Visit Our UNIX and Linux User Community

Linux and UNIX Man Pages

Test Your Knowledge in Computers #277
Difficulty: Easy
Solaris is a version of UNIX System V Release 4 (SVR4), jointly developed by Sun and AT&T, and was licensed by Sun from DEC to replace SunOS.
True or False?
Linux & Unix Commands - Search Man Pages

cgexec(1) [centos man page]

CGEXEC(1)							 libcgroup Manual							 CGEXEC(1)

NAME
cgexec - run the task in given control groups SYNOPSIS
cgexec [-h] [-g <controllers>:<path>] [--sticky] command [arguments] DESCRIPTION
The cgexec program executes the task command with arguments arguments in the given control groups. -g <controllers>:<path> defines the control groups in which the task will be run. controllers is a list of controllers and path is the relative path to control groups in the given controllers list. This flag can be used multiple times to define multiple pairs of lists of controllers and relative paths. Instead of the list of all mounted controllers, the wildcard b"*b" can be used. If this option is not used, cgexec will automatically place the task in the right cgroup based on /etc/cgrules.conf. If /etc/cgrules.conf configuration file is used, there can be used template names. Then the control group name contains a template in destination tag (see cgrules.conf (5)) and if the cgroup does not exist in execution time, it is created, based on /etc/cgcon- fig.conf specification. If the specifications are not present the group is created with the default kernel values. -h, --help Display this help and exit. --sticky If running the task command with this option, the daemon of service cgred (cgrulesengd process) does not change both the task of the command and the child tasks. Without this option, the daemon does not change the task of the command but it changes the child tasks to the right cgroup based on /etc/cgrules.conf automatically. EXAMPLES
cgexec -g *:test1 ls runs command ls in control group test1 in all mounted controllers. cgexec -g cpu,memory:test1 ls -l runs command ls -l in control group test1 in controllers cpu and memory. cgexec -g cpu,memory:test1 -g swap:test2 ls -l runs command ls -l in control group test1 in controllers cpu and memory and control group test2 in controller swap. ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
CGROUP_LOGLEVEL controls verbosity of the tool. Allowed values are DEBUG, INFO, WARNING or ERROR. FILES
/etc/cgrules.conf default libcgroup configuration file SEE ALSO
cgrules.conf (5) Linux 2009-03-15 CGEXEC(1)

Check Out this Related Man Page

CGCONFIG.CONF(5)						File Formats Manual						  CGCONFIG.CONF(5)

NAME
cgconfig.conf - libcgroup configuration file DESCRIPTION
cgconfig.conf is a configuration file used by libcgroup to define control groups, their parameters and their mount points. The file con- sists of mount , group and default sections. These sections can be in arbitrary order and all of them are optional. Any line starting with '#' is considered a comment line and is ignored. mount section has this form: mount { <controller> = <path>; ... } controller Name of the kernel subsystem. The list of subsystems supported by the kernel can be found in /proc/cgroups file. Named hierarchy can be specified as controller "name=<somename>". Do not forget to use double quotes around this controller name (see examples below). Libcgroup merges all subsystems mounted to the same directory (see Example 1) and the directory is mounted only once. path The directory path where the group hierarchy associated to a given controller shall be mounted. The directory is created automati- cally on cgconfig service startup if it does not exist and is deleted on service shutdown. If no mount section is specified, no controllers are mounted. group section has this form: group <name> { [permissions] <controller> { <param name> = <param value>; ... } ... } name Name of the control group. It can contain only characters, which are allowed for directory names. The groups form a tree, i.e. a control group can contain zero or more subgroups. Subgroups can be specified using '/' delimiter. The root control group is always created automatically in all hierarchies and it is the base of the group hierarchy. It can be explicitly specified in cgconfig.conf by using '.' as group name. This can be used e.g. to set its permissions, as shown in Example 6. When the parent control group of a subgroup is not specified it is created automatically. permissions Permissions of the given control group on mounted filesystem. root has always permission to do anything with the control group. Permissions have the following syntax: perm { task { uid = <task user>; gid = <task group>; fperm = <file permissions> } admin { uid = <admin name>; gid = <admin group>; dperm = <directory permissions> fperm = <file permissions> } } task user/group Name of the user and the group, which own the tasks file of the control group. Given fperm then specify the file permissions. Please note that the given value is not used as was specified. Instead, current file owner permis- sions are used as a "umask" for group and others permisions. For example if fperm = 777 then both group and others will get the same permissions as the file owner. admin user/group Name of the user and the group which own the rest of control group's files. Given fperm and dperm control file and directory permissions. Again, the given value is masked by the file/directory owner permissions. Permissions are only apply to the enclosing control group and are not inherited by subgroups. If there is no perm section in the control group definition, root:root is the owner of all files and default file permissions are preserved if fperm resp. dperm are not specified. controller Name of the kernel subsystem. The section can be empty, default kernel parameters will be used in this case. By specifying con- troller the control group and all its parents are controlled by the specific subsystem. One control group can be controlled by mul- tiple subsystems, even if the subsystems are mounted on different directories. Each control group must be controlled by at least one subsystem, so that libcgroup knows in which hierarchies the control group should be created. The parameters of the given controller can be modified in the following section enclosed in brackets. param name Name of the file to set. Each controller can have zero or more parameters. param value Value which should be written to the file when the control group is created. If it is enclosed in double quotes `"', it can contain spaces and other special characters. If no group section is specified, no groups are created. default section has this form: default { perm { task { uid = <task user>; gid = <task group>; fperm = <file permissions> } admin { uid = <admin name>; gid = <admin group>; dperm = <directory permissions> fperm = <file permissions> } } } Content of the perm section has the same form as in group section. The permissions defined here specify owner and permissions of groups and files of all groups, which do not have explicitly specified their permissions in their group section. EXAMPLES
Example 1 The configuration file: mount { cpu = /mnt/cgroups/cpu; cpuacct = /mnt/cgroups/cpu; } creates the hierarchy controlled by two subsystems with no groups inside. It corresponds to the following operations: mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu mount -t cgroup -o cpu,cpuacct cpu /mnt/cgroups/cpu Example 2 The configuration file: mount { cpu = /mnt/cgroups/cpu; "name=scheduler" = /mnt/cgroups/cpu; "name=noctrl" = /mnt/cgroups/noctrl; } group daemons { cpu { cpu.shares = "1000"; } } group test { "name=noctrl" { } } creates two hierarchies. One hierarchy named scheduler controlled by cpu subsystem, with group daemons inside. Second hierarchy is named noctrl without any controller, with group test. It corresponds to following operations: mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu mount -t cgroup -o cpu,name=scheduler cpu /mnt/cgroups/cpu mount -t cgroup -o none,name=noctrl none /mnt/cgroups/noctrl mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons echo 1000 > /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/www/cpu.shares mkdir /mnt/cgroups/noctrl/tests The daemons group is created automatically when its first subgroup is created. All its parameters have the default value and only root can access group's files. Since both cpuacct and cpu subsystems are mounted to the same directory, all groups are implicitly controlled also by cpuacct subsystem, even if there is no cpuacct section in any of the groups. Example 3 The configuration file: mount { cpu = /mnt/cgroups/cpu; cpuacct = /mnt/cgroups/cpu; } group daemons/www { perm { task { uid = root; gid = webmaster; fperm = 770; } admin { uid = root; gid = root; dperm = 775; fperm = 744; } } cpu { cpu.shares = "1000"; } } group daemons/ftp { perm { task { uid = root; gid = ftpmaster; fperm = 774; } admin { uid = root; gid = root; dperm = 755; fperm = 700; } } cpu { cpu.shares = "500"; } } creates the hierarchy controlled by two subsystems with one group and two subgroups inside, setting one parameter. It corresponds to the following operations (except for file permissions which are little bit trickier to emulate via chmod): mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu mount -t cgroup -o cpu,cpuacct cpu /mnt/cgroups/cpu mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/www chown root:root /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/www/* chown root:webmaster /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/www/tasks echo 1000 > /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/www/cpu.shares # + chmod the files so the result looks like: # ls -la /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/www/ # admin.dperm = 755: # drwxr-xr-x. 2 root webmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 . # # admin.fperm = 744: # --w-------. 1 root webmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cgroup.event_control # -r--r--r--. 1 root webmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cgroup.procs # -r--r--r--. 1 root webmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cpuacct.stat # -rw-r--r--. 1 root webmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cpuacct.usage # -r--r--r--. 1 root webmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cpuacct.usage_percpu # -rw-r--r--. 1 root webmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cpu.rt_period_us # -rw-r--r--. 1 root webmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cpu.rt_runtime_us # -rw-r--r--. 1 root webmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cpu.shares # -rw-r--r--. 1 root webmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 notify_on_release # # tasks.fperm = 770 # -rw-rw----. 1 root webmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 tasks mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/ftp chown root:root /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/ftp/* chown root:ftpmaster /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/ftp/tasks echo 500 > /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/ftp/cpu.shares # + chmod the files so the result looks like: # ls -la /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/ftp/ # admin.dperm = 755: # drwxr-xr-x. 2 root ftpmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 . # # admin.fperm = 700: # --w-------. 1 root ftpmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cgroup.event_control # -r--------. 1 root ftpmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cgroup.procs # -r--------. 1 root ftpmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cpuacct.stat # -rw-------. 1 root ftpmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cpuacct.usage # -r--------. 1 root ftpmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cpuacct.usage_percpu # -rw-------. 1 root ftpmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cpu.rt_period_us # -rw-------. 1 root ftpmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cpu.rt_runtime_us # -rw-------. 1 root ftpmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 cpu.shares # -rw-------. 1 root ftpmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 notify_on_release # # tasks.fperm = 774: # -rw-rw-r--. 1 root ftpmaster 0 Jun 16 11:51 tasks The daemons group is created automatically when its first subgroup is created. All its parameters have the default value and only root can access the group's files. Since both cpuacct and cpu subsystems are mounted to the same directory, all groups are implicitly also controlled by the cpuacct subsys- tem, even if there is no cpuacct section in any of the groups. Example 4 The configuration file: mount { cpu = /mnt/cgroups/cpu; cpuacct = /mnt/cgroups/cpuacct; } group daemons { cpuacct{ } cpu { } } creates two hierarchies and one common group in both of them. It corresponds to the following operations: mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpuacct mount -t cgroup -o cpu cpu /mnt/cgroups/cpu mount -t cgroup -o cpuacct cpuacct /mnt/cgroups/cpuacct mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpuacct/daemons In fact there are two groups created. One in the cpuacct hierarchy, the second in the cpu hierarchy. These two groups have nothing in com- mon and can contain different subgroups and different tasks. Example 5 The configuration file: mount { cpu = /mnt/cgroups/cpu; cpuacct = /mnt/cgroups/cpuacct; } group daemons { cpuacct{ } } group daemons/www { cpu { cpu.shares = "1000"; } } group daemons/ftp { cpu { cpu.shares = "500"; } } creates two hierarchies with few groups inside. One of the groups is created in both hierarchies. It corresponds to the following operations: mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpuacct mount -t cgroup -o cpu cpu /mnt/cgroups/cpu mount -t cgroup -o cpuacct cpuacct /mnt/cgroups/cpuacct mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpuacct/daemons mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/www echo 1000 > /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/www/cpu.shares mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/ftp echo 500 > /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/ftp/cpu.shares Group daemons is created in both hierarchies. In the cpuacct hierarchy the group is explicitly mentioned in the configuration file. In the cpu hierarchy the group is created implicitly when www is created there. These two groups have nothing in common, for example they do not share processes and subgroups. Groups www and ftp are created only in the cpu hierarchy and are not controlled by the cpuacct subsystem. Example 6 The configuration file: mount { cpu = /mnt/cgroups/cpu; cpuacct = /mnt/cgroups/cpu; } group . { perm { task { uid = root; gid = operator; } admin { uid = root; gid = operator; } } cpu { } } group daemons { perm { task { uid = root; gid = daemonmaster; } admin { uid = root; gid = operator; } } cpu { } } creates the hierarchy controlled by two subsystems with one group having some special permissions. It corresponds to the following opera- tions: mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu mount -t cgroup -o cpu,cpuacct cpu /mnt/cgroups/cpu chown root:operator /mnt/cgroups/cpu/* chown root:operator /mnt/cgroups/cpu/tasks mkdir /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons chown root:operator /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/* chown root:daemonmaster /mnt/cgroups/cpu/daemons/tasks Users which are members of the operator group are allowed to administer the control groups, i.e. create new control groups and move pro- cesses between these groups without having root privileges. Members of the daemonmaster group can move processes to the daemons control group, but they can not move the process out of the group. Only the operator or root can do that. RECOMMENDATIONS
Keep hierarchies separated Having multiple hierarchies is perfectly valid and can be useful in various scenarios. To keeps things clean, do not create one group in multiple hierarchies. Examples 4 and 5 show how unreadable and confusing it can be, especially when reading somebody elses configuration file. Explicit is better than implicit libcgroup can implicitly create groups which are needed for the creation of configured subgroups. This may be useful and save some typing in simple scenarios. When it comes to multiple hierarchies, it's better to explicitly specify all groups and all controllers related to them. FILES
/etc/cgconfig.conf default libcgroup configuration file SEE ALSO
cgconfigparser (8) BUGS
Parameter values must be single strings without spaces. Parsing of quoted strings is not implemented. CGCONFIG.CONF(5)

Featured Tech Videos