AS(1) GNU Development Tools AS(1)
AS - the portable GNU assembler.
as [-a[cdghlns][=file]] [--alternate] [-D]
[--defsym sym=val] [-f] [-g] [--gstabs]
[--gstabs+] [--gdwarf-2] [--help] [-I dir] [-J]
[-K] [-L] [--listing-lhs-width=NUM]
[--listing-cont-lines=NUM] [--keep-locals] [-o
objfile] [-R] [--reduce-memory-overheads] [--statistics]
[-v] [-version] [--version] [-W] [--warn]
[--fatal-warnings] [-w] [-x] [-Z] [@FILE]
Target AArch64 options:
Target Alpha options:
[-mdebug | -no-mdebug]
[-replace | -noreplace]
[-relax] [-g] [-Gsize]
Target ARC options:
Target ARM options:
Target Blackfin options:
Target CRIS options:
[--underscore | --no-underscore]
[--emulation=criself | --emulation=crisaout]
[--march=v0_v10 | --march=v10 | --march=v32 | --march=common_v10_v32]
Target D10V options:
Target D30V options:
Target EPIPHANY options:
Target H8/300 options:
Target i386 options:
Target i960 options:
Target IA-64 options:
[-x|-xexplicit] [-xauto] [-xdebug]
Target IP2K options:
Target M32C options:
[-m32c|-m16c] [-relax] [-h-tick-hex]
Target M32R options:
Target M680X0 options:
Target M68HC11 options:
Target MCORE options:
[-jsri2bsr] [-sifilter] [-relax]
Target Meta options:
[-mcpu=cpu] [-mfpu=cpu] [-mdsp=cpu] Target MICROBLAZE options:
Target MIPS options:
[-nocpp] [-EL] [-EB] [-O[optimization level]]
[-g[debug level]] [-G num] [-KPIC] [-call_shared]
[-non_shared] [-xgot [-mvxworks-pic]
[-mabi=ABI] [-32] [-n32] [-64] [-mfp32] [-mgp32]
[-march=CPU] [-mtune=CPU] [-mips1] [-mips2]
[-mips3] [-mips4] [-mips5] [-mips32] [-mips32r2]
[-trap] [-no-break] [-break] [-no-trap]
Target MMIX options:
[--gnu-syntax] [--relax] [--no-predefined-symbols]
[--no-expand] [--no-merge-gregs] [-x]
Target Nios II options:
[-relax-all] [-relax-section] [-no-relax]
Target PDP11 options:
[-mpic|-mno-pic] [-mall] [-mno-extensions]
Target picoJava options:
Target PowerPC options:
[-mrelocatable|-mrelocatable-lib|-K PIC] [-memb]
Target RX options:
Target s390 options:
[-m31|-m64] [-mesa|-mzarch] [-march=CPU]
Target SCORE options:
Target SPARC options:
Target TIC54X options:
[-merrors-to-file <filename>|-me <filename>]
Target TIC6X options:
Target TILE-Gx options:
Target Xtensa options:
Target Z80 options:
[ -ignore-undocumented-instructions] [-Wnud]
[ -ignore-unportable-instructions] [-Wnup]
[ -warn-undocumented-instructions] [-Wud]
[ -warn-unportable-instructions] [-Wup]
[ -forbid-undocumented-instructions] [-Fud]
[ -forbid-unportable-instructions] [-Fup]
GNU as is really a family of assemblers. If you use (or have used) the GNU assembler on
one architecture, you should find a fairly similar environment when you use it on another
architecture. Each version has much in common with the others, including object file
formats, most assembler directives (often called pseudo-ops) and assembler syntax.
as is primarily intended to assemble the output of the GNU C compiler "gcc" for use by the
linker "ld". Nevertheless, we've tried to make as assemble correctly everything that
other assemblers for the same machine would assemble. Any exceptions are documented
explicitly. This doesn't mean as always uses the same syntax as another assembler for the
same architecture; for example, we know of several incompatible versions of 680x0 assembly
Each time you run as it assembles exactly one source program. The source program is made
up of one or more files. (The standard input is also a file.)
You give as a command line that has zero or more input file names. The input files are
read (from left file name to right). A command line argument (in any position) that has
no special meaning is taken to be an input file name.
If you give as no file names it attempts to read one input file from the as standard
input, which is normally your terminal. You may have to type ctl-D to tell as there is no
more program to assemble.
Use -- if you need to explicitly name the standard input file in your command line.
If the source is empty, as produces a small, empty object file.
as may write warnings and error messages to the standard error file (usually your
terminal). This should not happen when a compiler runs as automatically. Warnings
report an assumption made so that as could keep assembling a flawed program; errors report
a grave problem that stops the assembly.
If you are invoking as via the GNU C compiler, you can use the -Wa option to pass
arguments through to the assembler. The assembler arguments must be separated from each
other (and the -Wa) by commas. For example:
gcc -c -g -O -Wa,-alh,-L file.c
This passes two options to the assembler: -alh (emit a listing to standard output with
high-level and assembly source) and -L (retain local symbols in the symbol table).
Usually you do not need to use this -Wa mechanism, since many compiler command-line
options are automatically passed to the assembler by the compiler. (You can call the GNU
compiler driver with the -v option to see precisely what options it passes to each
compilation pass, including the assembler.)
Read command-line options from file. The options read are inserted in place of the
original @file option. If file does not exist, or cannot be read, then the option
will be treated literally, and not removed.
Options in file are separated by whitespace. A whitespace character may be included
in an option by surrounding the entire option in either single or double quotes. Any
character (including a backslash) may be included by prefixing the character to be
included with a backslash. The file may itself contain additional @file options; any
such options will be processed recursively.
Turn on listings, in any of a variety of ways:
-ac omit false conditionals
-ad omit debugging directives
-ag include general information, like as version and options passed
-ah include high-level source
-al include assembly
-am include macro expansions
-an omit forms processing
-as include symbols
set the name of the listing file
You may combine these options; for example, use -aln for assembly listing without
forms processing. The =file option, if used, must be the last one. By itself, -a
defaults to -ahls.
Begin in alternate macro mode.
Compress DWARF debug sections using zlib. The debug sections are renamed to begin
with .zdebug, and the resulting object file may not be compatible with older linkers
and object file utilities.
Do not compress DWARF debug sections. This is the default.
-D Ignored. This option is accepted for script compatibility with calls to other
When assembling files in directory old, record debugging information describing them
as in new instead.
Define the symbol sym to be value before assembling the input file. value must be an
integer constant. As in C, a leading 0x indicates a hexadecimal value, and a leading
0 indicates an octal value. The value of the symbol can be overridden inside a source
file via the use of a ".set" pseudo-op.
-f "fast"---skip whitespace and comment preprocessing (assume source is compiler output).
Generate debugging information for each assembler source line using whichever debug
format is preferred by the target. This currently means either STABS, ECOFF or
Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line. This may help debugging
assembler code, if the debugger can handle it.
Generate stabs debugging information for each assembler line, with GNU extensions that
probably only gdb can handle, and that could make other debuggers crash or refuse to
read your program. This may help debugging assembler code. Currently the only GNU
extension is the location of the current working directory at assembling time.
Generate DWARF2 debugging information for each assembler line. This may help
debugging assembler code, if the debugger can handle it. Note---this option is only
supported by some targets, not all of them.
Issue an error or warning for invalid ELF .size directive.
Print a summary of the command line options and exit.
Print a summary of all target specific options and exit.
Add directory dir to the search list for ".include" directives.
-J Don't warn about signed overflow.
-K Issue warnings when difference tables altered for long displacements.
Keep (in the symbol table) local symbols. These symbols start with system-specific
local label prefixes, typically .L for ELF systems or L for traditional a.out systems.
Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for an assembler listing to
Set the maximum width, in words, of the output data column for continuation lines in
an assembler listing to number.
Set the maximum width of an input source line, as displayed in a listing, to number
Set the maximum number of lines printed in a listing for a single line of input to
number + 1.
Name the object-file output from as objfile.
-R Fold the data section into the text section.
Set the default size of GAS's hash tables to a prime number close to number.
Increasing this value can reduce the length of time it takes the assembler to perform
its tasks, at the expense of increasing the assembler's memory requirements.
Similarly reducing this value can reduce the memory requirements at the expense of
This option reduces GAS's memory requirements, at the expense of making the assembly
processes slower. Currently this switch is a synonym for --hash-size=4051, but in the
future it may have other effects as well.
Print the maximum space (in bytes) and total time (in seconds) used by assembly.
Remove local absolute symbols from the outgoing symbol table.
Print the as version.
Print the as version and exit.
Suppress warning messages.
Treat warnings as errors.
Don't suppress warning messages or treat them as errors.
-Z Generate an object file even after errors.
-- | files ...
Standard input, or source files to assemble.
The following options are available when as is configured for the 64-bit mode of the ARM
-EB This option specifies that the output generated by the assembler should be marked as
being encoded for a big-endian processor.
-EL This option specifies that the output generated by the assembler should be marked as
being encoded for a little-endian processor.
The following options are available when as is configured for an Alpha processor.
This option specifies the target processor. If an attempt is made to assemble an
instruction which will not execute on the target processor, the assembler may either
expand the instruction as a macro or issue an error message. This option is
equivalent to the ".arch" directive.
The following processor names are recognized: 21064, "21064a", 21066, 21068, 21164,
"21164a", "21164pc", 21264, "21264a", "21264b", "ev4", "ev5", "lca45", "ev5", "ev56",
"pca56", "ev6", "ev67", "ev68". The special name "all" may be used to allow the
assembler to accept instructions valid for any Alpha processor.
In order to support existing practice in OSF/1 with respect to ".arch", and existing
practice within MILO (the Linux ARC bootloader), the numbered processor names (e.g.
21064) enable the processor-specific PALcode instructions, while the "electro-vlasic"
names (e.g. "ev4") do not.
Enables or disables the generation of ".mdebug" encapsulation for stabs directives and
procedure descriptors. The default is to automatically enable ".mdebug" when the
first stabs directive is seen.
This option forces all relocations to be put into the object file, instead of saving
space and resolving some relocations at assembly time. Note that this option does not
propagate all symbol arithmetic into the object file, because not all symbol
arithmetic can be represented. However, the option can still be useful in specific
Enables or disables the optimization of procedure calls, both at assemblage and at
link time. These options are only available for VMS targets and "-replace" is the
default. See section 1.4.1 of the OpenVMS Linker Utility Manual.
-g This option is used when the compiler generates debug information. When gcc is using
mips-tfile to generate debug information for ECOFF, local labels must be passed
through to the object file. Otherwise this option has no effect.
A local common symbol larger than size is placed in ".bss", while smaller symbols are
placed in ".sbss".
These options are ignored for backward compatibility.
The following options are available when as is configured for an ARC processor.
This option selects the core processor variant.
-EB | -EL
Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.
The following options are available when as is configured for the ARM processor family.
Specify which ARM processor variant is the target.
Specify which ARM architecture variant is used by the target.
Select which Floating Point architecture is the target.
Select which floating point ABI is in use.
Enable Thumb only instruction decoding.
-mapcs-32 | -mapcs-26 | -mapcs-float | -mapcs-reentrant
Select which procedure calling convention is in use.
-EB | -EL
Select either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL) output.
Specify that the code has been generated with interworking between Thumb and ARM code
-k Specify that PIC code has been generated.
The following options are available when as is configured for the Blackfin processor
This option specifies the target processor. The optional sirevision is not used in
assembler. It's here such that GCC can easily pass down its "-mcpu=" option. The
assembler will issue an error message if an attempt is made to assemble an instruction
which will not execute on the target processor. The following processor names are
recognized: "bf504", "bf506", "bf512", "bf514", "bf516", "bf518", "bf522", "bf523",
"bf524", "bf525", "bf526", "bf527", "bf531", "bf532", "bf533", "bf534", "bf535" (not
implemented yet), "bf536", "bf537", "bf538", "bf539", "bf542", "bf542m", "bf544",
"bf544m", "bf547", "bf547m", "bf548", "bf548m", "bf549", "bf549m", "bf561", and
Assemble for the FDPIC ABI.
See the info pages for documentation of the CRIS-specific options.
The following options are available when as is configured for a D10V processor.
-O Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.
The following options are available when as is configured for a D30V processor.
-O Optimize output by parallelizing instructions.
-n Warn when nops are generated.
-N Warn when a nop after a 32-bit multiply instruction is generated.
The following options are available when as is configured for an Epiphany processor.
Specifies that the both 32 and 16 bit instructions are allowed. This is the default
Restricts the permitted instructions to just the 16 bit set.
The following options are available when as is configured for an i386 processor.
--32 | --x32 | --64
Select the word size, either 32 bits or 64 bits. --32 implies Intel i386
architecture, while --x32 and --64 imply AMD x86-64 architecture with 32-bit or 64-bit
These options are only available with the ELF object file format, and require that the
necessary BFD support has been included (on a 32-bit platform you have to add
--enable-64-bit-bfd to configure enable 64-bit usage and use x86-64 as target
-n By default, x86 GAS replaces multiple nop instructions used for alignment within code
sections with multi-byte nop instructions such as leal 0(%esi,1),%esi. This switch
disables the optimization.
On SVR4-derived platforms, the character / is treated as a comment character, which
means that it cannot be used in expressions. The --divide option turns / into a
normal character. This does not disable / at the beginning of a line starting a
comment, or affect using # for starting a comment.
This option specifies the target processor. The assembler will issue an error message
if an attempt is made to assemble an instruction which will not execute on the target
processor. The following processor names are recognized: "i8086", "i186", "i286",
"i386", "i486", "i586", "i686", "pentium", "pentiumpro", "pentiumii", "pentiumiii",
"pentium4", "prescott", "nocona", "core", "core2", "corei7", "l1om", "k1om", "k6",
"k6_2", "athlon", "opteron", "k8", "amdfam10", "bdver1", "bdver2", "bdver3", "btver1",
"btver2", "generic32" and "generic64".
In addition to the basic instruction set, the assembler can be told to accept various
extension mnemonics. For example, "-march=i686+sse4+vmx" extends i686 with sse4 and
vmx. The following extensions are currently supported: 8087, 287, 387, "no87", "mmx",
"nommx", "sse", "sse2", "sse3", "ssse3", "sse4.1", "sse4.2", "sse4", "nosse", "avx",
"avx2", "adx", "rdseed", "prfchw", "smap", "mpx", "sha", "avx512f", "avx512cd",
"avx512er", "avx512pf", "noavx", "vmx", "vmfunc", "smx", "xsave", "xsaveopt", "aes",
"pclmul", "fsgsbase", "rdrnd", "f16c", "bmi2", "fma", "movbe", "ept", "lzcnt", "hle",
"rtm", "invpcid", "clflush", "lwp", "fma4", "xop", "cx16", "syscall", "rdtscp",
"3dnow", "3dnowa", "sse4a", "sse5", "svme", "abm" and "padlock". Note that rather
than extending a basic instruction set, the extension mnemonics starting with "no"
revoke the respective functionality.
When the ".arch" directive is used with -march, the ".arch" directive will take
This option specifies a processor to optimize for. When used in conjunction with the
-march option, only instructions of the processor specified by the -march option will
Valid CPU values are identical to the processor list of -march=CPU.
This option specifies that the assembler should encode SSE instructions with VEX
These options control if the assembler should check SSE intructions. -msse-check=none
will make the assembler not to check SSE instructions, which is the default.
-msse-check=warning will make the assembler issue a warning for any SSE intruction.
-msse-check=error will make the assembler issue an error for any SSE intruction.
These options control how the assembler should encode scalar AVX instructions.
-mavxscalar=128 will encode scalar AVX instructions with 128bit vector length, which
is the default. -mavxscalar=256 will encode scalar AVX instructions with 256bit
These options control how the assembler should encode length-ignored (LIG) EVEX
instructions. -mevexlig=128 will encode LIG EVEX instructions with 128bit vector
length, which is the default. -mevexlig=256 and -mevexlig=512 will encode LIG EVEX
instructions with 256bit and 512bit vector length, respectively.
These options control how the assembler should encode w-ignored (WIG) EVEX
instructions. -mevexwig=0 will encode WIG EVEX instructions with evex.w = 0, which is
the default. -mevexwig=1 will encode WIG EVEX instructions with evex.w = 1.
This option specifies instruction mnemonic for matching instructions. The
".att_mnemonic" and ".intel_mnemonic" directives will take precedent.
This option specifies instruction syntax when processing instructions. The
".att_syntax" and ".intel_syntax" directives will take precedent.
This opetion specifies that registers don't require a % prefix. The ".att_syntax" and
".intel_syntax" directives will take precedent.
This option forces the assembler to add BND prefix to all branches, even if such
prefix was not explicitly specified in the source code.
The following options are available when as is configured for the Intel 80960 processor.
-ACA | -ACA_A | -ACB | -ACC | -AKA | -AKB | -AKC | -AMC
Specify which variant of the 960 architecture is the target.
-b Add code to collect statistics about branches taken.
Do not alter compare-and-branch instructions for long displacements; error if
The following options are available when as is configured for the Ubicom IP2K series.
Specifies that the extended IP2022 instructions are allowed.
Restores the default behaviour, which restricts the permitted instructions to just the
basic IP2022 ones.
The following options are available when as is configured for the Renesas M32C and M16C
Assemble M32C instructions.
Assemble M16C instructions (the default).
Enable support for link-time relaxations.
Support H'00 style hex constants in addition to 0x00 style.
The following options are available when as is configured for the Renesas M32R (formerly
Mitsubishi M32R) series.
Specify which processor in the M32R family is the target. The default is normally the
M32R, but this option changes it to the M32RX.
--warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wp
Produce warning messages when questionable parallel constructs are encountered.
--no-warn-explicit-parallel-conflicts or --Wnp
Do not produce warning messages when questionable parallel constructs are encountered.
The following options are available when as is configured for the Motorola 68000 series.
-l Shorten references to undefined symbols, to one word instead of two.
-m68000 | -m68008 | -m68010 | -m68020 | -m68030
| -m68040 | -m68060 | -m68302 | -m68331 | -m68332
| -m68333 | -m68340 | -mcpu32 | -m5200
Specify what processor in the 68000 family is the target. The default is normally the
68020, but this can be changed at configuration time.
-m68881 | -m68882 | -mno-68881 | -mno-68882
The target machine does (or does not) have a floating-point coprocessor. The default
is to assume a coprocessor for 68020, 68030, and cpu32. Although the basic 68000 is
not compatible with the 68881, a combination of the two can be specified, since it's
possible to do emulation of the coprocessor instructions with the main processor.
-m68851 | -mno-68851
The target machine does (or does not) have a memory-management unit coprocessor. The
default is to assume an MMU for 68020 and up.
The following options are available when as is configured for an Altera Nios II processor.
Replace identified out-of-range branches with PC-relative "jmp" sequences when
possible. The generated code sequences are suitable for use in position-independent
code, but there is a practical limit on the extended branch range because of the
length of the sequences. This option is the default.
Replace branch instructions not determinable to be in range and all call instructions
with "jmp" and "callr" sequences (respectively). This option generates absolute
relocations against the target symbols and is not appropriate for position-independent
Do not replace any branches or calls.
-EB Generate big-endian output.
-EL Generate little-endian output. This is the default.
The following options are available when as is configured for a Meta processor.
Generate code for Meta 1.1.
Generate code for Meta 1.2.
Generate code for Meta 2.1.
Allow code to use FPU hardware of Meta 2.1.
See the info pages for documentation of the MMIX-specific options.
The following options are available when as is configured for a PowerPC processor.
Generate ELF32 or XCOFF32.
Generate ELF64 or XCOFF64.
Set EF_PPC_RELOCATABLE_LIB in ELF flags.
-mpwrx | -mpwr2
Generate code for POWER/2 (RIOS2).
Generate code for POWER (RIOS1)
Generate code for PowerPC 601.
-mppc, -mppc32, -m603, -m604
Generate code for PowerPC 603/604.
Generate code for PowerPC 403/405.
Generate code for PowerPC 440. BookE and some 405 instructions.
Generate code for PowerPC 464.
Generate code for PowerPC 476.
-m7400, -m7410, -m7450, -m7455
Generate code for PowerPC 7400/7410/7450/7455.
Generate code for PowerPC 750CL.
Generate code for PowerPC 620/625/630.
Generate code for Motorola e500 core complex.
Generate code for Freescale e500mc core complex.
Generate code for Freescale e500mc64 core complex.
Generate code for Freescale e5500 core complex.
Generate code for Freescale e6500 core complex.
Generate code for Motorola SPE instructions.
Generate code for AppliedMicro Titan core complex.
Generate code for PowerPC 64, including bridge insns.
Generate code for 32-bit BookE.
Generate code for A2 architecture.
Generate code for PowerPC e300 family.
Generate code for processors with AltiVec instructions.
Generate code for Freescale PowerPC VLE instructions.
Generate code for processors with Vector-Scalar (VSX) instructions.
Generate code for processors with Hardware Transactional Memory instructions.
Generate code for Power4 architecture.
-mpower5, -mpwr5, -mpwr5x
Generate code for Power5 architecture.
Generate code for Power6 architecture.
Generate code for Power7 architecture.
Generate code for Power8 architecture.
Generate code for Cell Broadband Engine architecture.
Generate code Power/PowerPC common instructions.
Generate code for any architecture (PWR/PWRX/PPC).
Allow symbolic names for registers.
Do not allow symbolic names for registers.
Support for GCC's -mrelocatable option.
Support for GCC's -mrelocatable-lib option.
Set PPC_EMB bit in ELF flags.
-mlittle, -mlittle-endian, -le
Generate code for a little endian machine.
-mbig, -mbig-endian, -be
Generate code for a big endian machine.
Generate code for Solaris.
Do not generate code for Solaris.
If an alignment directive inserts more than count nops, put a branch at the beginning
to skip execution of the nops.
See the info pages for documentation of the RX-specific options.
The following options are available when as is configured for the s390 processor family.
Select the word size, either 31/32 bits or 64 bits.
Select the architecture mode, either the Enterprise System Architecture (esa) or the
z/Architecture mode (zarch).
Specify which s390 processor variant is the target, g6, g6, z900, z990, z9-109, z9-ec,
z10, z196, or zEC12.
Allow or disallow symbolic names for registers.
Warn whenever the operand for a base or index register has been specified but
evaluates to zero.
The following options are available when as is configured for a TMS320C6000 processor.
Enable (only) instructions from architecture arch. By default, all instructions are
The following values of arch are accepted: "c62x", "c64x", "c64x+", "c67x", "c67x+",
The -mdsbt option causes the assembler to generate the "Tag_ABI_DSBT" attribute with a
value of 1, indicating that the code is using DSBT addressing. The -mno-dsbt option,
the default, causes the tag to have a value of 0, indicating that the code does not
use DSBT addressing. The linker will emit a warning if objects of different type
(DSBT and non-DSBT) are linked together.
The -mpid= option causes the assembler to generate the "Tag_ABI_PID" attribute with a
value indicating the form of data addressing used by the code. -mpid=no, the default,
indicates position-dependent data addressing, -mpid=near indicates position-
independent addressing with GOT accesses using near DP addressing, and -mpid=far
indicates position-independent addressing with GOT accesses using far DP addressing.
The linker will emit a warning if objects built with different settings of this option
are linked together.
The -mpic option causes the assembler to generate the "Tag_ABI_PIC" attribute with a
value of 1, indicating that the code is using position-independent code addressing,
The "-mno-pic" option, the default, causes the tag to have a value of 0, indicating
position-dependent code addressing. The linker will emit a warning if objects of
different type (position-dependent and position-independent) are linked together.
Generate code for the specified endianness. The default is little-endian.
The following options are available when as is configured for a TILE-Gx processor.
-m32 | -m64
Select the word size, either 32 bits or 64 bits.
-EB | -EL
Select the endianness, either big-endian (-EB) or little-endian (-EL).
The following options are available when as is configured for an Xtensa processor.
--text-section-literals | --no-text-section-literals
Control the treatment of literal pools. The default is --no-text-section-literals,
which places literals in separate sections in the output file. This allows the
literal pool to be placed in a data RAM/ROM. With --text-section-literals, the
literals are interspersed in the text section in order to keep them as close as
possible to their references. This may be necessary for large assembly files, where
the literals would otherwise be out of range of the "L32R" instructions in the text
section. These options only affect literals referenced via PC-relative "L32R"
instructions; literals for absolute mode "L32R" instructions are handled separately.
--absolute-literals | --no-absolute-literals
Indicate to the assembler whether "L32R" instructions use absolute or PC-relative
addressing. If the processor includes the absolute addressing option, the default is
to use absolute "L32R" relocations. Otherwise, only the PC-relative "L32R"
relocations can be used.
--target-align | --no-target-align
Enable or disable automatic alignment to reduce branch penalties at some expense in
code size. This optimization is enabled by default. Note that the assembler will
always align instructions like "LOOP" that have fixed alignment requirements.
--longcalls | --no-longcalls
Enable or disable transformation of call instructions to allow calls across a greater
range of addresses. This option should be used when call targets can potentially be
out of range. It may degrade both code size and performance, but the linker can
generally optimize away the unnecessary overhead when a call ends up within range.
The default is --no-longcalls.
--transform | --no-transform
Enable or disable all assembler transformations of Xtensa instructions, including both
relaxation and optimization. The default is --transform; --no-transform should only
be used in the rare cases when the instructions must be exactly as specified in the
assembly source. Using --no-transform causes out of range instruction operands to be
Rename the oldname section to newname. This option can be used multiple times to
rename multiple sections.
The following options are available when as is configured for a Z80 family processor.
Assemble for Z80 processor.
Assemble for R800 processor.
Assemble undocumented Z80 instructions that also work on R800 without warning.
Assemble all undocumented Z80 instructions without warning.
Issue a warning for undocumented Z80 instructions that also work on R800.
Issue a warning for undocumented Z80 instructions that do not work on R800.
Treat all undocumented instructions as errors.
Treat undocumented Z80 instructions that do not work on R800 as errors.
gcc(1), ld(1), and the Info entries for binutils and ld.
Copyright (c) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002,
2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of
the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no
Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
binutils-18.104.22.168.1 2014-06-10 AS(1)