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CSCOPE(1)										CSCOPE(1)

       cscope - interactively examine a C program

       cscope	  [-bCcdehkLlqRTUuVv]	 [-Fsymfile]	[-freffile]    [-Iincdir]    [-inamefile]
       [-0123456789pattern] [-pn] [-sdir] [files]

       cscope is an interactive, screen-oriented tool that allows the user to  browse  through	C
       source files for specified elements of code.

       By default, cscope examines the C (.c and .h), lex (.l), and yacc (.y) source files in the
       current directory.  cscope may also be invoked for source files named on the command line.
       In  either  case, cscope searches the standard directories for #include files that it does
       not find  in  the  current  directory.	cscope	uses  a  symbol  cross-reference,  called
       cscope.out  by  default,  to locate functions, function calls, macros, variables, and pre-
       processor symbols in the files.

       cscope builds the symbol cross-reference the first time it is used on the source files for
       the program being browsed. On a subsequent invocation, cscope rebuilds the cross-reference
       only if a source file has changed or the list of  source  files	is  different.	When  the
       cross-reference	is  rebuilt,  the  data  for  the unchanged files are copied from the old
       cross-reference, which makes rebuilding faster than the initial build.

       Some command line arguments can only occur as  the  only  argument  in  the  execution  of
       cscope.	They cause the program to just print out some output and exit immediately:

       -h     View the long usage help display.

       -V     Print on the first line of screen the version number of cscope.

       --help Same as -h

	      Same as -V

       The following options can appear in any combination:

       -b     Build the cross-reference only.

       -C     Ignore letter case when searching.

       -c     Use only ASCII characters in the cross-reference file, that is, do not compress the

       -d     Do not update the cross-reference.

       -e     Suppress the <Ctrl>-e command prompt between files.

	      Read symbol reference lines from symfile.  (A symbol reference file is created by >
	      and  >>, and can also be read using the < command, described under ``Issuing Subse-
	      quent Requests'', below.)

	      Use reffile as the cross-reference file name instead of the default "cscope.out".

	      Look in incdir (before looking in $INCDIR, the standard  place  for  header  files,
	      normally	/usr/include)  for any #include files whose names do not begin with ``/''
	      and that are not specified on the command line or in namefile below. (The  #include
	      files  may  be  specified with either double quotes or angle brackets.)  The incdir
	      directory is searched in addition to  the  current  directory  (which  is  searched
	      first)  and the standard list (which is searched last). If more than one occurrence
	      of -I appears, the directories are searched in the order they appear on the command

	      Browse through all source files whose names are listed in namefile (file names sep-
	      arated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines) instead of the default name list file,  which
	      is  called cscope.files. If this option is specified, cscope ignores any file names
	      appearing on the command line. The argument namefile can be set to ``-'' to  accept
	      a  list  of  files from the standard input.  Filenames in the namefile that contain
	      whitespace have to be enclosed in "double quotes".  Inside such  quoted  filenames,
	      any double-quote and backslash characters have to be escaped by backslashes.

       -k     ``Kernel	 Mode'',   turns  off  the  use  of  the  default  include  dir  (usually
	      /usr/include) when building the database, since kernel source  trees  generally  do
	      not use it.

       -L     Do  a  single  search  with  line-oriented  output  when used with the -num pattern

       -l     Line-oriented interface (see ``Line-Oriented Interface'' below).

	      Go to input field num (counting from 0) and find pattern.

       -Ppath Prepend path to relative file names in a pre-built cross-reference file so  you  do
	      not  have to change to the directory where the cross-reference file was built. This
	      option is only valid with the -d option.

       -pn    Display the last n file path components instead of the default (1). Use  0  not  to
	      display the file name at all.

       -q     Enable  fast symbol lookup via an inverted index. This option causes cscope to cre-
	      ate 2 more files (default names ``cscope.in.out'' and ``cscope.po.out'')	in  addi-
	      tion to the normal database. This allows a faster symbol search algorithm that pro-
	      vides noticeably faster lookup performance for large projects.

       -R     Recurse subdirectories during search for source files.

       -sdir  Look in dir for additional source files. This option is ignored if source files are
	      given on the command line.

       -T     Use  only the first eight characters to match against C symbols.	A regular expres-
	      sion containing special characters other than a period (.) will not match any  sym-
	      bol if its minimum length is greater than eight characters.

       -U     Check file time stamps. This option will update the time stamp on the database even
	      if no files have changed.

       -u     Unconditionally  build  the  cross-reference  file  (assume  that  all  files  have

       -v     Be  more	verbose  in  line-oriented mode.  Output progress updates during database
	      building and searches.

       files  A list of file names to operate on.

       The -I, -c, -k, -p, -q, and -T options can also be in the cscope.files file.

   Requesting the initial search
       After the cross-reference is ready, cscope will display this menu:

       Find this C symbol:
       Find this function definition:
       Find functions called by this function:
       Find functions calling this function:
       Find this text string:
       Change this text string:
       Find this egrep pattern:
       Find this file:
       Find files #including this file:

       Press the <Up> or <Down> keys repeatedly to move to the desired input field, type the text
       to search for, and then press the <Return> key.

   Issuing subsequent requests
       If the search is successful, any of these single-character commands can be used:

	      Edit the file referenced by the given line number.

	      Display next set of matching lines.

       <Tab>  Alternate between the menu and the list of matching lines

       <Up>   Move to the previous menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or move to the previ-
	      ous matching line (if the cursor is in the matching line list.)

       <Down> Move to the next menu item (if the cursor is in the  menu)  or  move  to	the  next
	      matching line (if the cursor is in the matching line list.)

       +      Display next set of matching lines.

       -      Display previous set of matching lines.

       ^e     Edit displayed files in order.

       >      Write the displayed list of lines to a file.

       >>     Append the displayed list of lines to a file.

       <      Read  lines  from  a  file that is in symbol reference format (created by > or >>),
	      just like the -F option.

       ^      Filter all lines through a shell command and display the resulting lines, replacing
	      the lines that were already there.

       |      Pipe all lines to a shell command and display them without changing them.

       At any time these single-character commands can also be used:

	      Move to next input field.

       ^n     Move to next input field.

       ^p     Move to previous input field.

       ^y     Search with the last text typed.

       ^b     Move to previous input field and search pattern.

       ^f     Move to next input field and search pattern.

       ^c     Toggle  ignore/use  letter  case when searching. (When ignoring letter case, search
	      for ``FILE'' will match ``File'' and ``file''.)

       ^r     Rebuild the cross-reference.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       ^d     Exit cscope.

       NOTE: If the first character of the text to be searched for matches one of the above  com-
       mands, escape it by typing a (backslash) first.

       Substituting new text for old text

       After the text to be changed has been typed, cscope will prompt for the new text, and then
       it will display the lines containing the old text. Select the lines  to	be  changed  with
       these single-character commands:

	      Mark or unmark the line to be changed.

       *      Mark or unmark all displayed lines to be changed.

	      Display next set of lines.

       +      Display next set of lines.

       -      Display previous set of lines.

       a      Mark or unmark all lines to be changed.

       ^d     Change the marked lines and exit.

       <Esc>  Exit without changing the marked lines.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       Special keys
	      If  your	terminal  has arrow keys that work in vi, you can use them to move around
	      the input fields. The up-arrow key is useful to move to the  previous  input  field
	      instead  of  using the <Tab> key repeatedly. If you have <CLEAR>, <NEXT>, or <PREV>
	      keys they will act as the ^l, +, and - commands, respectively.

   Line-Oriented interface
       The -l option lets you use cscope where a screen-oriented interface would not  be  useful,
       for example, from another screen-oriented program.

       cscope will prompt with >> when it is ready for an input line starting with the field num-
       ber (counting from 0) immediately followed by the search pattern, for  example,	``lmain''
       finds the definition of the main function.

       If  you	just  want  a single search, instead of the -l option use the -L and -num pattern
       options, and you won't get the >> prompt.

       For -l, cscope outputs the number of reference lines cscope: 2 lines

       For each reference found, cscope outputs a line consisting  of  the  file  name,  function
       name,  line  number,  and  line	text,  separated  by spaces, for example, main.c main 161
       main(argc, argv)

       Note that the editor is not called to display a single reference, unlike  the  screen-ori-
       ented interface.

       You  can use the c command to toggle ignore/use letter case when searching. (When ignoring
       letter case, search for ``FILE'' will match ``File'' and ``file''.)

       You can use the r command to rebuild the database.

       cscope will quit when it detects end-of-file, or when the first character of an input line
       is ``^d'' or ``q''.

	      Overrides  the EDITOR and VIEWER variables. Use this if you wish to use a different
	      editor with cscope than that specified by your EDITOR/VIEWER variables.

	      Format of the line number flag for your editor. By  default,  cscope  invokes  your
	      editor  via  the	equivalent  of ``editor +N file'', where ``N'' is the line number
	      that the editor should jump to. This format is used by both emacs and vi.  If  your
	      editor  needs  something	different,  specify it in this variable, with ``%s'' as a
	      placeholder for the line number.	Ex: if your editor needs to be invoked as  ``edi-
	      tor -#103 file'' to go to line 103, set this variable to ``-#%s''.

	      Set  this variable to ``yes'' if your editor needs to be invoked with the line num-
	      ber option  after  the  filename	to  be	edited.  To  continue  the  example  from
	      CSCOPE_LINEFLAG,	above:	if your editor needs to see ``editor file -#number'', set
	      this environment variable. Users of most standard editors (vi, emacs) do	not  need
	      to set this variable.

       EDITOR Preferred editor, which defaults to vi.

       HOME   Home directory, which is automatically set at login.

	      Colon-separated list of directories to search for #include files.

       SHELL  Preferred shell, which defaults to sh.

	      Colon-separated list of directories to search for additional source files.

       TERM   Terminal type, which must be a screen terminal.

	      Terminal information directory full path name. If your terminal is not in the stan-
	      dard terminfo directory, see curses and terminfo for how to make your own  terminal

       TMPDIR Temporary file directory, which defaults to /var/tmp.

       VIEWER Preferred file display program (such as less), which overrides EDITOR (see above).

       VPATH  A  colon-separated list of directories, each of which has the same directory struc-
	      ture below it. If VPATH is set, cscope searches for source files in the directories
	      specified; if it is not set, cscope searches only in the current directory.

	      Default  files  containing  -I, -p, -q, and -T options and the list of source files
	      (overridden by the -i option).

	      Symbol cross-reference file (overridden by the -f option), which is put in the home
	      directory if it cannot be created in the current directory.

	      Default  files  containing  the  inverted index used for quick symbol searching (-q
	      option). If you use the -f option to rename the cross-reference file (so	it's  not
	      cscope.out), the names for these inverted index files will be created by adding
	       .in  and .po to the name you supply with -f. For example, if you indicated -f xyz,
	      then these files would be named xyz.in and xyz.po.

       INCDIR Standard directory for #include files (usually /usr/include).

       cscope recognizes function definitions of the form:
       fname blank ( args ) white arg_decs white {

       where: fname is the function name

       blank  is zero or more spaces, tabs, vtabs, form feeds or carriage returns, not	including

       args   is any string that does not contain a ``"'' or a newline

       white  is zero or more spaces, tabs, vtabs, form feeds, carriage returns or newlines

	      are  zero  or  more  argument declarations (arg_decs may include comments and white

       It is not necessary for a function declaration to start at the beginning of  a  line.  The
       return  type  may  precede the function name; cscope will still recognize the declaration.
       Function definitions that deviate from this form will not be recognized by cscope.

       The ``Function'' column of the search output for the menu option Find functions called  by
       this  function:	input field will only display the first function called in the line, that
       is, for this function

		return (f() + g());

       the display would be

	  Functions called by this function: e
	  File Function Line
	  a.c f 3 return(f() + g());

       Occasionally, a function definition or call may not be recognized because of braces inside
       #if  statements. Similarly, the use of a variable may be incorrectly recognized as a defi-

       A typedef name preceding a preprocessor statement will  be  incorrectly	recognized  as	a
       global definition, for example,

	#if AR16WR

       Preprocessor statements can also prevent the recognition of a global definition, for exam-

	char flag
	     = -1

       A function declaration inside a function is incorrectly recognized as a function call, for

		void g();

       is incorrectly recognized as a call to g.

       cscope recognizes C++ classes by looking for the class keyword, but doesn't recognize that
       a struct is also a class, so it doesn't recognize inline member function definitions in	a
       structure.  It also doesn't expect the class keyword in a typedef , so it incorrectly rec-
       ognizes X as a definition in

	typedef class X  *  Y;

       It also doesn't recognize operator function definitions

	Bool Feature::operator==(const Feature & other)

       Nor does it recognize function definitions with a function pointer argument

	ParseTable::Recognize(int startState, char *pattern,
	  int finishState, void (*FinalAction)(char *))

The Santa Cruz Operation		   January 2007 				CSCOPE(1)
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