialization files "gs_*.ps", the files related to fonts, or the
       file for the "run" operator, Ghostscript first tries to open the file  with  the  name  as
       given,  using  the current working directory if no directory is specified.  If this fails,
       and the file name doesn't specify an explicit directory or drive  (for  instance,  doesn't
       contain	"/"  on Unix systems or "\" on MS Windows systems), Ghostscript tries directories
       in this order:

       1.  the directories specified by the -I switches in the command line (see below), if any;

       2.  the directories specified by the GS_LIB environment variable, if any;

       3.  the directories specified by the GS_LIB_DEFAULT macro in the Ghostscript makefile when
	   the	executable  was  built.   When	gs  is	built  on Unix, GS_LIB_DEFAULT is usually
	   "/usr/local/share/ghostscript/#.##:/usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts"  where   "#.##"
	   represents the Ghostscript version number.

       Each  of these (GS_LIB_DEFAULT, GS_LIB, and -I parameter) may be either a single directory
       or a list of directories separated by ":".

ENVIRONMENT
       GS_OPTIONS
	      String of options to be processed before the command line options

       GS_DEVICE
	      Used to specify an output device

       GS_FONTPATH
	      Path names used to search for fonts

       GS_LIB Path names for initialization files and fonts

       TEMP   Where temporary files are made

X RESOURCES
       Ghostscript, or more properly the X11 display device, looks for	the  following	resources
       under the program name "Ghostscript":

       borderWidth
	      The border width in pixels (default = 1).

       borderColor
	      The name of the border color (default = black).

       geometry
	      The window size and placement, WxH+X+Y (default is NULL).

       xResolution
	      The number of x pixels per inch (default is computed from WidthOfScreen and WidthM-
	      MOfScreen).

       yResolution
	      The number of y pixels per  inch	(default  is  computed	from  HeightOfScreen  and
	      HeightMMOfScreen).

       useBackingPixmap
	      Determines whether backing store is to be used for saving display window (default =
	      true).

       See the usage document for a more complete list of resources.  To set these  resources  on
       Unix, put them in a file such as "~/.Xresources" in the following form:

	    Ghostscript*geometry:     612x792-0+0
	    Ghostscript*xResolution: 72
	    Ghostscript*yResolution: 72

       Then merge these resources into the X server's resource database:

	    % xrdb -merge ~/.Xresources

SEE ALSO
       The various Ghostscript document files (above), especially Use.htm.

BUGS
       See http://bugs.ghostscript.com/ and the Usenet news group comp.lang.postscript.

VERSION
       This document was last revised for Ghostscript version 9.07.

AUTHOR
       Artifex	Software,  Inc.  are  the  primary  maintainers of Ghostscript.  Russell J. Lang,
       gsview at ghostgum.com.au, is the author of most of the MS Windows code in Ghostscript.

9.07					 12 February 2013				    GS(1)
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