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CentOS 7.0 - man page for cdrskin (centos section 1)

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CDRSKIN(1)									       CDRSKIN(1)

       cdrskin - burns preformatted data to CD, DVD, and BD via libburn.

       cdrskin [options|track_source_addresses]

       cdrskin	is  a program that provides some of cdrecord's options in a compatible way for CD
       media. With DVD and BD it has its own ways.  You do not need to be superuser for its daily

   Overview of features:
       Blanking of CD-RW and DVD-RW.
       Formatting of DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD.
       Burning of data or audio tracks to CD,
       either in versatile Track at Once mode (TAO)
       or in Session at Once mode for seamless tracks.
       Multi session on CD (follow-up sessions in TAO only)
       or on DVD-R[W] (in Incremental mode) or DVD+R[/DL] or BD-R.
       Single session Disk-at-once on DVD-RW, DVD-R, DVD-R DL.
       Single session or emulated ISO-9660 multi-session
       on overwriteable DVD+RW, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE
       or on data file or block device.
       Bus scan, burnfree, speed options, retrieving media info, padding, fifo.
       See section EXAMPLES at the end of this text.

   General information paragraphs:
       Track recording model
       Write mode selection
       Recordable CD Media
       Sequentially Recordable DVD or BD Media
       Overwriteable DVD or BD Media
       Drive preparation and addressing
       Emulated drives

   Track recording model:
       The  input-output entities which get processed are called tracks.  A track stores a stream
       of bytes.
       More than one track can be burned by a single run of cdrskin.  In the  terms  of  the  MMC
       standard all tracks written by the same run constitute a session.
       Normally,  each	track is initiated by one track source address argument, which may either
       be "-" for standard input or the address of a readable file.  Alternatively,  option  cue-
       file=  may  be used to read a session description from a text file and to read the session
       content from a single data file.
       If no write mode is given explicitly then one will be chosen which matches the  peculiari-
       ties of track sources and the state of the output media.

       Some  media  types can be kept appendable so that further tracks can be written to them in
       subsequent runs of cdrskin (see option -multi).	Info about the addresses of burned tracks
       is kept in a table of content (TOC) on media and can be retrieved via cdrskin option -toc.
       This information is also used by the operating systems' CD-ROM read drivers.

       In general there are two types of tracks: data and audio.  They	differ	in  sector  size,
       throughput and readability via the systems' CD-ROM drivers resp. by music CD players. With
       DVD and BD there is only type data.
       If not explicitly option -audio is given, then any track is burned as  type  data,  unless
       the track source is a file with suffix ".wav" or ".au" and has a header part which identi-
       fies it as MS-WAVE resp. SUN Audio with suitable parameters.  Such  files  are  burned  as
       audio tracks by default.

       While  audio tracks just contain a given time span of acoustic vibrations, data tracks may
       have an arbitray meaning. Nevertheless, ISO-9660 filesystems are established as	a  format
       which  can  represent a tree of directories and files on all major operating systems. Such
       filesystem images can be produced by programs mkisofs or genisoimage or xorriso.  They can
       also be extended by follow-up tracks if prepared properly.  See the man pages of said pro-
       grams.  cdrskin is able to fulfill the needs about their option -C.
       Another type of data track content are archive formats which originally have  been  devel-
       oped for magnetic tapes. Only formats which mark a detectable end-of-archive in their data
       are suitable, though. Well tested are the archivers afio and star. Not suitable seems  GNU

   Write mode selection:
       In general there are two approaches for writing media:
       A  permissive  mode depicted by option -tao which needs no predicted track size and allows
       to make use of eventual multi-session capabilities.
       A more restrictive mode -sao (alias -dao) which usually demands a predictable  track  size
       and is not necessarily capable of multi-session. It can be used to write CD-TEXT and it is
       the only one that works with option cuefile=.
       If none of the options -dao, -tao or -sao is given then the program will try to	choose	a
       write  mode which matches the defined recording job, the capabilities of the drive and the
       state of the present media.
       So the mentioning of write modes in the following paragraphs and in the examples is not so
       much  a	demand	that  the user shall choose one explicitly, but rather an illustration of
       what to expect with particular media types.

   Recordable CD Media:
       CD-R can be initially written only once and eventually extended until they get closed  (or
       are  spoiled because they are overly full). After that they are read-only. Closing is done
       automatically unless option -multi is given which keeps the media appendable.
       Write mode -tao allows to use track sources  of	unpredictable  length  (like  stdin)  and
       allows  to  write further sessions to appendable media.	-sao produces audio sessions with
       seamless tracks but needs predicted track sizes and cannot append sessions to media.
       CD-RW media can be blanked to make them re-usable for another round of  overwriting.  Usu-
       ally blank=fast is the appropriate option.  Blanking damages the previous content but does
       not make it completely unreadable. It is no effective privacy precaution.  Multiple cycles
       of blanking and overwriting with random numbers might be needed.

   Sequentially Recordable DVD or BD Media:
       Currently  DVD-RW, DVD-R[DL], DVD+R[DL], and BD-R can be used for the Sequential recording
       model. It resembles the model of CD media. Only DVD-RW can be  blanked  and  re-used  from
       DVD-RW  are  sequential media if they are in state "Sequential Recording".  The media must
       be either blank or appendable.  Newly purchased DVD-RW and DVD-R media are in this  state.
       Used DVD-RW get into blank sequential state by option blank=deformat_sequential .
       With DVD-R[W] two write modes may be available:
       Mode  DAO  has many restrictions. It does not work with appendable media, allows no -multi
       and only a single track. The size of the track needs to be known in advance. So either its
       source  has to be a disk file of recognizable size or the size has to be announced explic-
       itly by options tsize= or tao_to_sao_tsize= .
       DAO is the only mode for DVD-R media which do not offer feature 21h Incremental	Streaming
       (e.g.  DVD-R  DL). DAO may also be selected explicitly by option -sao .	Program growisofs
       uses DAO on sequential DVD-R[W] media for maximum DVD-ROM/-Video compatibility.
       The other mode, Incremental Streaming, is the default write mode if it is available and if
       the  restrictions  of  DAO  would  prevent the job.  Incremental Streaming may be selected
       explicitly by option -tao as it resembles much CD TAO by allowing track sources of  unpre-
       dicted  length and to keep media appendable by option -multi . It does not work with DVD-R
       DL and minimally blanked DVD-RW.  The only restriction towards CD-R[W] is the lack of sup-
       port for -audio tracks.	Multiple tracks per session are permissible.
       The  write  modes for DVD+R[/DL] and BD-R resemble those with DVD-R except that each track
       gets wrapped in an own session. There is no -dummy writing with DVD+R[/DL] or BD-R.
       Quite deliberately write mode -sao insists in the tradition of a predicted track size  and
       blank media, whereas -tao writes the tracks open ended and allows appendable media.
       BD-R  may  be formatted before first use to enable the Defect Management which might catch
       and repair some bad spots at the expense of slow speed even with flawless media.
       Note: Option -multi might make DVD media unreadable in some DVD-ROM drives.   Best  reader
       compatibility is achieved without it (i.e. by single session media).

   Overwriteable DVD or BD Media:
       Currently types DVD+RW, DVD-RW, DVD-RAM and BD-RE can be overwritten via cdrskin.
       Option -audio is not allowed. Only one track is allowed.  Option -multi cannot mark a rec-
       ognizable end of overwriteable media.  Therefore -multi is banned unless  ISO-9660  images
       shall  be  expandable by help of option --grow_overwriteable_iso .  Without this option or
       without an ISO-9660 filesystem image present on media, -toc does  not  return  information
       about the media content and media get treated as blank regardless wether they hold data or
       Currently there is no difference between -sao and -tao. If ever, then  -tao  will  be  the
       mode which preserves the current behavior.

       DVD+RW  and DVD-RAM media need no special initial formatting. They offer a single continu-
       ous data area for blockwise random access. BD-RE need explicit formatting before use.  See
       blank=as_needed or blank=format_defectmgt .
       DVD-RW  are sold in state "Sequential Recording". To become suitable for the Overwriteable
       DVD recording model they need to get formatted to state "Restricted Overwrite". Then  they
       behave much like DVD+RW. This formatting can be done by option blank=format_overwrite .
       Several programs like dvd+rw-format, cdrecord, wodim, or cdrskin can bring a DVD-RW out of
       overwriteable state so that it has to be formatted again. If in doubt, just give it a try.

   Drive preparation and addressing:
       The drives, CD, DVD, or BD burners, are accessed via addresses which are specific to  lib-
       burn and the operating system. Those addresses get listed by a run of cdrskin --devices or
       cdrskin --device_links.
       On Linux, they are device files which traditionally do not offer w-permissions for  normal
       users.  Because libburn needs rw-permission, it might be only the superuser who is able to
       get this list without further precautions.
       It is consensus that chmod a+rw /dev/sr0 or chmod a+rw /dev/hdc is less security sensitive
       than  chmod  u+s,a+x  /usr/bin/cdrskin.	The risk for the drive is somewhat higher but the
       overall system is much less at stake.  Consider to restrict rw-access to  a  single  group
       which bundles the users who are allowed to use the burner drive (like group "floppy").
       For drive permission examples on Linux, FreeBSD, and Solaris, see cdrskin/README.

       If  you only got one CD capable drive then you may leave out cdrskin option dev=. Else you
       should use this option to address the drive you want.
       cdrskin option dev= not only accepts the listed addresses but  also  traditional  cdrecord
       SCSI  addresses	which  consist of three numbers: Bus,Target,Lun. On Linux there is also a
       related address family "ATA" which accesses IDE drives not under  control  of  Linux  SCSI
       drivers: ATA:Bus,Target,Lun.
       See option -scanbus for getting a list of cdrecord style addresses.
       Further	are accepted: links to libburn-suitable device files, device files which have the
       same major and minor device number, and device files which  have  the  same  SCSI  address
       parameters (e.g. /dev/sg0).

   Emulated drives:
       Option  --allow_emulated_drives	enables addressing of pseudo-drives which get emulated on
       top of filesystem objects. Regular data files and block devices	result	in  pseudo-drives
       which behave much like DVD-RAM.	If the given address does not exist yet but its directory
       exists, then it gets created as regular file.  Other file types like character devices  or
       pipes result in pseudo-drives which behave much like blank DVD-R.  The target file address
       is given after prefix "stdio:".
       E.g.: dev=stdio:/tmp/my_pseudo_drive
       Addresses of the form "stdio:/dev/fd/<number>" are treated special.  The  number  is  read
       literally and used as open file descriptor. With dev="stdio:/dev/fd/1" the normal standard
       output of the program is redirected to stderr and the stream  data  of  a  burn	run  will
       appear on stdout.
       Not good for terminals ! Redirect it.
       Pseudo-drives  allow  -dummy.  Their  reply with --tell_media_space can be utopic.  -dummy
       burn runs touch the file but do not modify its data content.
       Note: --allow_emulated_drives is restricted to stdio:/dev/null if cdrskin is  run  by  the
       superuser or if it has changed user identity via the setuid bit of its access permissions.
       The ban for the superuser can be lifted by a skillfully created file.  See  section  FILES

       --help Show non-cdrecord compatible options.

       -help  Show cdrecord compatible options.
	      Note  that  some	of  the  help texts are quite wrong - for cdrecord as well as for
	      cdrskin (e.g. -format, blank=, -load). They are, nevertheless, traditional  indica-
	      tors  for the availability of the listed options. Some frontend programs make deci-
	      sions after reading them.

	      Print cdrskin id line, compatibility lure line, libburn version,	cdrskin  version,
	      version timestamp, build timestamp (if available), and then exit.

       Alphabetical list of options which are intended to be compatible with original cdrecord by
       Joerg Schilling:

       -atip  Retrieve some info about media state. With CD-RW print  "Is  erasable".	With  DVD
	      media  print  "book  type:"  and	a  media  type text. With BD media print "Mounted
	      Media:" and media type text.

       -audio Announces that the subsequent tracks are to be burned as audio.  The source is sup-
	      posed  to  be  uncompressed  headerless  PCM, 44100 Hz, 16 bit, stereo. For little-
	      endian byte order (which is usual on PCs) use option -swab. Unless  marked  explic-
	      itly  by option -data, input files with suffix ".wav" are examined wether they have
	      a header in MS-WAVE format confirming those parameters  and  eventually  raw  audio
	      data get extracted and burned as audio track. Same is done for suffix ".au" and SUN
	      Option -audio may be used only with CD media and not with DVD or BD.

	      Blank a CD-RW, DVD-RW, or format a DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, BD.  This is combinable
	      with  burning  in  the same run of cdrskin.  The type given with blank= selects the
	      particular behavior:

		     Try to make the media ready for writing from scratch. If  it  needs  format-
		     ting,  then format it. If it is not blank, then try to apply blank=fast.  It
		     is a reason to abort if the media cannot assume thoroughly writeable  state,
		     e.g. if it is non-blank write-once.
		     This  leaves unformatted DVD-RW in unformatted blank state. To format DVD-RW
		     use blank=format_overwriteable. Blank unformatted BD-R stay unformatted.
		     (Note: blank=as_needed is not an original cdrecord option.)

	      The following blank types are specific to particular media  familes.  Use  them  if
	      special features are desired.

	      all    Blank an entire CD-RW or an unformatted DVD-RW.  (See also --prodvd_cli_com-
		     patible, --grow_overwriteable_iso)

	      fast   Minimally blank an entire CD-RW or blank an unformatted DVD-RW.   (See  also
		     --prodvd_cli_compatible, --grow_overwriteable_iso)

		     Like  blank=all  but with the additional ability to blank overwriteable DVD-
		     RW.  This will destroy their formatting and make them  sequentially  record-
		     able.   Another  peculiarity  is  the  ability  to  blank media which appear
		     already blank.  This is similar to option -force but does not try	to  blank
		     media other than recognizable CD-RW and DVD-RW.
		     (Note: blank=deformat_* are not original cdrecord options.)

		     Like  blank=deformat_sequential but blanking DVD-RW only minimally.  This is
		     faster than full blanking but  may  yield	media  incapable  of  Incremental
		     Streaming (-tao).

		     Format  a	media if it is not formatted yet, and if cdrskin supports format-
		     ting for the media type, and if formatting  will  not  happen  automatically
		     during write.  This currently applies to unformatted DVD-RW, DVD-RAM, BD-RE,
		     and blank unformatted BD-R.  Eventually the appropriate  default  formatting
		     is chosen.  If other media or states are encountered then nothing happens.
		     The following formatting types are more specialized to particular media fam-

		     Format a DVD-RW to  "Restricted  Overwrite".  The	user  should  bring  some
		     (Note: blank=format_* are not original cdrecord options.)

		     Like format_overwrite without creating a 128 MiB trailblazer session.  Leads
		     to "intermediate" state which only allows sequential  write  beginning  from
		     address 0.  The "intermediate" state ends after the first session of writing

		     For DVD-RW this is like format_overwrite but claims full media  size  rather
		     than  just  128  MiB.  Most traditional formatting is attempted. No data get
		     written.  Much patience is required.
		     This option treats already formatted media even  if  not  option  -force  is
		     For  DVD+RW this is the only supported explicit formatting type. It provides
		     complete "de-icing" so no reader slips on unwritten data areas.

		     Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve the  default  amount  of  spare  blocks  for
		     defect management.
		     The following format_defectmgt_* allow to submit user wishes which neverthe-
		     less have to match one of the available formats. These formats  are  offered
		     by the drive after examining the media.

		     Disable the usual media quality certification in order to save time and for-
		     mat to default size.  The certification setting persists even if  subsequent
		     blank= options override the size of the format selection.
		     Whether  formatting without certification works properly depends much on the
		     drive. One should check the "Format status:" from --list_formats afterwards.

		     Re-enable the usual media quality certification and format to default  size.
		     The certification setting persists like with format_defectmgt_cert_off.
		     Whether  there  happens certification at all depends much on the media state
		     and the actually selected format descriptor.

		     Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve a maximum number of spare blocks.

		     Format DVD-RAM or BD to reserve a minimum number of spare blocks.	It  might
		     be  necessary  to format format_defectmgt_none first in order to get offered
		     the most minmal spare blocks sizes for format_defectmgt_min.

		     Format DVD-RAM or BD-RE to the largest available payload in the hope to dis-
		     able  defect  management at all. This may or may not have a speed increasing
		     effect.  Unformatted blank BD-R will be left unformatted.

		     Format DVD-RAM or BD. The text  after  "format_defectmgt_payload_"  gives	a
		     number  of bytes, eventually with suffixes "s", "k", "m". The largest number
		     of spare blocks will be chosen which allows at least the given payload size.

		     Format DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RAM or BD.  The number	after  "format_by_index_"
		     is  used as index to the list of available format descriptors. This list can
		     be obtained by option --list_formats.  The numbers after text  "Format  idx"
		     are  the  ones to be used with format_by_index_. Format descriptor lists are
		     volatile.	Do  neither  eject  nor  write	the  media  between  the  run  of
		     --list_formats  and  the run of blank=format_by_index_ or else you may get a
		     different format than desired.

	      help   Print this list of blanking types.

	      Retrieve some info about the addressed drive and then exit.   Exits  with  non-zero
	      value if the drive cannot be found and opened.

       -copy  Create the subsequent tracks with permission for an unlimited number of copies.

	      Read a session description from a cue sheet file in CDRWIN format.  Base the tracks
	      on a single file which is given in the sheet by command FILE.   To  enable  CD-TEXT
	      from the cue sheet file, cdrskin option -text has to be present.
	      cdrskin  currently  supports  TRACK datatypes AUDIO and MODE1/2048 which may not be
	      mixed.  Data source may be of FILE type BINARY, MOTOROLA, or WAVE.
	      Non-CDRWIN commands ARRANGER, COMPOSER, MESSAGE are supported.
	      Cue sheet file commands CATALOG and ISRC may be overridden by option  mcn=  and  by
	      input_sheet_v07t=  purpose specifiers "UPC / EAN" and "ISRC".  This does not affect
	      their appearance in CD-TEXT, but only on Q sub-channel.
	      The track numbers may be overridden by option cd_start_tno=.

       -dao   Alias for option -sao. Write CD in Session at Once mode or DVD-R[W] in Disc-at-once

       -data  Subsequent  tracks  are data tracks. This option is default and only needed to mark
	      the end of the range of an eventual option -audio or -xa1.
	      Options -mode2, -xa, and -xa2 get mapped to -data, not using the desired CD  sector
	      formats  and thus not taking advantage of eventual higher payload.  -xa1 Subsequent
	      tracks are data tracks with input suitable for CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1.  This  dif-
	      fers  from  -data  input	by 8 additional header bytes per block.  cdrskin will not
	      write CD-ROM XA but rather strip the header bytes and write as -data tracks.

	      Set the address of the drive to use. Valid are at least the addresses  listed  with
	      options  --devices  or --device_links, X,Y,Z addresses listed with option -scanbus,
	      ATA:X,Y,Z addresses listed with options  dev=ATA	-scanbus,  and	volatile  libburn
	      drive numbers (numbering starts at "0").	Other device file addresses which lead to
	      the same drive might work too.
	      If no dev= is given, volatile address "dev=0" is assumed. That is the  first  drive
	      found  being  available.	Better avoid this ambiguity on systems with more than one
	      The special target "help" lists hints about available addressing formats.  Be aware
	      that  deprecated	option	--old_pseudo_scsi_adr  may change the meaning of Bus,Tar-
	      get,Lun addresses.

	      Set "driveropts=noburnfree" to disable the drive's  eventual  protection	mechanism
	      against  temporary  lack	of  source  data  (i.e.  buffer  underrun).  A drive that
	      announces no such capabilities will not get them enabled anyway, even if	attempted
	      explicitly via "driveropts=burnfree".

       -dummy Try  to perform the drive operations without actually affecting the inserted media.
	      There is no warranty that this will work with a particular  combination  of  drive,
	      media, and write mode. Blanking is prevented reliably, though.  To avoid inadverted
	      real burning, -dummy refuses burn runs on anything but CD-R[W], DVD-R[W],  or  emu-
	      lated stdio-drives.

       -eject Eject the disc after work is done.

       -force Assume  that  the user knows better in situations when cdrskin or libburn are inse-
	      cure about drive or media state. This includes the attempt to blank media which are
	      classified  as unknown or unsuitable, and the attempt to use write modes which lib-
	      burn believes they are not supported by the drive.
	      Another application is to enforce blanking or re-formatting of media  which  appear
	      to be in the desired blank or format state already.
	      This  option  enables  a	burn run with option -dummy even if libburn believes that
	      drive and media will not simulate the write mode but will write for real.
	      It enables a burn run where cdrskin expects to exceed the available media capacity.
	      Caution: Use this only when in urgent need.

	      Same as blank=format_overwrite_full -force but restricted to DVD+RW.

	      Set the fifo size to the given value. The value may  have  appended  letters  which
	      multiply the preceding number:
	      "k" or "K" = 1024 , "m" or "M" = 1024k , "g" or "G" = 1024m , "s" or "S" = 2048
	      Set size to 0 in order to disable the fifo (default is "4m").
	      The  fifo  buffers  an  eventual temporary surplus of track source data in order to
	      provide the drive with a steady stream during times  of  temporary  lack	of  track
	      source  supply.	The larger the fifo, the longer periods of poor source supply can
	      be compensated.  But a large fifo needs substantial time to fill up if  not  curbed
	      via option fifo_start_at=size.

	      Set the grace time before starting to write. (Default is 0)

       -immed Equivalent to:
	      The  name  of  this  cdrecord option stems from the "Immed" bit which can make some
	      long running drive commands asynchronous and thus eases the  load  on  some  wiring
	      hardware	types.	Regardless  of	option -immed, cdrskin uses asynchronous commands
	      where possible and appropriate.

	      Set a comma separated list of index start address numbers for the next track.  This
	      applies to CD SAO sessions only.
	      The  addresses  count sectors from the start of the next track. The first number is
	      for index 1 and must be 0. The following numbers	have  to  be  larger  than  their
	      respective predecessors. Up to 99 numbers are allowed.
	      Sector numbers are computed from Min:Sec:Frame addresses by
	       Sector = ((Min*60)+Sec)*75+Frame
	      E.g.: "0,7512,20408" sets index 2 to 01:40:12 and index 3 to 04:32:08.

       -inq   Print the identification of the drive and then exit.

	      The  next  track	following this option will try to obtain its source size from the
	      header information out of the first few blocks of the source data.  If these blocks
	      indicate	an  ISO-9660  filesystem  then	its  declared size will be used under the
	      assumption that it is a single session filesystem.
	      If not, then the burn run will be aborted.
	      The range of -isosize is exactly one track. Further tracks may be preceded by  fur-
	      ther  -isosize options, though. At least 15 blocks of padding will be added to each
	      -isosize track. But be advised to rather use padsize=300k.
	      This option can be performed on track sources which  are	regular  files	or  block
	      devices.	For  the  first  track	of the session it can be performed on any type of
	      source if there is a fifo of at least 64 kiB. See option fs= .

	      Set the ISRC for the next track source to the given text, which must be exactly  13
	      characters long. It must comply to the format CCOOOYYSSSSS.
	      CC  is the country code. OOO is the owner code. Both may consist of capital letters
	      A to Z and of decimal digits 0 to 9. YY depicts the year (00 to 99).  SSSSS is  the
	      serial number (00000 to 99999).
	      This option does not affect CD-TEXT but only the Q sub-channel.

       -load  Load  the  media and exit. Exit value is 0 if any kind of media was found, non zero
	      else. Note: Option -eject will unload the media even if -load is given.

       -lock  Like option -load but leave the drive's eject button disabled if there is any media
	      found and not option -eject is given.
	      Use  program  "eject"  or cdrskin -eject to get the tray out of the drive.  Runs of
	      programs like cdrecord, growisofs, wodim, cdrskin will not be hampered and normally
	      enable the drive's eject button when they are done.

	      Set  the	CD Media Catalog Number to text, which must be exactly 13 characters long
	      and should consist of decimal digits.
	      This option does not affect CD-TEXT but only the Q sub-channel.

	      Equivalent to:
	      Percentage is permissible between 25 and 95.

       -minfo Print information about the loaded media. This  includes	media  type,  writability
	      state, and a quite readable table of content.

	      Run  option  -msinfo  and copy the result line into the file given by path.  Unlike
	      -msinfo this option does not redirect all normal output away from standard  output.
	      But it may be combined with -msinfo to achieve this.
	      Note: msifile=path is actually an option of wodim and not of cdrecord.

	      Retrieve	multi-session info for preparing a follow-up session by option -C of pro-
	      grams mkisofs, genisoimage, or xorriso -as mkisofs.  Print result to standard  out-
	      put.   This  option redirects to stderr all message output except the one of option
	      --tell_media_space and its own result string, which consists of two  numbers.   The
	      result  string shall be used as argument of option -C with said programs.  It gives
	      the start address of the most recent session and the predicted start address of the
	      next session to be appended. The string is empty if the most recent session was not
	      written with option -multi.
	      To have a chance for working on overwriteable media, this option has to be accompa-
	      nied by option --grow_overwriteable_iso.

       -multi This  option  keeps  CD,	unformatted DVD-R[W], DVD+R, or BD-R appendable after the
	      current session has been written.  Without it the disc gets closed and may  not  be
	      written  any  more   - unless it is a -RW and gets blanked which causes loss of its
	      The following sessions can only be written in -tao mode. -multi is prohibited  with
	      DVD-R[W]	DAO  write  mode  and  on DVD-R DL media.  Option --prodvd_cli_compatible
	      eventually makes -multi tolerable but cannot make it work.
	      In order to have all filesystem content accessible, the eventual ISO-9660  filesys-
	      tem  of a follow-up session needs to be prepared in a special way by the filesystem
	      formatter program. mkisofs and genisoimage expect particular info about the  situa-
	      tion which can be retrieved by cdrskin option -msinfo.
	      To  retrieve  an	archive  file which was written as follow-up session, you may use
	      option -toc to learn about the "lba" of the desired track number.  This lba is  the
	      address of the 2048 byte block where the archive begins.
	      With  overwriteable DVD or BD media, -multi cannot mark the end of the session.  So
	      when adding a new session this end has to be determined  from  the  payload.   Cur-
	      rently only ISO-9660 filesystems can be used that way. See option --grow_overwrite-
	      able_iso for lifting the ban on -multi.
	      Note: -multi might make DVD media unreadable in some DVD-ROM drives.

	      Create subsequent tracks with permission for a single level of copies.  I.e.  those
	      copies would then be marked by -scms as offering no permission for further copies.

       -nopad Do not add trailing zeros to the data stream. Nevertheless, since there seems to be
	      no use for audio tracks with incomplete last sector, this option	applies  only  to
	      data tracks. There it is default.

	      Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered without pre-emphasis.

       -pad   Add  30  kiB of trailing zeros to each data track. (This is not sufficient to avoid
	      problems with various CD-ROM read drivers.)

	      Add the given amount of trailing zeros to the next data  track.  This  option  gets
	      reset to padsize=0 after that next track is written. It may be set again before the
	      next track argument. About size specifiers, see option fs=.

	      Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered with pre-emphasis.

       -sao   Write CD in Session At Once mode or sequential DVD-R[W] in Disc-at-once (DAO) mode.
	      With CD this mode is able to put several audio tracks on	media  without	producing
	      audible gaps between them.
	      With  DVD-R[W]  this mode can only write a single track.	No -multi is allowed with
	      DVD-R[W] -sao.
	      -sao is permissible with overwriteable DVD, or DVD+R[/DL], or BD but actually  only
	      imposes restrictions without providing known advantages.
	      -sao  can only be used for tracks of fixely predicted size. This implies that track
	      arguments which depict stdin or named pipes need to be preceded by option tsize= or
	      by option tao_to_sao_tsize=.
	      -sao cannot be used on appendable media.

	      Scan  the  system for drives. On Linux the drives at /dev/s* and at /dev/hd* are to
	      be scanned by two separate runs. One without dev= for /dev/s* and one with  dev=ATA
	      for /dev/hd* devices. (Option --drives lists all available drives in a single run.)
	      Drives  which  are  busy or which offer no rw-permission to the user of cdrskin are
	      not listed. Busy drives get reported in form of warning messages.
	      The useful fields in a result line are:
	      Bus,Target,Lun Number) 'Vendor' 'Mode' 'Revision'

       -scms  Create subsequent tracks without permission for being copied. This is usually  done
	      for  tracks  which  are copies of tracks that were marked with -nocopy (but not yet
	      with -scms). So copies of copies are prohibited.
	      This option gets reset by option -copy. Thus the combination  -copy  -nocopy  means
	      -nocopy surely without -scms.

	      Set  speed  of drive. With data CD, 1x speed corresponds to a throughput of 150,000
	      bytes/second. With DVD, 1x =  1,385,000  bytes/second.   With  BD  1x  =	4,495,625
	      bytes/second.   It is not an error to set a speed higher than is suitable for drive
	      and media. One should stay within a realistic speed range, though.   Special  speed
	      settings are:
	      0 = minimal speed , -1 = maximal speed (default), text "any" = like -1.

       -swab  Announce that the raw audio data source of subsequent tracks is byte swapped versus
	      the expectations of cdrecord. This option is suitable for  audio	where  the  least
	      significant  byte of a 16 bit word is first (little-endian, Intel).  Most raw audio
	      data on PC systems are available in this byte order.  Less guesswork is  needed  if
	      track sources are in format MS-WAVE in a file with suffix ".wav".

       -tao   Write  CD in Track At Once (TAO) mode, sequential DVD-R[W] in Incremental Streaming
	      mode, or DVD+R[/DL] without traditional -sao restrictions.  This mode also  applies
	      pro-forma to overwriteable media
	      Mode -tao can be used with track sources of unpredictable size, like standard input
	      or named pipes. It is also the only mode that can be used for writing to appendable
	      media  which already hold data. With unformatted DVD-R[W] it is the only mode which
	      allows -multi.
	      Mode -tao is not usable for minimally blanked DVD-RW and for DVD-R DL.

       -text  Enable writing of CD-TEXT attributes  read  by  option  cuefile=.   Without  option
	      -text,  cue sheet file command CDTEXTFILE will be ignored and no CD-TEXT attributes
	      will be read from the file. Nevertheless, CATALOG  and  ISRC  will  have	the  same
	      effect as options mcn= and isrc=.

	      Read  CD-TEXT packs from the file depicted by path and put them into the Lead-in of
	      the emerging session. This session has to be done by Session At Once (SAO) mode and
	      may only contain audio tracks.
	      path  must  lead	to  a  regular file, which consists of an optional header of four
	      bytes and one or more text packs of 18 bytes  each.  Suitable  would  be	the  file
	      'cdtext.dat'  which  gets  extracted from CD media by options -vv -toc and shown in
	      human readable form by -vvv -toc.
	      The header, if present, must tell the file size minus 2, encoded as  big-endian  16
	      bit word. The other two bytes must be 0.
	      If  there is no 4-byte header, then a trailing 0-byte, as of Sony specification, is
	      tolerated and ignored.
	      A text pack consists of a pack type byte, a track number byte, a	counter  byte,	a
	      Block  Number  and  Character Indicator byte, 12 text characters or data bytes, two
	      optional CRC bytes. For details see libburn documentation file doc/cdtext.txt.
	      By default, the input file is checked for correct CRC bytes. If all CRC  bytes  are
	      0,  then the correct values get silently inserted. If there are non-zero CRC bytes,
	      then a mismatch causes the abort of the burn run.  This check can  be  disabled  by
	      option -force.
	      Note that this option overrides option input_sheet_v07t= .

       -toc   Print  the table of content (TOC) which describes the tracks recorded on disc.  The
	      output contains all info from option -atip plus lines which  begin  with	"track:",
	      the track number, the word "lba:" and a number which gives the start address of the
	      track. Addresses are counted in CD sectors which with SAO or TAO data  tracks  hold
	      2048 bytes each.
	      If  verbosity  is set to level 2 (-v -v) then the CD-TEXT packs from the lead-in of
	      an audio CD get extracted and written into file 'cdtext.dat', if that file does not
	      yet  exist. Prepended is a 4 byte header, followed by one or more packs of 18 bytes
	      Verbosity level 3 causes the CD-TEXT packs to be printed as hex numbers to standard
	      output. Bytes 4 to 15 of certain pack types are printed as ASCII characters if they
	      have values in the range of 32 to 126.
	      See option textfile= for more information about the text pack format.

	      Example. Retrieve an afio archive from track number 2:
		     lba=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/cdrom -toc 2>&1 | \
		     grep '^track:[ ]*[ 0-9][0-9]' | \
		     tail +"$tracknumber" | head -1 | \
		     awk '{ print $4}' )
		     dd if=/dev/cdrom bs=2048 skip="$lba" | \
		     afio -t - | less

	      Announces the exact size of the next track source. This is necessary with any write
	      mode  other  than -tao if the track source is not a regular disk file, but e.g. "-"
	      (standard input) or a named pipe.  About size specifiers, see option fs=.
	      If the track source does not deliver the predicted amount of bytes,  the	remainder
	      of  the  track  is  padded  with zeros. This is not considered an error.	If on the
	      other hand the track source delivers more than the announced bytes then  the  track
	      on  media  gets  truncated  to  the  predicted size and cdrskin exits with non-zero

       -v     Increment verbosity level by one. Startlevel is 0 with only few messages.  Level	1
	      prints  progress	report	with  long  running operations and also causes some extra
	      lines to be put out with info retrieval  options.   Level  2  additionally  reports
	      about  option  settings  derived	from  arguments  or startup files. Level 3 is for
	      debugging and useful mainly in conjunction with somebody who had a  look	into  the
	      program sourcecode.

       -V     Enable  logging  of  SCSI commands to stderr. This allows expert examination of the
	      interaction between libburn and the drive. The commands  are  specified  in  SCSI-3
	      standards SPC, SBC, MMC.

       -waiti Wait  until  input  data	is  available at stdin or EOF occurs at stdin.	Only then
	      begin to access any drives.
	      One should use this if cdrskin is working at the end of a  pipe  where  the  feeder
	      process  reads  from  the  drive	before it starts writing its output into cdrskin.
	      mkisofs ... -C 0,12800 -M /dev/sr0 | \
	      cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 ... -waiti -
	      This option works even if stdin is not among the track sources. If  no  process  is
	      piping  in,  then  the  Enter key of your terminal will act as trigger for cdrskin.
	      Note that this input line will not be consumed by cdrskin if stdin is not among the
	      track sources. It will end up as shell command, usually.

       Alphabetical list of options which are genuine to cdrskin and intended for normal use:

	      Curb  explicitly given speed= values to the maximum which is announced by the drive
	      for the loaded media. By default, such an adjustment  is	only  made  with  pseudo-
	      speeds  0  and  -1 whereas speed settings > 0 are sent unchanged to the drive which
	      will then choose an appropriate speed on its own.

	      Enable drive addresses of the form dev=stdio:<path>. See	above,	paragraph  "Drive
	      preparation and addressing".

	      Disable  the  loud warning about insecure discrepance between login user and effec-
	      tive user which indicates application of chmod u+s  to  the  program  binary.   One
	      should not do this chmod u+s , but it is an old cdrecord tradition.

	      Allow  source_addresses to begin with "-" (plus further characters) or to contain a
	      "=" character.  By default such arguments are seen as  misspelled  options.  It  is
	      nevertheless   not   possible   to   use	 one   of   the   options   listed   with

	      Abort if the write address given with this option is  not  the  same  as	predicted
	      immediately  before  the	write session starts. This option can ensure that a start
	      address which was presumed by a formatter like mkisofs -C is  really  used  by  the
	      drive for writing.  assert_write_lba=0 effectively demands blank media and excludes
	      Block numbering is peculiar: If the last character of the option string is a letter
	      [a-zA-Z]	then the usual unit scaling by "s", "k", "m", etc. applies and the result
	      is divided by 2048. Else the number value of the string is  taken  as  plain  block
	      number  with  block  size  2048 byte.  (E.g ...=1000 or ...=1000s means block 1000,
	      ...=1m means block 512, ...=4096b means block number 2)

	      Set the number which shall be written as CD track number with the  first	track  of
	      the  session.  The following tracks will then get written with consecutive CD track
	      numbers. The resulting number of the last track must not exceed 99. The lowest pos-
	      sible start number is 1, which is also the default.
	      This setting applies only to CD SAO writing. It overrides the track number settings
	      caused by options cuefile= or input_sheet_v07t=.

	      Exit with a nonzero value if no drive can be found during a bus scan.

	      List the device file addresses of all accessible CD drives. In order to get listed,
	      a drive has to offer rw-permission for the cdrskin user and it may not be busy. The
	      superuser should be able to see all idle drives listed and busy drives reported  as
	      "SORRY" messages.
	      Each available drive gets listed by a line containing the following fields:
	      Number dev='Devicefile' rw-Permissions : 'Vendor' 'Model'
	      Number  and  Devicefile  can  both be used with option dev=, but number is volatile
	      (numbering changes if drives become busy).

	      Like --devices, but presenting the drives with addresses of  symbolic  links  which
	      point to the actual device files.
	      Modern  GNU/Linux  systems may shuffle drive addresses from boot to boot.  The udev
	      daemon is supposed to create links which always point to the same drive, regardless
	      of  its system address.  Option --device_links shows the addresses of such links if
	      they begin by "/dev/dvd" or "/dev/cd".   Precedence  is:	"dvdrw",  "cdrw",  "dvd",
	      "cdrom", "cd".

	      Do  not write a session with tracks but rather make an appropriate number of direct
	      write operations with no preparations. Flushing the drive buffer will be	the  only
	      finalization.  It is advised to eject the media afterwards because the write opera-
	      tions circumvent the usual system i/o with its caches  and  buffers.  By	ejecting,
	      those invalid memory copies get surely discarded.
	      Only  few  media	can be written this way: DVD-RAM, BD-RE, RVD+RW and overwriteable
	      DVD-RW. Writing is restricted to the already formatted area of the media.
	      Writing starts at  byte  0  of  the  media  or  at  the  address	given  by  option
	      write_start_address=  .  Only the first track source is used as input for the write
	      operations.  The fifo (fs=) is disabled.
	      Parameter size controls the amount of data to be written. Size  0  means	that  the
	      track  source  shall be used up until EOF. In this case, the last write transaction
	      gets padded up to the necessary size by zeros. Size -1 revokes direct  writing  and
	      switches back to normal session oriented writing.
	      Both,  write_start_address  and direct_write_amount size must be aligned to a media
	      dependend transaction size. With DVD-RAM, BD-RE, DVD+RW this is 2k, with overwrite-
	      able DVD-RW it is 32k.

	      Linux specific: Set the number of bytes to be transmitted with each write operation
	      to DVD or BD media. With most write types, tracks get padded up to the next  multi-
	      ple  of  this  write  size  (see	option --obs_pad).  A number of 64 KB may improve
	      throughput with systems which show latency problems. The default depends	on  media
	      type, option stream_recording=, and on compile time options.

	      Set  a  command  name  to be executed if cdrskin encounters a known cdrecord option
	      which it does not yet support. If a non-empty command is given  with  fallback_pro-
	      gram=,  and  if  no essential options are given which are specific to cdrskin, then
	      cdrskin will delegate the job to said command.
	      The natural commands to be given are cdrecord or wodim but one may well submit  the
	      address of an own program.
	      The fallback program will get all arguments of cdrskin which do not match the shell
	      patterns --?* or *_*=* . This eventually suppresses path	names  of  track  sources
	      which  happen  to  match those patterns. The options from the startup files are not
	      handed to the fallback program.
	      Fallback program execution is disabled if cdrskin is  run  setuid  and  not  option
	      --allow_setuid is given. In general, the drive's device files and the involved pro-
	      grams should be set up so that each program  runs  under	its  advised  conditions.
	      (E.g. cdrskin as member of group floppy, cdrecord setuid root.)
	      Two alias names for cdrskin are predefined with default fallback programs:
	      unicord implies fallback_program=cdrecord
	      codim implies fallback_program=wodim

	      Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered with four channels.

	      Do not wait for full fifo but start burning as soon as the given number of bytes is
	      read. This option may be helpful to bring the average throughput near to the  maxi-
	      mum  throughput  of a drive. A large fs= and a small fifo_start_at= combine a quick
	      burn start and a large savings buffer to compensate for temporary  lack  of  source
	      data.  At  the beginning of burning, the software protection against buffer underun
	      is as weak as the size of fifo_start_at= . So it is best if the drive offers  hard-
	      ware  protection	which  is  enabled  automatically if not driveropts=noburnfree is

	      Enable emulation of multi-session writing on overwriteable media which  contain  an
	      ISO-9660 filesystem. This emulation is learned from growisofs -M but adapted to the
	      usage model of
	      cdrskin -msinfo
	      mkisofs -C -M | cdrskin -waiti [-multi] -
	      --grow_overwriteable_iso does not hamper the use of true multi-session media.  I.e.
	      it  is  possible	to  use  the same cdrskin options with both kinds of media and to
	      achieve similar results if ISO-9660 filesystem images  are  to  be  written.   This
	      option  implies  option  -isosize  and therefore demands that the track source is a
	      ISO-9660 filesystem image.
	      With overwriteable media and no option blank=fast|all present it expands	an  even-
	      tual  ISO-9660  filesystem  on  media.  It  is assumed that this image's inner size
	      description points to the end of the valuable data.   Overwriteable  media  with	a
	      recognizable  ISO-9660  size  will  be regarded as appendable rather than as blank.
	      I.e. options -msinfo and -toc will work.	-toc will always show  a  single  session
	      with its size increasing with every added mkisofs image.
	      If not overridden by option write_start_address=, the track with the new image will
	      be placed behind the end of the old one. One may use  option  assert_write_lba=  to
	      make sure that media state and mkisofs job do match.
	      --grow_overwriteable_iso	causes	option	blank=fast|all	to invalidate an eventual
	      ISO-9660 image by altering the first few bytes of block 16 on overwriteable  media.
	      Option -multi is tolerated in order not to hamper true multi-session media.
	      An equivalent of growisofs -Z for overwriteable media is:
	      mkisofs | cdrskin --grow_overwriteable_iso blank=fast [-multi] -
	      With multi-session DVD, blank=fast will act like dvd+rw-format -blank=full .
	      growisofs -dvd-compat is roughly equivalent to cdrskin without option -multi.

	      Read CD-TEXT definitions from a Sony Input Sheet version 0.7T. Up to eight or seven
	      such sheets can be read by multiple input_sheet_v07t= options.  Each will define	a
	      CD-TEXT language block.
	      The information in such a sheet is given by text lines of the following form:
		purpose specifier [whitespace] = [whitespace] content text
	      [whitespace]  is	zero  or  more ASCII 32 (space) or ASCII 9 (tab) characters.  The
	      purpose specifier tells the meaning of the content text.	Empty content  text  does
	      not cause a CD-TEXT attribute to be attached.
	      The following purpose specifiers apply to the session as a whole:
		Purpose specifier   | Content example
		Text Code	    = 8859
		Language Code	    = English
		Album Title	    = Joyful Nights
		Artist Name	    = United Cat Orchestra
		Songwriter	    = Various Songwriters
		Composer	    = Various Composers
		Arranger	    = Tom Cat
		Album Message	    = For all our fans
		Catalog Number	    = 1234567890
		Genre Code	    = Classical
		Genre Information   = Feline classic music
		Closed Information  = This is not to be shown by CD players
		UPC / EAN	    = 1234567890123
		Text Data Copy Protection = OFF
		First Track Number  = 1
		Last Track Number   = 3
	      The following purpose specifiers apply to particular tracks:
		Purpose specifier   | Content example
		Track 01 Title	    = Song of Joy
		Track 01 Artist     = Felix and The Purrs
		Track 01 Songwriter = Friedrich Schiller
		Track 01 Composer   = Ludwig van Beethoven
		Track 01 Arranger   = Tom Cat
		Track 01 Message    = Fritz and Louie once were punks
		ISRC 01 	    = XYCRR1101234
	      Track numbers are decimal despite the leading 0. There should be as many track def-
	      initions as there are track source files given.
	      See libburn's doc/cdtext.txt for a detailed definition of  0.7T  and  the  possible
	      values for Text Code, Language Code, Genre Code, Text Data Copy Protection.
	      The  Q  sub-channel settings by "UPC / EAN" and "ISRC" may be overridden by options
	      mcn= and isrc=.  This will not affect their appearance as CD-TEXT.  They may  over-
	      ride cuefile= commands CATALOG and ISRC in the same way.
	      If options -text cuefile= are given and if the cue sheet file defines CD-TEXT, then
	      only seven input_sheet_v07t= options may be given. They will then be  used  as  CD-
	      TEXT language blocks 1 to 7.
	      This  option  will get into effect only if no option textfile= is given.	The write
	      mode must be SAO on CD. All tracks must be -audio tracks.
	      The track numbers may be overridden by option cd_start_tno=.

	      List the available format descriptors as reported  by  the  drive  for  the  loaded
	      media.  Each  descriptor	line  begins  with "Format idx" and the descriptor's list
	      index, followed by a ":", the format type, the number of payload	blocks	and  that
	      same number converted to MiB.
	      The  meaning of the format types is defined by the MMC standard with command FORMAT
	      UNIT. A user will more be interested in the sizes than in the types.

	      List all ignored cdrecord options. The "-" options cannot be used as  addresses  of
	      track  sources.  No  track  source address may begin with a text equal to an option
	      which ends by "=". The list is ended by an empty line.

	      Put out a list of speed values as reported by the  output  drive	with  the  loaded
	      medium.  This  does  not necessarily mean that the medium is writable or that these
	      speeds are actually achievable. Especially the lists reported with empty	drive  or
	      with ROM media obviously advertise speeds for other media.
	      It is not mandatory to use speed values out of the listed range.	The drive is sup-
	      posed to choose a safe speed that is as near to the desired speed as possible.
	      At the end of the list, "Write speed L" and "Write speed H" are  the  best  guesses
	      for  lower  and  upper speed limit.  "Write speed l" and "Write speed h" may appear
	      only with CD and eventually override the list of other speed offers.
	      Only if the drive reports contradicting speed information there will appear  "Write
	      speed  0"  or "Write speed-1", which tell the outcome of speed selection by options
	      speed=0 resp. speed=-1, if it deviates from "Write speed L" resp. "Write speed H".

	      Like option -toc but marking each session start by a line "first: X  last:  Y"  and
	      each session end by "track:lout ...".

	      When  aquiring the optical drive, do not try to load its tray. This yields the same
	      behavior for desktop drives with tray loader as is shown	by  laptop  drives  which
	      usually lack a motorized tray loader.

	      Only if used as first command line argument this option prevents reading and inter-
	      pretation of eventual startup files. See section FILES below.

	      Activates behavior modifications with  some  DVD	situations  which  bring  cdrskin
	      nearer to the behavior of cdrecord-ProDVD:
	      Option -multi with unsuitable media is not an error but simply has no effect.
	      Options blank=fast and blank=all deformat overwriteable DVD-RW media.
	      Option  blank=fast  does	indeed	minmal blanking with DVD-RW. This may yield media
	      which can only do DAO but not Incremental Streaming.

	      Accept only the last argument of the command line as track source address.

	      Set the number of bytes after which to force output to drives with prefix "stdio:".
	      This forcing keeps the memory from being clogged with lots of pending data for slow
	      devices. Default "on" is the same as "16m".   Forced  output  can  be  disabled  by

	      By  setting  "on" request that compliance to the desired speed setting is preferred
	      over management of write errors. With DVD-RAM and BD this can bring effective write
	      speed  near  to the nominal write speed of the media.  But it will also disable the
	      automatic use of replacement blocks if write errors occur. It might as well be dis-
	      liked or ignored by the drive.
	      If  a  number  is given, then error management stays enabled for all byte addresses
	      below that number. Any number below 16s is the same as "off".

	      Set an exact fixed size for the next track to be in effect only if the track source
	      cannot  deliver  a  size	prediction and no tsize= was specified and an exact track
	      size prediction is demanded by the write mode.
	      This was the fallback from bad old times when cdrskin was unable to  burn  in  mode
	      -tao  .  It  came  back  with  minimally	blanked DVD-RW which allow no Incremental
	      Streaming (-tao) resp. with explicitly selected write mode -sao  for  best  DVD-ROM
	      If  the  track source delivers less bytes than announced then the missing ones will
	      be filled with zeros.

	      Prepare a recording session, do not perform it but rather inquire the maximum  num-
	      ber  of  2048  byte  data blocks which may be written in the current state of media
	      with the prepared setup. So this option disables recording of data. It  does  allow
	      blanking, though, and will measure space afterwards.
	      It is not mandatory to give track sources but their nature may influence the avail-
	      able capacity. So for most realistic results one may set up the full  burn  session
	      and  add	--tell_media_space.  But  if one has to expect a cdrskin version prior to
	      0.3.3 no track source should be given in order not to  start  an	involuntary  burn
	      session.	In this case set at least -sao or -tao explicitly.
	      The  result gets printed to standard output. It is 0 or empty if no writing is pos-
	      sible with the given options.  This option redirects to stderr all  message  output
	      except its own result string and eventual output of -msinfo.

	      Indicate for subsequent tracks that they were mastered with two channels.

	      Set  the address on media where to start writing the track. With DVD+RW, DVD-RAM or
	      BD-RE byte_offset must be aligned to 2 kiB blocks, but better is 32 kiB.	With DVD-
	      RW 32 kiB alignment is mandatory.
	      Other media are not suitable for this option yet.

       Alphabetical  list  of options which are only intended for very special situations and not
       for  normal use:

	      Establish default signal handling not to leave a drive in busy state but rather  to
	      shut  it	down and to wait until it has ended the final operations.  This option is
	      only needed for revoking eventual --ignore_signals or --no_abort_handler.

	      Enable the use of media profiles which have been implemented but	not  yet  tested.
	      Currently  this  option  is  without  effect  because no media types are under test
	      (If you really test experimental media, then please report the outcome on  libburn-

	      Prepare a burn run, report the effective array of CD-TEXT packs to stdout, and then
	      end the program run without starting to burn the session.  A blank  CD-R	or  CD-RW
	      has to be present in the drive, nevertheless.
	      The  output is formatted in lines which describe 18 bytes as 2-digit hex numbers or
	      as single printable characters.  See libburn document doc/cdtext.txt about the for-
	      mat of these records.

	      Like  --cdtext_dummy  but  without  preventing the burn run. Combinable with option
	      -dummy to exercise a CD burn run with no persistent impact on the medium.

	      Set drive address alias. This was necessary before cdrskin-0.2.4 to manually trans-
	      late cdrecord addresses into cdrskin addresses.
	      <sep>  is  a  single  character  which  may not occur in the address string <from>.
	      <from> is an address as expected to be given by the user via option dev=.  <to>  is
	      the address to be used instead whenever <from> is given.	More than one translation
	      instruction can be given in one cdrskin run.
	      E.g.: dev_translation=+ATA:1,0,0+/dev/sr1 dev_translation=+ATA:1,1,0+/dev/sr2

	      Linux specific: Abort process if a busy drive is encountered.

	      Linux specific: Try to wait for a busy drive to become free.  This is  not  guaran-
	      teed to work with all drivers. Some need nonblocking i/o.

	      Linux specific: Try to get exclusive lock on drive device file via fcntl(2).

	      Linux specific: Combine --drive_not_f_setlk and --drive_not_o_excl.

	      Linux specific: Do not try to get exclusive lock on drive device file via fcntl(2).

	      Linux  specific:	Do  not  ask the operating system to prevent opening busy drives.
	      Wether this leads to senseful behavior depends on operating system and kernel.

	      Linux specific: Select a SCSI device file family	to  be	scanned  for  by  options
	      --devices,  --device_links  and -scanbus.  Normally this is /dev/sgN on kernel ver-
	      sions < 2.6 and /dev/srN on kernels >= 2.6 . This option allows to explicitly over-
	      ride  that default in order to meet other programs at a common device file for each
	      drive.  On kernel 2.4 families sr and scd will find no drives.
	      Device file family /dev/hdX on kernel >= 2.6 is not affected by this setting.

	      Linux specific: Try  to  exclusively  reserve  device  files  /dev/srN,  /dev/scdM,
	      /dev/sgK	of drives.  This would be helpful to protect against collisions with pro-
	      gram growisofs.  Regrettably on Linux kernel 2.4 with ide-scsi emulation this seems
	      not to work. Wether it becomes helpful with new Linux systems has to be evaluated.

	      Disable fifo despite any fs=.

	      Use a separate fifo for each track.

	      Expand  the  last  track	of  the session to occupy all remaining free space on the
	      This option overrides option -multi. It will not fill up media if  option  -sao  is
	      given with CD media.
	      Caution:	With multi-session media this option might increase readatibility on DVD-
	      ROM drives but with some DVD recorders and media types it might also fail  to  pro-
	      duce readable media at all. "Your mileage may vary".
	      You  can	expect	the  best possible read compatibility if you do not use -multi at

	      Open the addressed drive, wait the given number of seconds, release the drive,  and
	      do normal work as indicated by the other options used. This option helps to explore
	      the program behavior when faced with busy drives. Just start a second cdrskin  with
	      option --devices while grab_drive_and_wait= is still active.

	      Try to ignore any signals rather than to abort the program. This is not a very good
	      idea. You might end up waiting a very long time for cdrskin to finish.

	      Mode 1 keeps the program from trying to write to the burner drive while its  buffer
	      is  in  danger  to  be filled by more than max_percent. If this filling is exceeded
	      then the program will wait until the filling is at most min_percent.
	      This can ease the load on operating system and drive controller and thus help  with
	      achieving  better  input	bandwidth  if disk and burner are not on independent con-
	      trollers (like hda and hdb). Unsufficient input bandwidth is  indicated  by  output
	      "(fifo  xy%)" of option -v if xy is lower than 90 for some time.	modesty_on_drive=
	      might hamper output bandwidth and cause buffer underruns.
	      To have max_percent larger than the burner's best actual buffer fill has	the  same
	      effect  as min_percent==max_percent. Some burners do not use their full buffer with
	      all media types. Watch output "[buf xy%]" of option -v to get an impression of  the
	      actual  buffer usage. Some burners are not suitable because they report buffer fill
	      with granularity too large in size or time.
	      Mode 0 disables this feature. Mode -1 keeps it unchanged. Default is:
	      Percentages are permissible in the range of 25 to 100.

	      On signals exit even if the drive is in busy state. This is not a very  good  idea.
	      You might end up with a stuck drive that refuses to hand out the media.

	      Refuse to blank appendable CD-RW or DVD-RW. This is a feature that was once builtin
	      with libburn. No information available for what use case it was needed.

	      Do only literal translations of  dev=.  This  prevents  cdrskin  from  test-opening
	      device files in order to find one that matches the given dev= specifier.
	      Partly  Linux  specific: Such opening is needed for Bus,Target,Lun addresses unless
	      option --old_pseudo_scsi_adr is given. It is also needed	to  resolve  device  file
	      addresses  which	are not listed with cdrskin --devices but nevertheless point to a
	      usable drive. (Like /dev/sg0 using the same SCSI address as /dev/sr0.)

	      Pad the data of last write operation of a DVD-R[W] DAO session  or  stdio:  pseudo-
	      drive up to the full size of an output chunk.  This padding has to be applied auto-
	      matically to the other DVD and BD media types, where it causes e.g. ISO  images  to
	      have trailing unclaimed blocks.
	      Use  this option if there is the suspicion that DAO sessions abort with your kernel
	      and/or DVD drive, if their size is not a multiple of 16 blocks.
	      This option may also get enabled at compile time of libburn.

	      Linux specific: Use and report literal Bus,Target,Lun addresses  rather  than  real
	      SCSI  and  pseudo  ATA  addresses. This method is outdated and was never compatible
	      with original cdrecord.

	      Define whether a post-gap shall be written at the end of the  track  and	how  many
	      sectors  this  gap shall have. A post-gap occupies the range of an additional index
	      of the track. It contains zeros. No bytes from the track source will  be	read  for
	      writing the post-gap.
	      This setting affects only CD SAO write runs.

	      Define  whether  a  pre-gap  shall be written before the track and how many sectors
	      this pre-gap shall have. A pre-gap is written in the range of  track  index  0  and
	      contains zeros resp. silence. No bytes from the track source will be read for writ-
	      ing the pre-gap.
	      This setting affects only CD SAO write runs.
	      The first track automatically gets a pre-gap of at least 150 sectors. Its size  can
	      only be enlarged by this call.

	      Silently	interpret  option -xa1 as -data. This may be necessary if a frontent does
	      not prepare -xa1 block headers but insists in using option -xa1.

   Get an overview of drives and their addresses:
       cdrskin -scanbus
       cdrskin dev=ATA -scanbus
       cdrskin --device_links

   Get info about a particular drive or loaded media:
       cdrskin dev=0,1,0 -checkdrive
       cdrskin dev=ATA:1,0,0 -v -atip
       cdrskin dev=/dev/hdc -minfo

   Prepare CD-RW or DVD-RW for re-use, DVD-RAM or BD-RE for first use:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sg1 blank=as_needed -eject

   Format DVD-RW to avoid need for blanking before re-use:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=format_overwrite

   De-format DVD-RW to make it capable of multi-session again:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/sr0 blank=deformat_sequential

   Write ISO-9660 filesystem image as only one to blank or formatted media:
       cdrskin -v dev=/dev/hdc speed=12 fs=8m \
       blank=as_needed -eject padsize=300k my_image.iso

   Write compressed afio archive on-the-fly (not possible with minimally blanked DVD-RW or  DVD-R
       find . | afio -oZ - | \
       cdrskin -v dev=0,1,0 fs=32m speed=8 \
       blank=as_needed padsize=300k -

   Write multi-session to the same CD, DVD-R[W], DVD+R[/DL], or BD-R:
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 1.iso
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 2.iso
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k -multi 3.iso
       cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -v padsize=300k 4.iso

   Get multi-session info for option -C of program mkisofs:
       c_values=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/hdc -msinfo 2>/dev/null)
       mkisofs ... -C "$c_values" ...

   Inquire free space on media for a -multi run:
       x=$(cdrskin dev=/dev/sr0 -multi \
       --tell_media_space 2>/dev/null)
       echo "Available: $x blocks of 2048 data bytes"

   Write audio tracks to CD:
       cdrskin -v dev=ATA:1,0,0 speed=48 -sao \
       track1.wav track2.au -audio -swab track3.raw

   Startup files:
       If not --no_rc is given as the first argument then cdrskin attempts on startup to read the
       arguments from the following files:


       The files are read in the sequence given above, but none of them is required  for  cdrskin
       to  function  properly.	Each  readable	line  is treated as one single argument. No extra
       blanks.	A first character '#' marks a comment, empty lines are ignored.
       Example content of a startup file:
       # This is the default device
       # Some more options

   Disabling superuser safety precautions:
       The superuser is normally banned from using any other emulated drive but  /dev/null.  This
       ban can be lifted by the existence of file


       where  the  directory  must be owned by the superuser and must not offer w-permissions for
       group or others.
       Warning: Superusers must take care not to spoil their hard disk via its raw  block  device
       (like stdio:/dev/hda or stdio:/dev/sd0).

       Formatting data track sources for cdrskin:
	      mkisofs(8), genisoimage(8), xorriso(1), afio(1), star(1)

       Other CD/DVD/BD burn programs:
	      cdrecord(1), wodim(1), xorriso(1)

       For DVD/BD burning (also tutor of libburn's DVD/BD capabilities):

       cdrskin was written by Thomas Schmitt <scdbackup@gmx.net>.

       This  manual  page was started by George Danchev <danchev@spnet.net> and is now maintained
       by Thomas Schmitt.

				   Version 1.2.8, Mar 18, 2013			       CDRSKIN(1)

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