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CentOS 7.0 - man page for pgmminkowski (centos section 0)

Pgmminkowski User Manual(0)					      Pgmminkowski User Manual(0)

NAME
       pgmminkowski - compute Minkowski integral

SYNOPSIS
       pgmminkowski pgmfile

DESCRIPTION
       This program is part of Netpbm(1)

       pgmminkowski computes the 3 Minkowski integrals of a PGM image.

       The  Minkowski integrals mathematically characterize the shapes in the image and hence are
       the basis of "morphological image analysis."

       Hadwiger's theorem has it that these integrals are the only motion-invariant, additive and
       conditionally  continuous  functions of a two-dimensional image, which means that they are
       preserved under certain kinds of deformations of the image.  On top of that, they are very
       easy  and  quickly  calculated.	 This makes them of interest for certain kinds of pattern
       recognition.

       Basically, the Minkowski integrals are the area, total perimeter  length,  and  the  Euler
       characteristic  of  the	image, where these metrics apply to the foreground image, not the
       rectangular PGM image itself.  The foreground image consists of	all  the  pixels  in  the
       image that are white.  For a grayscale image, there is some threshold of intensity applied
       to categorize pixels into black and white, and the Minkowski integrals are calculated as a
       function  of  this  threshold  value. The total surface area refers to the number of white
       pixels in the PGM and the perimeter is the sum of perimeters of each closed  white  region
       in the PGM.

       For  a  grayscale image, these numbers are a function of the threshold of what you want to
       call black or white.  pgmminkowski reports these numbers as a function  of  the	threshold
       for  all  possible  threshold values.  Since the total surface area can increase only as a
       function of the threshold, it is a reparameterization of the threshold.	It turns out that
       if you consider the other two functions, the boundary length and the Euler characteristic,
       as a function of the first one, the surface, you get two functions that are a  fingerprint
       of  the	picture.  This fingerprint is e.g. sufficient to recognize the difference between
       pictures of different crystal lattices under a scanning tunnelling electron microscope.

       For more information about Minkowski integrals, see e.g.

       o

	       K. Michielsen and H. De Raedt, "Integral-Geometry Morphological	Image  Analysis",
	      Phys. Rep. 347, 461-538 (2001).  <http://rugth30.phys.rug.nl/compphys0/2001.htm>

       o

	       J.S.  Kole,  K.	Michielsen,  and  H.  De  Raedt, "Morphological Image Analysis of
	      Quantum Motion  in  Billiards",  Phys.  Rev.  E  63,  016201-1  -  016201-7  (2001)
	      <http://rugth30.phys.rug.nl/pdf/prechaos.pdf>

       The output is suitable for direct use as a datafile in gnuplot.

       In  addition  to the three Minkowski integrals, pgmminkowski also lists the horizontal and
       vertical edge counts.

SEE ALSO
       pgmmorphconv(1)

       pbmminkowski(1)

       pgm(1)

AUTHORS
       Luuk van Dijk, 2001.

       Based on work which is Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 by Jef Poskanzer.

netpbm documentation			 29 October 2002	      Pgmminkowski User Manual(0)


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